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Motivation and job satisfaction
 

Motivation and job satisfaction

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motivation and job satisfaction

motivation and job satisfaction

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    Motivation and job satisfaction Motivation and job satisfaction Presentation Transcript

    • Motivation and Job Satisfaction
      • Why is this important?
        • Are you tired of unmotivated, uninterested, and inept workers?
        • One-third to one-half your life is spent at work!!
    • Theories of Motivation
      • Content Theories: Focus on the importance of the work (e.g., challenges and responsibilities)
        • Specific needs that motivate human behavior
      • Process Theories: Deal with the cognitive processes used in making decisions about our work
    • Content Theories
      • Achievement Motivation Theory: David McClelland. Emphasizes need to accomplish something. Linked to successful managers
        • Favor environment where they can assume responsibility
        • Take calculated risks and set attainable goals
        • Need continuing recognition and feedback
      • Managers high in achievement motivation show more respect for subordinates and use more participatory systems
    • Need Hierarchy Theory
      • Abraham Maslow: proposed that we have a hierarchy of needs. Once one is fulfilled we can move on to the next
        • Physiological
        • Safety
        • Belonging and Love
        • Esteem
        • Self-Actualization
    • ERG Theory
      • Alderfer
      • Similar to Maslow. We have needs, but in this case they are not hierarchically arranged
      • Satisfying a need may increase its strength
        • Existence Needs
        • Relatedness Needs
        • Growth Needs
    • Motivator-Hygiene (Two Factor) Theory
      • Motivator Needs: internal to work itself. If conditions are met, job satisfaction occurs
        • Job enrichment: expand a job to give employee a greater role in planning, performing, and evaluating their work
      • Hygiene Needs: Features of work environment. If not met, job dissatisfaction occurs
    • Job Characteristics Theory
      • If employees have a high need for growth, specific job characteristics lead to psychological conditions that lead to increased motivation, performance, and satisfaction.
        • Skill variety
        • Unity of a job
        • Task significance
        • Autonomy
        • Feedback
    • Process Theories
      • Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory: people will work hard if they expect their effort to lead to reward
      • Importance of outcome determines its strength as a motivator – supported by research
    • Equity Theory
      • Motivation is influenced by how fairly we feel we are treated at work
        • Benevolent Workers: martyrs. Feel guilt when rewarded
        • Equity Workers: Sensitive to fairness. Normal
        • Entitled Workers
    • Goal-Setting Theory
      • Idea that our primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of our desire to achieve a particular goal
        • Research shows that having goals leads to better performance than not having goals
        • Specific goals are more motivating than general
        • Moderately difficult goals are most motivating
    • High Performance Cycle
      • Expands on Goal Setting Theory
      • Specific, attainable goals influenced by
      • Moderators (commitment to goal, self-efficacy, task difficulty, feedback) and
      • Mediating Mechanisms (universal task strategies such as direction of attention, effort and persistence)
    • Job Satisfaction
      • Overall measures of satisfaction may be too broad: current measures address different facets of job satisfaction
      • Overall job satisfaction rate has remained the same for over 50 years
      • Rates are much lower for government workers
      • When people say they are satisfied, they often mean they are not dissatisfied!!
    • Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction
      • Age: in general, increases with age
        • Malcontents have stopped working
        • Older workers have greater chance of fulfillment
      • Gender: inconclusive results
      • Race: whites are happier
      • Cognitive Ability: slight negative relationship between level of education and satisfaction
    • Personal Characteristics, Cont.
      • Use of Skills
      • Job Congruence
      • Personality: less alienation and internal locus of control lead to higher satisfaction
      • Occupational Level: the higher the status level the greater the satisfaction
    • Low Satisfaction and Job Behavior
      • Absenteeism: any given day 16-20% of workers miss work. Costs businesses $30 billion dollars a year
        • Younger have higher absence rates
        • Rates are influenced by economic conditions
      • Turnover: Not always a bad thing!
        • Functional Turnover: when bad workers leave
        • Dysfunctional Turnover