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international relation

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  • 1. International Relations Week 1 Brendon Tagg [email_address]
  • 2.
  • 3. My view of this course
    • My background
    • sociology
    • social anthropology
    • My view of this course
    • arguments not answers
    • Balance: accessibility and depth
  • 4. Textbook
    • Baylis, J., S. Smith and P. Owens (2008) The Globalization of World Politics (4th ed.) Oxford: University Press.
    • RM 80 (student discount)
    • Also journal articles
  • 5. Ethical issues
    • Cultural issues
    • constructive criticism
    • Critical thinking
    • consider multiple perspectives
    • Respectful disagreement
    • share different ideas
  • 6. Referencing / plagiarism
    • Please use a recognised referencing style
    • - Author, year, publisher/journal, edition, page numbers
    • Acknowledge other people’s ideas
    • Both direct quote and general arguments
    • Do not quote Wikipedia etc. in assignments
  • 7. Cell phones / office hours
    • Cell phone off or on silent mode
    • Emergencies
    • Monday and Wednesday, 10-11am
    • Room PA202 (main building)
    • [email_address]
  • 8. Language issues
    • English only (sorry!)
    • Support each other, or ask me
    • Class rep
    • You can keep a copy of the lecture notes
  • 9. Moodle
    • http://elearn.umt.edu.my
  • 10. Topics in this course
    • Globalisation
    • Global management
    • The League of Nations and the UN
    • Regional organisations (e.g. AU, ASEAN)
    • Non-state global actors (NGO’s)
    • non-profit NGO’s
    • Trans-national corporations
  • 11. Topics in this course
    • Major theories of International Relations
    • Idealism vs. Realism
    • Dependency theory
    • Just War theory
  • 12. Topics in this course
    • Specific issues
    • Development aid
    • Arms race and nuclear proliferation
    • Nationalism and ethnic conflict
    • Gender
    • Human rights / refugees
    • The environment
    • Terrorism
  • 13. Assessment
    • Mid-semester test 30% week 6 (30 Aug?)
    • Group presentations 30% weeks 10 and 11
    • Final exam 40%
  • 14. What is globalisation?
    • “ By globalization we simply mean the process of increasing interconnected-ness between societies such that events in one part of the world more and more have effects on peoples and societies far away” (Baylis, Smith and Owens 2008: 8).
  • 15. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 16. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 17. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 18. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 19. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 20. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 21. What is globalisation?
    • observed throughout world
    • non-state actors
    • global technologies
    • global reactions
    • no ordinary buildings
    • 90 countries’ citizens
    • reasons for attacks
  • 22. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 23. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 24. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 25. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 26. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 27. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 28. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 29. Ideas supporting globalisation
    • pace of economic transformation
    • communications
    • global culture
    • world increasingly homogenous
    • ideas of time and space
    • global political culture
    • cosmopolitan culture
    • risk culture
  • 30. Ideas refuting globalisation
    • Hirst and Thompson (1996)
    • - globalisation just a ‘buzzword’
    • Critique economic aspects of globalisation:
    • - current world not that unique
    • - few genuine TNCs
    • - no shift of finance and capital
    • - three blocs dominate
    • - regulation is possible
  • 31. Ideas refuting globalisation
    • Hirst and Thompson (1996)
    • - globalisation just a ‘buzzword’
    • Critique economic aspects of globalisation:
    • - current world not that unique
    • - few genuine TNCs
    • - no shift of finance and capital
    • - three blocs dominate
    • - regulation is possible
  • 32. Ideas refuting globalisation
    • Other objections:
    • uneven in its effects
    • Western imperialism?
    • winners and losers
    • not necessarily good
    • who is held responsible?
    • essential paradox
  • 33. Ideas refuting globalisation
    • Other objections:
    • uneven in its effects
    • Western imperialism?
    • winners and losers
    • not necessarily good
    • who is held responsible?
    • essential paradox
  • 34. Questions to think about
    • Is globalisation:
    • a new phenomenon in world politics?
    • a positive or negative development?
    • merely the latest stage of capitalism?
    • merely a new form of Western imperialism?
    • Does globalisation:
    • make the state obsolete?
