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The Periodic Table & Chemical Bonds
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  • chalk = calcium carbonite (CaCH3) ammonia = NH3
  • Like the days of the month, the chemical elements can be arranged in a way that shows a repeating, or PERIODIC pattern. DRY ERASE EXERCISE Patterns: atomic # increases as you move left to right Groups share same # of valence electron Energy levels increase as you move down a group
  • luster is a measure of shinyness
  • Common uses: Sodium chloride is table salt, lithium in batteries, Cesium in clocks, potassium in fireworks, liquid detergents, fertilizers and vitamins, rubidium in photocells (motion detectors) Pure sodium in water = flames
  • Common uses: Beryllium in high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft & satellites, Magnesium combined with other metals to form strong but lightweight alloys. Calcium in limestone & marble, essential for strong teeth & bones, Strontium gives fireworks their red color, barium in ceramics and some types of glass (and GI x-rays). Radium is radioactive (too many protons or too few neutrons causes unstable atom where particles are released) and used in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Elements with atomic number greater than 92 are manufactured in laboratories and are highly unstable (radioactive)
  • Common uses: Boron makes boric acid (mild antiseptic), borax (laundry water softener & ant killer) and a small component of silly putty - produces green flame when burned Aluminum (most abundant metal in Earth's crust) is soft and light - found in baseball bats, drink cans, bikes & cooking utensils. Gallium is solid at room temp but melts in your hand - used in electronic devices Indium also has a low melting point - used in alloys in thermometers and flat-screen TV's Thallium is poisonous - not many uses, but sometimes mixed with other compounds to form types of glass.
  • Common uses: Graphite in pencils and powder lubricant, silicon comprises sand and used in semiconductors (computer chips), Tin lines steel food cans, mixed with copper makes bronze, Lead resists corrosion - used in ceramics, plumbing, glassmaking
  • Common uses: Nitrogen (largest component of air), builds proteins in cells, DNA/RNA Phosphorus - highly reactive/corrosive solid, also found in human body, used in match heads (very flammable) Arsenic - pesticides, pyrotechnics Antimony - hardens & strengthens lead, semiconductors, batteries Bismuth - carrier for uranium fuel in nuclear reactors, fire extinguishing systems, cosmetics, medicine
  • Common uses: Sulfur - food preservative, rubber product, bleaching & refrigeration Selenium - solar cells, light meters, photocopiers Tellurium - semiconductors, ceramics, tinting glass Polonium - rare radioactive element, named after Poland (discoverers Marie & Pierre Curie's native country)
  • Common uses: Fluorine - fluoride toothpaste, teflon Chlorine - table salt, disinfectant, bleaching of paper product or clothing Bromine - dye, disinfectant, photographic chemicals Iodine - essential for thyroid function
  • Common uses:
  • The Eagle Nebula. ( External Sample ) By weight, 75 percent of the visible universe is hydrogen. Ordinarily it is a colorless gas, but vast quantities of it in space absorb starlight, creating spectacular sights such as the Eagle Nebula (seen by the Hubble Space telescope). Found in: water, sugar, ammonia, rocket fuel, stars & nebulae, and air

Transcript

  • 1. The Periodic Table of the Elements Basic Chemistry Heartlife Physical Science
  • 2. The Periodic Table of the Elements - Review
    • What does the atomic number tell you?
      • # of protons (& electrons)
    • What does the atomic mass tell you?
      • weight of protons & neutrons combined
      • allows you to calculate the # of neutrons
    • What are atomic symbols used for?
      • abbreviations allow easier written chemical formulas
        • H 2 O 2 , CO 2 , C 6 H 12 O 6
    • Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
      • protons & neutrons
  • 3.
    • Columns (called groups ) have similar chemical & physical properties
      • share similar arrangement of electrons
      • same # of valence electrons (electrons in outermost shell)
    • Rows (called periods ) highlight the repeating nature of elements
      • displayed in order of increasing atomic number (no other similarities)
      • atomic radius decreases as you move left to right
      • ionization energy increases left to right
    Periodic Table of the Elements - What patterns do you see?
  • 4. Reactivity - What makes atoms interact?
