Like the days of the month, the chemical elements can be arranged in a way that shows a repeating, or PERIODIC pattern. DRY ERASE EXERCISE Patterns: atomic # increases as you move left to right Groups share same # of valence electron Energy levels increase as you move down a group
luster is a measure of shinyness
Common uses: Sodium chloride is table salt, lithium in batteries, Cesium in clocks, potassium in fireworks, liquid detergents, fertilizers and vitamins, rubidium in photocells (motion detectors) Pure sodium in water = flames
Common uses: Beryllium in high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft & satellites, Magnesium combined with other metals to form strong but lightweight alloys. Calcium in limestone & marble, essential for strong teeth & bones, Strontium gives fireworks their red color, barium in ceramics and some types of glass (and GI x-rays). Radium is radioactive (too many protons or too few neutrons causes unstable atom where particles are released) and used in cancer chemotherapy.
Elements with atomic number greater than 92 are manufactured in laboratories and are highly unstable (radioactive)
Common uses: Boron makes boric acid (mild antiseptic), borax (laundry water softener & ant killer) and a small component of silly putty - produces green flame when burned Aluminum (most abundant metal in Earth's crust) is soft and light - found in baseball bats, drink cans, bikes & cooking utensils. Gallium is solid at room temp but melts in your hand - used in electronic devices Indium also has a low melting point - used in alloys in thermometers and flat-screen TV's Thallium is poisonous - not many uses, but sometimes mixed with other compounds to form types of glass.
Common uses: Graphite in pencils and powder lubricant, silicon comprises sand and used in semiconductors (computer chips), Tin lines steel food cans, mixed with copper makes bronze, Lead resists corrosion - used in ceramics, plumbing, glassmaking
Common uses: Nitrogen (largest component of air), builds proteins in cells, DNA/RNA Phosphorus - highly reactive/corrosive solid, also found in human body, used in match heads (very flammable) Arsenic - pesticides, pyrotechnics Antimony - hardens & strengthens lead, semiconductors, batteries Bismuth - carrier for uranium fuel in nuclear reactors, fire extinguishing systems, cosmetics, medicine
Common uses: Sulfur - food preservative, rubber product, bleaching & refrigeration Selenium - solar cells, light meters, photocopiers Tellurium - semiconductors, ceramics, tinting glass Polonium - rare radioactive element, named after Poland (discoverers Marie & Pierre Curie's native country)
Common uses: Fluorine - fluoride toothpaste, teflon Chlorine - table salt, disinfectant, bleaching of paper product or clothing Bromine - dye, disinfectant, photographic chemicals Iodine - essential for thyroid function
The Eagle Nebula. ( External Sample ) By weight, 75 percent of the visible universe is hydrogen. Ordinarily it is a colorless gas, but vast quantities of it in space absorb starlight, creating spectacular sights such as the Eagle Nebula (seen by the Hubble Space telescope). Found in: water, sugar, ammonia, rocket fuel, stars & nebulae, and air
The Periodic Table of the Elements Basic Chemistry Heartlife Physical Science