Power Industry Conference                  5 – 6 December 2012             Sheraton Saigon Hotel & Towers               Ho...
About DEVI Renewable Energies• A private research institute, found in March 2011• Online RE portal www.devi-renewable.com•...
Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power    Contents1   Why solar energy?2   Solar PV development in the wor...
Why solar energy?           4
Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power    Contents1   Why solar energy?2   Solar PV development in the wor...
Solar PV development in the worldwww.casio.com       www.worldsolarchallenge.org   Photon Magazine 1/2001www.altestore.com...
Solar PV development in the worldEvolution of global cumulative installed capacity, 2000-2011                             ...
Solar PV development in the worldNew installations¹ in year 2011, world :                                       27.7 GWCum...
Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power    Contents1   Why solar energy?2   Solar PV development in the wor...
Solar PV development in Vietnam                          200kWp, Intel VN    12kWp, MOIT   154kWp, NCH         11kWp, Cu L...
Solar PV development in Vietnam  400Wp, Quan Lan        >1000kWp, Truong Sa1500Wp, Ngoc Vung          5000Wp, Hon Chuoi   ...
Solar PV development in VietnamCumulative PV installation in Vietnam is less than 5MWp   BigC-Binh Duong 212kWp (under co...
Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power    Contents1   Why solar energy?2   Solar PV development in the wor...
Solar PV potential in Vietnam - Supply                   14
Solar PV potential in Vietnam - Supply                Solar radiation in Vietnam and GermanySource: German Federal Ministr...
Solar PV potential in Vietnam – German lessons                       16
Solar PV potential in Vietnam – demand side Grid-connected solar PV plants    2015 VN is expected to be net energy impor...
Solar PV potential in Vietnam – an example  Power supply from national grid is not reliable  90 enterprises may loose 90...
Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power    Contents1   Why solar energy?2   Solar PV development in the wor...
World PV market by technologies 2010                Source: NREL, 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report                   20
Best research solar cell efficienciesSource: L.L. Kazmerski, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO      ...
Efficiencies of solar cells in the marketPV technologies                                   Solar cell efficienciesSingle-c...
Solar PV module prices 2009-2012                               Jan 2009 Mar 2011 Feb 2012                          price f...
PV Technology roadmapSource: PV Technology Roadmap: technology trends in crystalline and thin-film solar cellsYole Dévelop...
Technology options for major cost reductions Progress and innovation in crystalline (Wafer) Si-technology       increase...
Progress and innovation in crystalline Si-technologyDevelopment status•fully commercial•use the wafer-based crystalline si...
Progress and innovation in crystalline Si-technologyMaximised efficiency and innovative cell structures formonocrystalline...
Example: Crystalline Silicon TechnologyYong-An photovoltaic parkLocation: TaiwanCapacity: 4.6MWModule: polycrystalline sil...
Progress and innovation in PV Thin-Film technologies “Thin” => thin active layers on a cheap substrate,         => low ma...
Thin film technologies and production status            State of Technology               Module        Module        Modu...
Example: Thin Film TechnologyLopBuri Power PlantLocation: LopBuri, ThailandCapacity: 73MWModules: microamorphous thin-film...
Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV)   The basic idea:                            solar radiation   Use cheap optics for   co...
Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV)CPV - best suited for high Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) of regions with >2000 kWh/m2/ye...
Emerging and novel PV-technologies  Organic solar cells      Replace inorganic semiconductors by semiconducting polymer ...
Concluding remarks Vietnam has huge potential for solar PV Lesson: the world solar PV industry has grown steadily,  howe...
Thank you for your attention !                       Photo: Shutterstock          36
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  • Solar energy is the largest energy resource on Earth – and is inexhaustible. Everyday, the sun provides 15 thousands time more energy than all fossil fuels we consume
  • International Space Station ISS, 1. Ausbaustufe: 62 kW (+ 16 kW) ‏ , Si-Zellen,  = 14,5 %
  • 1. Installed PV capacities show a steep growth curve. 2. PV is one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies today and is projected to play a major role in global electricity production in the future. 3. Driven by attractive policy incentives (e.g. feed-in tariffs and tax breaks), the global installed PV capacity has multiplied by a factor of 37 in ten years from 1.8 GW in 2000 to 67.4 GW at the end of 2011, a growth rate of 44% per year 4. New capacity installed in 2011 was 27.7 GW, two-thirds more than the new capacity added in 2010
  • Despite the rapid growth of the PV market, less than 0.2% of global electricity production is generated by PV
  • Solar power on the path to becoming a key pillar of sustainable energy supply in Germany
  • During only 4 days in power cut, 90 enterprises lost 90 million USD. That is a huge money !