    • Atoms are happiest (most stable):
      • with full energy levels (filled electron shells)
      • with paired electrons
    • Atoms will interact with other atoms to make electron pairs and filled shells happen
    Phosphorus
  • 5. Drawing Chemical Reactions - Two ways to draw an atom
    • Bohr Models show ALL electrons orbiting an atom
      • But only valence electrons (those in the outermost shell) are involved in chemical reactions
    • Lewis Dot Structures display ONLY the valence electrons
    Lewis Structure Bohr Model
  • 6. Periodic Table of Elements - Lewis Dot Structures
  • 7. Reactivity - Covalent Bonds
    • Sometimes valence electrons are shared
      • They spend part of their time orbiting each atom
      • These shared electrons help hold the molecule together
    • Electrons are shared by the compound's individual atoms:
      • COVALENT BOND
    O Water H H
  • 8. Bonding - Ionic Bonds
    • Sometimes electrons are donated (and received)
      • in this case, ions are formed (charged particles)
      • the opposite charges of the atoms bind them together
    • Electrons donated/received by individual atoms:
      • IONIC BOND
    Table Salt
  • 9. Three General Classes of Elements
    • Metals ~ 80% of all elements
      • shiny, solid (except Hg)
      • malleable (soft, can reshape)
      • conduct heat & electricity
      • ductile (drawn into thin wires )
    • Metalloids - only 7
      • have properties of both metals and nonmetals
      • all are solids
    • Nonmetals - 2 nd largest group
      • dull (not shiny)
      • brittle (shatter, not bendable)
      • good insulators
      • more than half are gases
  • 10. Group 1: Alkali Metals
    • Physical Properties
      • soft (can be cut with knife)
      • shiny and silver
      • low densities
    Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 1 valence electron
        • VERY REACTIVE!
          • usually lose 1 electron in reactions
      • never found as pure elements in nature
      • must be stored under oil in sealed containers to prevent violent reactions
    Sodium in Water
  • 11. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Physical Properties
      • hard
      • gray-white
      • good electrical conductors
    Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 2 valence electrons
        • less reactive than alkali metals, but more than the other metals
        • react by losing 2 electrons
      • never found as pure elements in nature
    Berryllium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Radium Sr Calcium & Barium in Water
  • 12. Group 3-12: Transition Metals
    • Physical Properties
      • form colored compounds
      • most are hard & shiny
      • good electrical conductors
    Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 1 or 2 valence electrons
        • less reactive, but unpredictable reactions
        • can speed up reactions
        • lose different #'s of electrons
    Au * Lanthanides **Actinides Copper & Zinc Reactions
  • 13. Group 13: Boron Family
    • Physical Properties
      • Boron (metalloid) is hard, black solid and very brittle
        • good conductor at high temps
        • poor conductor at low temps
      • Al, Ga, In, & Ti are metals
        • good conductors, soft/malleable
    Bohr Diagram
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 3 valence electrons
        • reactivity varies within this group
    Metal Salts Flame Test Boron Aluminum Gallium Indium Thallium Lewis Structure Al
  • 14.
    • Physical Properties
      • Carbon (nonmetal) is found in nearly every living thing
        • elemental forms in nature:
          • graphite & diamonds
      • Si & Ge are metalloids
      • Sn & Pb are metals
    Group 14: Carbon Family Bohr Diagram
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 4 valence electrons
        • gain, lose, or share 4 electrons when reacting with other elements
    Carbon Silicon Germanium Tin Lead Lewis Structure Bronze from Tin & Copper Ge
  • 15.
    • Physical Properties
      • N & P are nonmetals
        • Nitrogen is a gas at room temp
        • All others are solids
      • As & Sb are metalloids
      • Bismuth is a metal
    Group 15: Nitrogen Family Bohr Diagram
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 5 valence electrons
        • elements vary in reactivity
    Nitrogen Phosphorus Arsenic Antimony Bismuth Lewis Structure Phosphorus video Phosphorus Bismuth As
  • 16.
    • Physical Properties
      • Oxygen is a nonmetal gas
        • most abundant element in Earth's crust (1/5 Earth's atmosphere)
      • Sulfur is a yellow, nonmetal solid
        • smells like rotten eggs
    Group 16: Oxygen Family Bohr Diagram
    • Selenium is a nonmetal solid
      • conducts electricity with sunlight
    • Te & Po are metalloids
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 6 valence electrons
        • elements vary in reactivity
    Oxygen Sulfur Selenium Tellurium Polonium Lewis Structure Sulfuric Acid on Sugar Cubes Tellurium S
  • 17.
    • Physical Properties
      • Fluorine & Chlorine are greenish-yellow gases, toxic in their pure form
      • Bromine is a smelly, reddish-brown liquid that causes burns
      • Iodine is a dark-gray solid
      • Astatine is a radioactive solid
    Group 17: Halogens
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 7 valence electrons
        • generally gain or share 1 electron
        • all very reactive
    Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine Lewis Structure Halogen Reactions I P:53 N:74 Bohr Diagram
  • 18.
    • Physical Properties
      • All are gases easily found in the atmosphere
      • Each noble gas creates a different color in "neon" lights
    Group 18: Noble Gases Bohr Diagram
    • Chemical Properties
      • have 8 valence electrons (except He)
        • have full valence shells, so NOT very reactive
    Lewis Structure Lead Balloon Demo Ar Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
  • 19.
    • Physical Properties
      • most abundant element in the universe
      • doesn't fit in any group
      • invisible gas (nonmetal), very flammable
      • pure hydrogen is lighter than air
    Hydrogen Bohr Diagram
    • Chemical Properties
      • has only 1 valence electron
        • forms many different compounds
      • has NO neutrons
    Lewis Structure Hydrogen Bomb H