Juls

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Juls

  1. 1. NAME:JULIET INOCENTES<br />SUBJECT:DEVELOPMENTAL READING I<br />TOPIC:PRONUCIATION VARIATION OF SOME CONSONANTS<br />The consonant categories<br />The full set of basic IPA consonant categories is shown in the table below:<br />The subset of 22 IPA symbols relevant to English dictionary-style pronunciations is given below:<br />Of these, some have basically their normal value in English spelling: p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, f, v, s, z, l.<br />The "right-tailed n" is the velar nasal sound at the end of "hang" or "ring".<br />The alveolar tap "fishhook"  is the sound that spelled "t" or "d" becomes (for most American speakers) in "Peter" or "ladder" or "at all".<br />The interdental fricatives "theta"  and "eth"  are the sounds at the start of "thin" and "this" respectively.<br />The palatal fricatives "esh"  and "yogh" are the sounds in the middle of "ashen" and "azure" respectively.<br />The palatal approximant j is essentially the consonant spelled 'y' in English, as in "yield" or "yes".<br />In addition to the consonants in this table, you will need a few other things:<br />The consonant w, as in "will" or "wallaby" -- due to a peculiarity of IPA classification, it does not appear in the main consonant table.<br />To make "affricates" such as the initial sounds in "chunk" or "jest", you need to combine a stop and a fricative. For English, there are two cases:<br />the voiceless palatal affricate (like the start of "chip") which in IPA is written <br />the voiced palatal affricate (like the start of "jut") which in IPA is written <br />Stress is marked before the affected syllable; primary stress is marked by a raised vertical line, while secondary stress is marked by a lowered vertical line. Thus "California" is written <br />Writing IPA with ASCII<br />For the consonants, given the obvious correspondences [p] [t] [k] [b] [d] [g] [m] [n] [s] [f] [v] [l] [r] [j] [w] [h], the following should suffice:<br />ethDleft-tail nJeng (right-tail n)NeshSthetaTezh (yogh)Zglottal stop?<br />For main stress, use double quote marks ("), and for secondary stress, use percentage sign (%).<br />

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