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  1. 1. The Protists Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>General Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euglenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooflagellates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudopods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporozoans </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  3. 3. General Biology of the Protists <ul><li>Protists are classified in the domain Eukarya and the kingdom Protista. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are unicellular, but have achieved a high level of complexity (multicellular). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs and heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction is common, but sexual reproduction can occur when the environment becomes stressful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cysts </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  4. 4. Evolution of Protists <ul><li>Complexity and diversity of protists makes them difficult to classify. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be classified as plants, animals, or fungi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been suggested protists could be split into as many as a dozen kingdoms. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  5. 5. Diversity of Protists <ul><li>Green Algae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green algae (phylum Chlorophyta). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlamydomonas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 anterior flagella </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyespot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually reproduces asexually </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms spores and zoospores when growth conditions are unfavorable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  6. 6. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  7. 7. Green Algae <ul><ul><li>Spirogyra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>found in masses on the surfaces of standing water like lakes and ponds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>called pond scum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unbranched, filamentous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helical chloroplast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conjugation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algal bloom </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  8. 8. Green Algae <ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filamentous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly marine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ulva (sea lettuce) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  9. 9. Edible Green Algae Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Caulerpa lentillifera C. racemosa Codium reediae Chlorella sp .
  10. 10. Red Algae <ul><li>Red Algae (phylum Rhodophyta) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warmer seawater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory pigment phycobilins (phycoerythrin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell walls with calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbonate (corralline algae) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Importance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agar and carrageen </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  11. 11. Edible Red Algae Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Porphyra sp. Gelidium sp. (agar) Chondrus crispus (carrageen)
  12. 12. Brown Algae <ul><li>Brown Algae (phylum Phaeophyta) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorophylls a and c </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carotenoid pigments: fucoxanthin and xanthophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminarin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often observed on rocky coasts in north temperate zone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Seaweeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kelps (Laminaria) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fucus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocystis </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  13. 13. Brown Algae Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  14. 14. The Diatoms <ul><li>Diatoms (phylum Bacillariophyta) are the most numerous unicellular algae in the oceans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant phytoplankton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall has outer layer of silica. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall composed of two valves, with the larger valve acting as a lid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various shapes of their silicious tests or cell wall </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  15. 15. Economic Importance of Diatoms <ul><ul><li>Sources of food and O 2 for heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>deposits of these shells used as filtering aids, abrasives, cleansers, and paints </li></ul><ul><li>world's oil and gasoline supply comes from diatom fossil beds </li></ul><ul><li>toothpaste </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental indicators of pollution </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  16. 16. DIATOMS Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  17. 17. The Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Phylum Pyrrophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular and phytoplanktons </li></ul><ul><li>Usually bounded by protective cellulose plates impregnated with silicates </li></ul><ul><li>Typically contain two flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic with chloroplasts vary in color </li></ul><ul><li>Usually reproduce asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Some genera may cause red tide </li></ul><ul><li>Produce neurotoxins </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  18. 18. Dinoflagellates Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  19. 19. The Euglenoids <ul><li>Microscopic freshwater unicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Have two flagella and an eyespot (photoreceptor for detecting light) </li></ul><ul><li>Bound by flexible pellicle </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast and pyrenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal cell division asexual reproduction </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  20. 20. Euglena Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  21. 21. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  22. 22. The Zooflagellates <ul><li>Zooflagellates (phylum Zoomastigophora) are colorless heterotrophs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are symbiotic and parasitic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well known for causing various diseases in humans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African sleeping sickness ( Trypanosoma, vector tsetse fly) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giardia lamblia ( contaminated water) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trichonomas vaginalis (sexually transmitted </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  23. 23. Zooflagellates Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  24. 24. Protists with Pseudopods <ul><li>Pseudopods form when cytoplasm streams forward in a particular direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amoeboids (phylum Rhizopoda) move and ingest their food with pseudopods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytize food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraminiferans (phylum Foraminifera)- skeleton or test made of calcium carbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiolarians (phlyum Actinopoda)- have siliceous tests. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  25. 25. Protists with Pseudopods
  26. 26. The Ciliates <ul><li>Ciliates (phylum Ciliophora) are most complex of the protozoans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of cilia beat in coordinated rhythm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pellicle contain trichocysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are holozoic ( ingest and digest solid food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide by transverse binary fission during asexual reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronucleus and micronucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction ( conjugation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- High level of diversity </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  27. 27. Ciliates
  28. 28. Paramecium Conjugation 1. Two paramecium individuals come in contact on their oral surface. 2. The micronuclei divide by meiosis to produce four haploid micronuclei. 3. Three micronuclei degenerate 4. The remaining micronucleus divides to form male and female pronuclei 5. Syngamy occurs 6. Male micronuclei are exchanged between conjugants. 7. Male and female pronuclei fuse and individuals separate 8. Old macronuclei are absorbed and replaced by new macronuclei
  29. 29. The Sporozoans <ul><li>Sporozoans (phylum Apicomplexa) are nonmotile parasites. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widespread human parasite is Plasmodium vivax , the cause of one form of malaria. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  30. 30. Plasmodium vivax Life Cycle Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.