Notes: Pharynx, Esophagus, and        Stomach (pg 6)
Pharynx: a fibromuscular passageway thatconnects the nasal and oral cavities to thelarynx and esophagus
Swallowing• Food is pushed into the back of the mouth by  the tongue
Swallowing• Food is pushed into the back of the mouth by  the tongue• When food reaches the fauces, sensory  receptors ini...
Swallowing• Food is pushed into the pharynx by the tongue• When food reaches the fauces, sensory  receptors initiate swall...
Swallowing• Food is pushed into the pharynx by the tongue• When food reaches the fauces, sensory  receptors initiate swall...
Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach
Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach• Posterior to trachea
Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach• Posterior to trachea• Passes ...
Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach• Posterior to trachea• Passes ...
Stomach Structure4 regions:
Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from   esophagus
Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from   esophagus2. Fundus- most superior. Expands ...
Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from   esophagus2. Fundus- most superior. Expands ...
Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from   esophagus2. Fundus- most superior. Expands ...
Stomach StructureWall- contains three layers of muscle:• Innermost (oblique), Middle (circular), Outer  (longitudinal)• Co...
Output (pg 7)• Draw stomach structure
Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular  gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric  jui...
Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular  gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric  jui...
Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular  gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric  jui...
Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular  gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric  jui...
Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• 4 Types of Cells in gastric glands  1. Mucous Cells: Produce thick alkaline mucus to    protect...
Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• 4 Types of Cells in gastric glands  1. Mucous Cells: Produce thick alkaline mucus to    protect...
Regulation of Gastric Secretions1. Cephalic phase: Begins when you see, smell,   taste, or think about food. Medulla oblon...
Regulation of Gastric Secretions1. Cephalic phase: Begins when you see, smell,   taste, or think about food. Medulla oblon...
Regulation of Gastric Secretions1. Cephalic phase: Begins when you see, smell,   taste, or think about food. Medulla oblon...
Stomach Emptying• Pyloric sphincter opens and lets a small  amount of chyme into small intestine. Then  closes, pauses, an...
Stomach Emptying• Pyloric sphincter opens and lets a small  amount of chyme into small intestine. Then  closes, pauses, an...
Sculpt• Pharynx, esophagus, trachea, stomach (all  three layers—show direction of muscle fibers  in each)
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Notes pharynx esophagus stomach

  1. 1. Notes: Pharynx, Esophagus, and Stomach (pg 6)
  2. 2. Pharynx: a fibromuscular passageway thatconnects the nasal and oral cavities to thelarynx and esophagus
  3. 3. Swallowing• Food is pushed into the back of the mouth by the tongue
  4. 4. Swallowing• Food is pushed into the back of the mouth by the tongue• When food reaches the fauces, sensory receptors initiate swallowing reflex (involuntary)
  5. 5. Swallowing• Food is pushed into the pharynx by the tongue• When food reaches the fauces, sensory receptors initiate swallowing reflex (involuntary)• Uvula is elevated to prevent food from entering nasopharynx. Epiglottis drops down to prevent food from entering the larynx.