  • Latest technologies for harnessing vietnam sun power

    1. 1. Power Industry Conference 5 – 6 December 2012 Sheraton Saigon Hotel & Towers Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamLatest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power Do Duc Tuong – DEVI Renewable Energies tuong.do@devi-renewable.com 1
    2. 2. About DEVI Renewable Energies• A private research institute, found in March 2011• Online RE portal www.devi-renewable.com• Research • Pico PV, stand-alone PV, grid connected PV • Biomass pellets, briquette and gasification • Biogas power generation • Wind farm optimization, small wind turbine• Education (short RE training course, Master programme in RE)• Consultancy (designing W-kW-MW solar PV plants, rural electrification solutions using wind, biomass and solar) 2
    3. 3. Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power Contents1 Why solar energy?2 Solar PV development in the world3 Solar PV development in Vietnam4 Potential of solar PV in Vietnam5 Solar PV technologies for Vietnam 3
    4. 4. Why solar energy? 4
    5. 5. Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power Contents1 Why solar energy?2 Solar PV development in the world3 Solar PV development in Vietnam4 Potential of solar PV in Vietnam5 Solar PV technologies for Vietnam 5
    6. 6. Solar PV development in the worldwww.casio.com www.worldsolarchallenge.org Photon Magazine 1/2001www.altestore.com www.theindependentbd.com sustentator.com 6
    7. 7. Solar PV development in the worldEvolution of global cumulative installed capacity, 2000-2011 Source: EPIA, 2011b and EPIA, 2012. 7
    8. 8. Solar PV development in the worldNew installations¹ in year 2011, world : 27.7 GWCumulative installation until end of 2011: 67.4 GWElectricity produced² from PV in 2011, world : 80 000 GWhNet electricity generation Germany4 in 2010 : 590 000 GWhNet electricity generation³ Vietnam in 2010: 86 000 GWh(1): EPIA, Global market outlook for photovoltaics until 2015(2): very rough estimation: production = 1200 kWh/a*kW(3): Website chinhphu.vn, date accessed 19/11/2011, “Kết quả sản xuất kinh doanh điện năm 2010”(4): Electricity production, consumption and market overview, Eurostat, 2012 8
    9. 9. Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power Contents1 Why solar energy?2 Solar PV development in the world3 Solar PV development in Vietnam4 Potential of solar PV in Vietnam5 Solar PV technologies for Vietnam 9
    10. 10. Solar PV development in Vietnam 200kWp, Intel VN 12kWp, MOIT 154kWp, NCH 11kWp, Cu Lao Cham 10
    11. 11. Solar PV development in Vietnam 400Wp, Quan Lan >1000kWp, Truong Sa1500Wp, Ngoc Vung 5000Wp, Hon Chuoi 11
    12. 12. Solar PV development in VietnamCumulative PV installation in Vietnam is less than 5MWp  BigC-Binh Duong 212kWp (under construction)  Biggest PV plant: 200kWp (Intel building, 2012)  National Conference Hall: 154kWp, 2009  XP Power building: 40kWp, 2012  MOIT’s building: 12kWp, 2011  PPC HoChiMinh city 11kWp, 2012  Bai Huong diesel-PV hybrid: 11kWp, 2009  Mainly crystalline-Si technologies  All projects use imported PV modules (*) 12
    13. 13. Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power Contents1 Why solar energy?2 Solar PV development in the world3 Solar PV development in Vietnam4 Potential of solar PV in Vietnam5 Solar PV technologies for Vietnam 13
    14. 14. Solar PV potential in Vietnam - Supply 14
    15. 15. Solar PV potential in Vietnam - Supply Solar radiation in Vietnam and GermanySource: German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and NASA , 2010 15
    16. 16. Solar PV potential in Vietnam – German lessons 16
    17. 17. Solar PV potential in Vietnam – demand side Grid-connected solar PV plants  2015 VN is expected to be net energy importer  Electricity price increase 20%/year  Jun/2011: VN has 260 industrial zones, with 72,000ha Pico Solar and Solar Home System  800.000 households in Gov.’s rural electrification program.  Hundreds of Islands and remote regions not connected to the grid  Mobile charging, computer power supply, fishing boats Hybrid Solar/Diesel systems  Nearly 70,000 BTS systems requires 24/24 power supply 17
    18. 18. Solar PV potential in Vietnam – an example  Power supply from national grid is not reliable  90 enterprises may loose 90 millions USD due to power cut1• A warehouse in Binh Duong2 with 35,000m2 roof area can supply 3.6MWp Solar PV by roof-top plants• Global solar radiation: 2.096kWh/m2/year• System cost: 1.9Euro/Wp 1: http://cafef.vn/kinh-te-vi-mo-dau-tu/cat-dien-khu-cong-nghiep-hiep-phuoc- cac-doanh-nghiep-co-the-mat-9-trieu-usd-200907161250672ca33.chn 2: DEVI’s estimation 18
    19. 19. Latest Technologies for Harnessing Vietnam Solar Power Contents1 Why solar energy?2 Solar PV development in the world3 Solar PV development in Vietnam4 Potential of solar PV in Vietnam5 Solar PV technologies for Vietnam 19
    20. 20. World PV market by technologies 2010 Source: NREL, 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report 20
    21. 21. Best research solar cell efficienciesSource: L.L. Kazmerski, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 21
