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Fungi
 

Fungi

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    Fungi Fungi Presentation Transcript

    • The Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Outline
      • Characteristics
      • Structure
      • Reproduction
      • Evolution
      • Sac Fungi
      • Yeasts
      • Club Fungi
      • Smuts and Rusts
      • Imperfect Fungi
      • Symbiotic Relationships
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Characteristics of the Fungi
      • Kingdom Fungi contains the fungi.
        • Mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a common mode of nutrition.
          • Heterotrophic
          • Cells release digestive enzymes and then absorb resultant nutrient molecules.
          • Most are saprotrophic decomposers. Some are parasitic.
          • Several have mutualistic relationship.
    • Structure of Fungi
      • Yeasts are best known example of unicellular fungi.
        • Body ( thallus ) of most fungi is multicellular mycelium .
          • Network of hyphae give the mycelium a large surface area per unit volume.
          • Absorption of nutrients
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mycelium of Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Structure of Fungi
      • Fungal cells are quite different from plant cells.
        • Lack chloroplasts and have a cell wall containing chitin and not cellulose.
        • Energy reserve is glycogen, not starch.
      • Nonmotile
        • Septate fungi have cross walls in their hyphae.
        • Nonseptate fungi are multinucleated.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Reproduction of Fungi
      • Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur.
      • Fungal sexual reproduction involves three stages:
        • Haploid Hyphae
        • Dikaryotic Stage
        • Diploid Zygote- undergoes meiosis then form spores
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Reproduction of Fungi
      • During sexual reproduction , hyphae from two different mating types fuse.
        • Hyphae that contains paired haploid nuclei is said to be dikaryotic .
        • Fungal spores germinate directly into haploid hyphae without embryological development.
      • Asexual reproduction usually involves the production of spores , and fragmentation of mycelium.
        • Unicellular yeasts reproduce by budding .
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Evolution of Fungi
      • Has been suggested fungi evolved from red algae because both fungi and red algae lack flagella in all stages of the life cycle.
        • Zygospore Fungi
          • (phylum Zygomycota) are mainly saprotrophs living off animal and plant remains.
            • Produce spores with sporangia.
            • Name refers to the zygospore seen during sexual reproduction.
            • Ex. Black bread mold
    • Black Bread Mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ) Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Sac Fungi
      • Most sac fungi (phylum Ascomycota) are saprotrophs that digest resistant materials containing cellulose, lignin, or collagen.
        • Most are composed of septate hyphae.
        • Ascus refers to the fingerlike sac that develops during sexual reproduction.
          • Asci usually surrounded and protected by sterile hyphae within an asocarp .
        • Asexual reproduction involves production of conidiospores .
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Sac Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Yeasts
      • Term yeasts is generally applied to unicellular fungi.
        • Many are ascomycetes.
        • Budding is common form of asexual reproduction.
        • Sexual reproduction results in the formation of asci and ascospores.
        • When some yeast ferment, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Yeast Cells Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Club Fungi
      • Club fungi (phylum Basidomycota) include mushrooms and bracket fungi.
        • These are fruiting bodies called basidiocarps .
          • Contain basidia , club-shaped structures that produce basidiospores.
        • Usually reproduce sexually.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Club Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Smuts and Rusts
      • Smuts and rusts are club fungi that parasitize cereal crops.
        • Great economic importance because of annual crop losses.
          • Do not form basidiocarps.
          • Life cycle often requires two different plant hosts to complete the cycle.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Smuts and Rusts Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Imperfect Fungi
      • Imperfect fungi (phylum Deuteromycota) always reproduce asexually by forming conidiospores.
        • Produced at tips of modified aerial hyphae.
        • Known as imperfect in the sense that a sexual stage has not yet been observed.
          • Penicillium - Penicillin
          • Aspergillus - Soy sauce
          • Candida albicans - Yeast infections
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Penicillium Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Symbiotic Relationships
      • Lichens
        • Association between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or green alga.
          • Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients directly to the fungus.
          • Can live in areas of extreme conditions and contribute to soil formation.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Lichen Morphology Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mycorrhizas
      • Mycorrhizas are mutualistic relationships between soil fungi and the roots of most plants.
        • Help plants acquire mineral nutrients.
          • Give plant greater absorptive surface.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.