  6. 6. Swallowing• Food is pushed into the pharynx by the tongue• When food reaches the fauces, sensory receptors initiate swallowing reflex (involuntary)• Uvula is elevated to prevent food from entering nasopharynx. Epiglottis drops down to prevent food from entering the larynx.• Peristaltic movements propel food from pharynx into the esophagus
  7. 7. Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach
  8. 8. Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach• Posterior to trachea
  9. 9. Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach• Posterior to trachea• Passes through an opening in diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus
  10. 10. Esophagus: collapsible muscular tube,about 25cm long, passageway betweenpharynx and stomach• Posterior to trachea• Passes through an opening in diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus• Upper and lower esophageal sphincters control movement of food into and out of esophagus
  11. 11. Stomach Structure4 regions:
  12. 12. Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from esophagus
  13. 13. Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from esophagus2. Fundus- most superior. Expands to provide temporary storage
  14. 14. Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from esophagus2. Fundus- most superior. Expands to provide temporary storage3. Body- main portion
  15. 15. Stomach Structure4 regions:1. Cardiac - small region around the opening from esophagus2. Fundus- most superior. Expands to provide temporary storage3. Body- main portion4. Pyloric- at exit of stomach
  16. 16. Stomach StructureWall- contains three layers of muscle:• Innermost (oblique), Middle (circular), Outer (longitudinal)• Contains folds (rugae) that allow for expansion
  17. 17. Output (pg 7)• Draw stomach structure
  18. 18. Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric juice per day
  19. 19. Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric juice per day• Chyme = Food + Gastric juice
  20. 20. Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric juice per day• Chyme = Food + Gastric juice• 4 Types of Cells in gastric glands 1. Mucous Cells: Produce thick alkaline mucus to protect stomach lining and thin watery mucus to mix with food
  21. 21. Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• Lining of stomach contains numerous tubular gastric glands. Produce 2-3 liters of gastric juice per day• Chyme = Food + Gastric juice• 4 Types of Cells in gastric glands 1. Mucous Cells: Produce thick alkaline mucus to protect stomach lining and thin watery mucus to mix with food 2. Parietal Cells: Produce Hydrochloric acid (kills bacteria) and Intrinsic factor (for absorption of Vitamin B12)
  22. 22. Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• 4 Types of Cells in gastric glands 1. Mucous Cells: Produce thick alkaline mucus to protect stomach lining and thin watery mucus to mix with food 2. Parietal Cells: Produce Hydrochloric acid (kills bacteria) and Intrinsic factor (for absorption of Vitamin B12) 3. Chief Cells: Produce enzyme pepsin for protein digestion
  23. 23. Gastric Secretions (pg 6)• 4 Types of Cells in gastric glands 1. Mucous Cells: Produce thick alkaline mucus to protect stomach lining and thin watery mucus to mix with food 2. Parietal Cells: Produce Hydrochloric acid (kills bacteria) and Intrinsic factor (for absorption of Vitamin B12) 3. Chief Cells: Produce enzyme pepsin for protein digestion 4. Endocrine Cells: Produce gastrin (stimulates gastric gland secretion)
  24. 24. Regulation of Gastric Secretions1. Cephalic phase: Begins when you see, smell, taste, or think about food. Medulla oblongata sends signal to stomach to increase secretion of gastric juice and the hormone gastrin. Prepares stomach to receive food.
  25. 25. Regulation of Gastric Secretions1. Cephalic phase: Begins when you see, smell, taste, or think about food. Medulla oblongata sends signal to stomach to increase secretion of gastric juice and the hormone gastrin. Prepares stomach to receive food.2. Gastric phase: Begins when food reaches stomach. Stretching of stomach wall stimulates more gastrin secretion, which leads to more production of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
  26. 26. Regulation of Gastric Secretions1. Cephalic phase: Begins when you see, smell, taste, or think about food. Medulla oblongata, sends signal to stomach to increase secretion of gastric juice and the hormone gastrin. Prepares stomach to receive food.2. Gastric phase: Begins when food reaches stomach. Stretching of stomach wall stimulates more gastrin secretion, which leads to more production of hydrochloric acid and pepsin3. Intestinal phase: Begins when chyme passes from stomach into duodenum of small intestine. Decrease in pH in duodenum inhibits gastric secretion.
  27. 27. Stomach Emptying• Pyloric sphincter opens and lets a small amount of chyme into small intestine. Then closes, pauses, and repeats
  28. 28. Stomach Emptying• Pyloric sphincter opens and lets a small amount of chyme into small intestine. Then closes, pauses, and repeats• Takes about 4 hours for stomach to empty after a meal, but time depends on the type of food eaten (carbohydrates faster, fat slower)
  29. 29. Sculpt• Pharynx, esophagus, trachea, stomach (all three layers—show direction of muscle fibers in each)

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