Bio w properties & production techniques z wallage

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Bio w properties & production techniques z wallage

  1. 1. Biochar Properties & Production Techniques Zoe Wallage zoe.wallage@uea.ac.uk Low Carbon Innovation Centre University of East Anglia Environment Agency Biochar Workshop July 23 2009
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Introduction & Overview Biochar Production Techniques Biochar Properties & Uses UEA Case Study Summary of Findings UEA’s Biomass Gasification CHP Plant
  3. 3. What is Biochar & Why is it Important? Climate Change Waste Biochar Soils & Agriculture Renewable Energy
  4. 4. Biochar Carbon Cycle Lehmann (2007) Nature 447: 143 - 144 Lehmann et al (2006) Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 403 - 427
  5. 5. Thermal Conversion of Biomass Lehmann (2007) Frontiers in Ecology & the Environment 5: 381 - 387
  6. 6. Thermal Conversion of Biomass Overall an endothermic process: Energy is required to initiate the process At present the technologies can be split into two distinct categories: Syn Gas Charcoal production Bio oil or syn gas production However, there is potential to move towards a third: “Tri-generation” that makes use of the biochar, energy-rich co-products (bio oil, syn gas) & heat Biochar Bio Oil Biomass Heat without Air
  7. 7. Biochar Production Techniques CHP Gasification Temp & Duration Slow Pyrolysis (retort) Solid (Biochar) Liquid (Bio oil) Slow pyrolysis (kiln) Gas (Syn Gas) Slow Pyrolysis ~500°C Days 35% 30% 35% Fast Pyrolysis ~500°C Seconds 12% 75% 13% Gasification >800°C Hours 10% 5% 85% Fast Pyrolysis
  8. 8. Biochar Production Dynomotive: Bio oil via Fast Pyrolysis Eprida: Hydrogen & Char Fertiliser via Pyrolysis University of Hawaii: Flash Carboniser (Fast Pyrolysis) BEST Energies: Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis
  9. 9. Biochar Properties High carbon content (60 – 95% C) Resistant to biodegradation Significant adsorptive qualities (similar to activated carbon) Nutrients (& contaminants) essentially lock on to the structure Increases moisture holding capacity Enhances microbial biomass
  10. 10. Biochar Properties: Process Conditions Enhanced biochar yields from: Lower temperatures (<400°C) Higher pressures Longer vapour residence time Slower heating rate Larger particle size
  11. 11. Biochar Properties: Process Conditions As temperature increases: Biochar yield decreases Fixed carbon increases Surface area increases Ash content increases Stru c Dev tural elop me n t Tem pera ture
  12. 12. Biochar Properties: Feedstock Materials The variable nature of the chemical constituents in the feedstock biomass influence the structure, properties & yield of biochar. Roundwood Woodchip Rice Husks
  13. 13. Biochar Properties: Feedstock Materials Poultry Litter Manure Hardwood Biodegradable Waste Softwood
  14. 14. UEA Case Study: Biomass Gasification CHP
  15. 15. UEA Case Study: Biomass Gasification CHP
  16. 16. Gasification Outputs Biochar
  17. 17. UEA Case Study 1.4 MWe 2.0 MWth 6, 719 t CO2 yr-1 (34%↓) 3% Biochar Yield 300 t char yr-1 195 t C yr-1 716 t CO2 yr-1 (4% ↓) ...& this particular system is optimised for bioenergy production! Biochar
  18. 18. Summary of Findings Biochar is produced by the thermal decomposition of biomass using: Slow Pyrolysis Fast Pyrolysis Syn Gas Gasification Technology must be “closed-loop” with efficient product recovery Biochar yield & quality varies significantly with feedstock type & process conditions Biomass gasification CHP is currently viable & will produce modest quantities in the near-term Biochar Bio Oil Biomass Heat without Air
  19. 19. So, the future is in our hands… Thank you! zoe.wallage@uea.ac.uk 01603 591279

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