    22. 22. Efficiencies of solar cells in the marketPV technologies Solar cell efficienciesSingle-crystalline (sc-Si) 14%-22%Multicrystalline (mc-Si) 12%-19%Amorphous (a-Si) 4% - 8%Multi-junction thin silicon films (a-Si/ μc-Si) 10%Cadmium-telluride (CdTe) 11%Copper-indium-(di)selenide (CIS)Copper-indium-gallium-(di)selenide (CIGS) 7 - 12% Source: IEA, Solar Energy Perspective 2011 22
    23. 23. Solar PV module prices 2009-2012  Jan 2009 Mar 2011 Feb 2012 price fell to  (€/Wp) (€/Wp) (€/Wp) (2009-2012) C-Si, EU: 3.19 1.61 1.02 68% C-Si, China: 2.93 1.32 0.74 75% C-Si, Japan: 3.18 1.54 1.00 69% TF- CdS/CdTe 2.09 1.09 0.61 71% TF- a-Si 2.21 0.94 0.57 74% - International spotmarket net bid prices, module only. - Price C-Si turnkey plant in Germany times 1.5-1.9, thin-film times 1.9-2.4 Source: www.pvXchange.com, www.devi-renewable.com 23
    24. 24. PV Technology roadmapSource: PV Technology Roadmap: technology trends in crystalline and thin-film solar cellsYole Développement, 2010 24
    25. 25. Technology options for major cost reductions Progress and innovation in crystalline (Wafer) Si-technology  increase efficiency,  reduce material costs,  innovate cell and module design  increase productivity of investment Progress and innovation in PV Thin Film technologies.  increase efficiencies  innovative production technologies Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV) Emerging and novel PV-technologies 25
    26. 26. Progress and innovation in crystalline Si-technologyDevelopment status•fully commercial•use the wafer-based crystalline silicon(c-Si) technology, either singlecrystalline (sc-Si) or multi-crystalline(mc-Si).Typical Structure:•Glass•Transparent lamination foil (EVA)•Solar cells, electrically connected•Back side protection (Teflon foil orglass) Source: Photon Special 2004 26
    27. 27. Progress and innovation in crystalline Si-technologyMaximised efficiency and innovative cell structures formonocrystalline and multicrystallie Silicon cells•Metal contacts (laser fired back contacts, selectiveemitters)•Light trapping•Surface passivation•Quality of bulk material•Innovative structures: back contact cells have (+) and (-) busbars on their back side (rear emitters,metal wrap through or emitter wrap through) 27
    28. 28. Example: Crystalline Silicon TechnologyYong-An photovoltaic parkLocation: TaiwanCapacity: 4.6MWModule: polycrystalline siliconSupplier: SuntechOnland installation, 2011 Source: http://www.pv-magazine.com 28
    29. 29. Progress and innovation in PV Thin-Film technologies “Thin” => thin active layers on a cheap substrate, => low material costs Example: CdTe thickness reduced to 1.8 μm Manufacturing costs <0.7 US$/Wp Module efficiency ~11.7% 29
    30. 30. Thin film technologies and production status State of Technology Module Module Module efficiency efficienc production 2007 y 2012 2010a-Si/µ-Si Industrial mass production 6-7% 10-11% 1350MW Turn-key solutions in the marketCdTe Industrial mass production 8-10% 12% 1450MW CdTe: fast processCIS Industrial mass production 9-12% 14% 450MW on the way CIS process is complex Source: Dr.Gabler, ZSW, Photon 4/2011 30
    31. 31. Example: Thin Film TechnologyLopBuri Power PlantLocation: LopBuri, ThailandCapacity: 73MWModules: microamorphous thin-film (8.5-9%)Supplier: Sharp Corp.Onland installation, 2012 31 Photo: ADB/Flickr
    32. 32. Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV) The basic idea: solar radiation Use cheap optics for collection of the lens F0 sunlight and reduce the expensive semiconductor material Reduce cost of PV- generated kWh solar cell FcIII-V Solar Cells: 40% efficiencyConcentration factor: 500-1000 times heat transport Source: Fraunhofer ISE, Dr.Gabler, SZW 32
    33. 33. Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV)CPV - best suited for high Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) of regions with >2000 kWh/m2/year (Middle East, South Africa, Australia, North America…)Superior choice for hot climates – no need for active or passive cooling 33 Source: Siemens
    34. 34. Emerging and novel PV-technologies  Organic solar cells  Replace inorganic semiconductors by semiconducting polymer  Best cell efficiencies: 7.1%, (EUPVSEC Valencia, 2010)  up/down conversion‘  Make PV cells with efficiency > 30 % by using larger parts of the sun’s spectrum than single layer cells  Thermo-PhotovoltaicsUnder research and development (EU, US) ! Photo: Fraunhofer press 34
    35. 35. Concluding remarks Vietnam has huge potential for solar PV Lesson: the world solar PV industry has grown steadily, however, subsidies play as important catalyst PV module prices will go down (down more than 70% in the last 30 months, expected 10% on average annually) A coexistence of different technologies (Crystalline-Si, a- Si, CdTe) help to harness the power of the sun for Vietnam Niche market can play role as “driving force” for the solar industry development 35
    36. 36. Thank you for your attention ! Photo: Shutterstock 36

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