    • make the world more or less democratic?
    • make war more of less likely?
  • 35. I.R. vs. World Politics
    • The Globalization of World Politics : An Introduction to International Relations
    • Nation : “A group of people who recognize each other as sharing a common identity, with a focus on a homeland” (Baylis et al 2008: 584)
    • State : “A legal territory entity composed of a stable population and a government; it possesses a monopoly over the legitimate use of force; its sovereignty is recognized by other states in the international system” (Baylis et al 2008: 587)
  • 36.
    • Nation-states:
    • “ a political community in which the state claims legitimacy on the grounds that it represents the nation. The nation-state would exist if nearly all the members of a single nation were organized in a single state, without any other national communities being present. Although the term is widely used, no such entities exist.” (p. 584)
  • 37. Theories of world politics
    • “ A theory is not simply some grand formal model with hypotheses and assumptions. Rather a theory is a kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not.”
    • (Baylis, Smith and Owen 2008: 4)
  • 38. Theory
    • Using theory is not optional
    • Everyone has a theory
    • -implicit vs. explicit
    • First International Politics Department
    • 1919, University of Wales
    • to find causes of major political problems
    • a normative position: how things should be
  • 39. Idealism vs. Realism
    • This view criticised as idealist
    • -to engineer the world to how it ought to be
    • Opponents preferred a view called realism
    • -how the world really is (i.e. not very pleasant)
    • Realism has had the upper hand since then
    • -may be ‘common-sense’
    • -but it is hardly neutral
  • 40. Idealism
    • Idealism dominant after WWI
    • Immanuel Kant
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • Often now a derogatory term
  • 41. Idealism
    • Result of WWI carnage
    • Attempt to abolish war
    • Wilson’s Fourteen Points – Versailles (1918)
    • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-449533/Rare-footage-WWI-Gallipoli-battle-unearthed.html
  • 42. Idealism
    • Cosmopolitan ethics
    • Fell into disrepute (WWII)
    • EH Carr The Twenty Years’ Crisis (1946)
    • Seen as naïve and utopian
    • Served interests of status quo?
    • However liberalism now increasingly popular …
  • 43. Realism
    • Thucydides
    • Peloponnesian Wars
    • Machiavelli, Hobbes, Weber
  • 44. Realism
    • EH Carr
    • Hans Morgenthau
    • No harmony between states
  • 45. Realism
    • Grim view of international politics
    • Survival rather than progress
    • Balance of power
    • Both descriptive and prescriptive insights
  • 46. Realism
    • Perpetual peace ‘flies in the face’ of history?
    • Human nature is fundamentally flawed
    • Conservative? Pessimistic?
  • 47. Realism
    • Dominant since 1945, yet widely criticised
    • increased interdependence
    • unnecessary assumptions -> neorealism
  • 48. Neo realism
    • Kenneth Waltz
    • anarchy is a structural feature
    • saves ‘human nature’ from the blame
    • But increasingly irrelevant?
  • 49. Liberalism
    • Idealism = extreme Liberalism
    • Main themes of Liberalism:
    • -humans are perfectible
    • -democracy necessary for perfectibility to develop
    • -ideas matter (ie. not just power)
    • -belief in progress
    • States are not the only important actors
    • Competing interests within states
  • 50. Liberalism
    • possibility for co-operation between states
    • national interests in more than just military terms
    • order emerges from laws, agreed norms etc. (not ‘balance of power’)
    • In practice, state sovereignty is seriously limited
  • 51. Marxism
    • A third theoretical position
    • (after Liberalism, Realism)
    • structuralism or world-system theory
    • All politics takes place within world capitalist economy
    • -social classes the most important actors
    • -class forces explain behaviour
    • -world economy constrains states’ freedom
  • 52. Marxism
    • Economic, not military terms
    • -core, periphery and semi-periphery
    • All states have to play by the rules of the international capitalist economy
  • 53. Constructivism
    • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/margaret-thatcher/6166487/Britain-and-France-feared-fall-of-Berlin-Wall.html
    • Developed in 1980s
    • human agency had a greater role
    • we constantly make and re-make the social world