Kidney physiology

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Kidney physiology

  1. 1. Kidney Physiology (pg 4)
  2. 2. Macroscopic Structure of the Kidney• Cortex: Outer region
  3. 3. Macroscopic Structure of the Kidney• Cortex: Outer region• Medulla: Inner region
  4. 4. Macroscopic Structure of the Kidney• Cortex: Outer region• Medulla: Inner region• Renal pelvis: large cavity that collects theurine as it is produced. Continuous with ureter
  5. 5. Nephrons• Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney
  6. 6. Nephrons• Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney• Over 1 million nephrons per kidney
  7. 7. Nephron StructureNephrons have two parts:
  8. 8. Nephron StructureNephrons have two parts:1. Renal corpusclea. Glomerulus: cluster of capillaries
  9. 9. Nephron StructureNephrons have two parts:1. Renal corpusclea. Glomerulus: cluster of capillariesb. Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule: cup thatsurrounds the glomerulus and receivesblood filtrate from it
  10. 10. 2. Renal tubulea. Proximal convoluted tubule: Highly coiled.Located in cortex
  11. 11. 2. Renal tubulea. Proximal convoluted tubule: Highly coiled.Located in cortexb. Loop of Henle: A hairpin loop that dips intothe medulla, makes a U-turn, and ascendsback to the cortex
  12. 12. 2. Renal tubulea. Proximal convoluted tubule: Highly coiled.Located in cortexb. Loop of Henle: A hairpin loop that dips intothe medulla, makes a U-turn, and ascendsback to the cortexc. Distal convoluted tubule: Coiled, in cortex
  13. 13. Urine Formation• Nephrons form urine in 3 steps1. Filtration: Water and small solutes enter thenephron (blood cells and proteins do notenter). Filtrate is similar to blood plasma.
  14. 14. Urine Formation• Nephrons form urine in 3 steps1. Filtration: Water and small solutes enter thenephron (blood cells and proteins do notenter). Filtrate is similar to blood plasma.2. Reabsorption: Useful substances(water, glucose, amino acids, needed ions) aretransported out of the filtrate and back intothe blood
  15. 15. Urine Formation• Nephrons form urine in 3 steps1. Filtration: Water and small solutes enter thenephron (blood cells and proteins do not enter).Filtrate is similar to blood plasma.2. Reabsorption: Useful substances(water, glucose, amino acids, needed ions) aretransported out of the filtrate and back into theblood3. Secretion: Harmful substances (H+, excessK+, some drugs and poisons) are removed fromthe blood and put into the filtrate

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