Nonspecific defenses

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Nonspecific defenses

  1. 1. Non-Specific Defense (pg 6)
  2. 2. Non-Specific Defense (pg 6)• Non-specific defenses are directed against allpathogens, regardless of their nature
  3. 3. 1st Line of DefensePhysical Barriers:1. Skin: Cells are tightly packed and contain thetough protein keratin, which makes it difficultfor pathogens to penetrate.
  4. 4. 1st Line of DefensePhysical Barriers:1. Skin: Cells are tightly packed and contain thetough protein keratin, which makes it difficultfor pathogens to penetrate.2. Mucous membranes: Line respiratory anddigestive tracts.
  5. 5. 1st Line of DefensePhysical Barriers:1. Skin: Cells are tightly packed and contain thetough protein keratin, which makes it difficultfor pathogens to penetrate.2. Mucous membranes: Line respiratory anddigestive tracts.3. Fluids: Tears, saliva, urine: flush pathogensout of the body
  6. 6. 1st Line of DefenseProtective Secretions:1. Skin secretions are acidic and sebum containschemicals that inhibit bacterial growth
  7. 7. 1st Line of DefenseProtective Secretions:1. Skin secretions are acidic and sebum containschemicals that inhibit bacterial growth2. Stomach produces hydrochloric acid, whichkills pathogens
  8. 8. 1st Line of DefenseProtective Secretions:1. Skin secretions are acidic and sebum containschemicals that inhibit bacterial growth2. Stomach produces hydrochloric acid, whichkills pathogens3. Saliva and tears contain lysozyme, an enzymethat destroys bacteria
  9. 9. 1st Line of DefenseProtective Secretions:1. Skin secretions are acidic and sebum containschemicals that inhibit bacterial growth2. Stomach produces hydrochloric acid, whichkills pathogens3. Saliva and tears contain lysozyme, an enzymethat destroys bacteria4. Mucus traps microorganisms
  10. 10. 2nd Line of DefenseChemical Action1. Complement: group of proteins that areactivated by contact with foreign substances.Activated complement proteins enhancephagocytosis and inflammation and causebacterial cells to rupture
  11. 11. 2nd Line of DefenseChemical Action1. Complement: group of proteins that areactivated by contact with foreign substances.Activated complement proteins enhancephagocytosis and inflammation and causebacterial cells to rupture2. Interferon: Produced by virus-infected cells.Stimulates neighboring cells to block theirvirus receptors so they don’t get infected
  12. 12. 2nd Line of DefensePhagocytes1. Neutrophils: First to arrive at site of infection.Engulf a few bacteria and then die. “Suicidemission”. Pus = dead neutrophils
  13. 13. 2nd Line of DefensePhagocytes1. Neutrophils: First to arrive at site of infection.Engulf a few bacteria and then die. “Suicidemission”. Pus = dead neutrophils2. Macrophages: Large cells. Arrive later andclean up dead neutrophils and any remainingbacteria. “Clean up crew”
  14. 14. 2nd Line of DefensePhagocytes1. Neutrophils: First to arrive at site of infection.Engulf a few bacteria and then die. “Suicidemission”. Pus = dead neutrophils2. Macrophages: Large cells. Arrive later andclean up dead neutrophils and any remainingbacteria. “Clean up crew”3. Natural Killer Cells: Type of lymphocyte thatkills cancer cells and virus-infected cells.
  15. 15. 2nd Line of DefenseFever1. Macrophages release pyrogens, which causethe hypothalamus to increase bodytemperature
  16. 16. 2nd Line of DefenseFever1. Macrophages release pyrogens, which causethe hypothalamus to increase bodytemperature2. High fevers are dangerous, but mild feversare beneficial because they decreaseavailability of iron and zinc (which slowsbacterial growth) and increase metabolic rate(which allows body cells to heal faster).
  17. 17. 2nd Line of DefenseInflammation1. Occurs in response to tissue damage
  18. 18. 2nd Line of DefenseInflammation1. Occurs in response to tissue damage2. Signs = redness, heat, swelling, and pain
  19. 19. 2nd Line of DefenseInflammation1. Occurs in response to tissue damage2. Signs = redness, heat, swelling, and pain3. Increases blood flow to the damaged area,which brings white blood cells and clottingproteins.
  20. 20. 2nd Line of DefenseInflammation1. Occurs in response to tissue damage2. Signs = redness, heat, swelling, and pain3. Increases blood flow to the damaged area,which brings white blood cells and clottingproteins.4. Inflammation is only helpful when it istemporary and localized. Chronic or systemicinflammation is damaging and dangerous.Symptoms: High white blood cell count,fever, decreased blood pressure (caused byvasodilation)
  21. 21. Diagram (pg 7)• Steps of inflammatory process
  22. 22. Output (pg 7)• Choose one type of non-specific defense• Write the summary of a movie plot about thisprocess• At least 5 sentences
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