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The Periodic Table & Chemical Bonds
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The Periodic Table & Chemical Bonds

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  • chalk = calcium carbonite (CaCH3) ammonia = NH3
  • Like the days of the month, the chemical elements can be arranged in a way that shows a repeating, or PERIODIC pattern. DRY ERASE EXERCISE Patterns: atomic # increases as you move left to right Groups share same # of valence electron Energy levels increase as you move down a group
  • luster is a measure of shinyness
  • Common uses: Sodium chloride is table salt, lithium in batteries, Cesium in clocks, potassium in fireworks, liquid detergents, fertilizers and vitamins, rubidium in photocells (motion detectors) Pure sodium in water = flames
  • Common uses: Beryllium in high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft & satellites, Magnesium combined with other metals to form strong but lightweight alloys. Calcium in limestone & marble, essential for strong teeth & bones, Strontium gives fireworks their red color, barium in ceramics and some types of glass (and GI x-rays). Radium is radioactive (too many protons or too few neutrons causes unstable atom where particles are released) and used in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Elements with atomic number greater than 92 are manufactured in laboratories and are highly unstable (radioactive)
  • Common uses: Boron makes boric acid (mild antiseptic), borax (laundry water softener & ant killer) and a small component of silly putty - produces green flame when burned Aluminum (most abundant metal in Earth's crust) is soft and light - found in baseball bats, drink cans, bikes & cooking utensils. Gallium is solid at room temp but melts in your hand - used in electronic devices Indium also has a low melting point - used in alloys in thermometers and flat-screen TV's Thallium is poisonous - not many uses, but sometimes mixed with other compounds to form types of glass.
  • Common uses: Graphite in pencils and powder lubricant, silicon comprises sand and used in semiconductors (computer chips), Tin lines steel food cans, mixed with copper makes bronze, Lead resists corrosion - used in ceramics, plumbing, glassmaking
  • Common uses: Nitrogen (largest component of air), builds proteins in cells, DNA/RNA Phosphorus - highly reactive/corrosive solid, also found in human body, used in match heads (very flammable) Arsenic - pesticides, pyrotechnics Antimony - hardens & strengthens lead, semiconductors, batteries Bismuth - carrier for uranium fuel in nuclear reactors, fire extinguishing systems, cosmetics, medicine
  • Common uses: Sulfur - food preservative, rubber product, bleaching & refrigeration Selenium - solar cells, light meters, photocopiers Tellurium - semiconductors, ceramics, tinting glass Polonium - rare radioactive element, named after Poland (discoverers Marie & Pierre Curie's native country)
  • Common uses: Fluorine - fluoride toothpaste, teflon Chlorine - table salt, disinfectant, bleaching of paper product or clothing Bromine - dye, disinfectant, photographic chemicals Iodine - essential for thyroid function
  • Common uses:
  • The Eagle Nebula. ( External Sample ) By weight, 75 percent of the visible universe is hydrogen. Ordinarily it is a colorless gas, but vast quantities of it in space absorb starlight, creating spectacular sights such as the Eagle Nebula (seen by the Hubble Space telescope). Found in: water, sugar, ammonia, rocket fuel, stars & nebulae, and air
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Periodic Table of the Elements Basic Chemistry Heartlife Physical Science
    • 2. The Periodic Table of the Elements - Review
      • What does the atomic number tell you?
        • # of protons (& electrons)
      • What does the atomic mass tell you?
        • weight of protons & neutrons combined
        • allows you to calculate the # of neutrons
      • What are atomic symbols used for?
        • abbreviations allow easier written chemical formulas
          • H 2 O 2 , CO 2 , C 6 H 12 O 6
      • Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
        • protons & neutrons
    • 3.
      • Columns (called groups ) have similar chemical & physical properties
        • share similar arrangement of electrons
        • same # of valence electrons (electrons in outermost shell)
      • Rows (called periods ) highlight the repeating nature of elements
        • displayed in order of increasing atomic number (no other similarities)
        • atomic radius decreases as you move left to right
        • ionization energy increases left to right
      Periodic Table of the Elements - What patterns do you see?
    • 4. Reactivity - What makes atoms interact?
      • Atoms are happiest (most stable):
        • with full energy levels (filled electron shells)
        • with paired electrons
      • Atoms will interact with other atoms to make electron pairs and filled shells happen
      Phosphorus
    • 5. Drawing Chemical Reactions - Two ways to draw an atom
      • Bohr Models show ALL electrons orbiting an atom
        • But only valence electrons (those in the outermost shell) are involved in chemical reactions
      • Lewis Dot Structures display ONLY the valence electrons
      Lewis Structure Bohr Model
    • 6. Periodic Table of Elements - Lewis Dot Structures
    • 7. Reactivity - Covalent Bonds
      • Sometimes valence electrons are shared
        • They spend part of their time orbiting each atom
        • These shared electrons help hold the molecule together
      • Electrons are shared by the compound's individual atoms:
        • COVALENT BOND
      O Water H H
    • 8. Bonding - Ionic Bonds
      • Sometimes electrons are donated (and received)
        • in this case, ions are formed (charged particles)
        • the opposite charges of the atoms bind them together
      • Electrons donated/received by individual atoms:
        • IONIC BOND
      Table Salt
    • 9. Three General Classes of Elements
      • Metals ~ 80% of all elements
        • shiny, solid (except Hg)
        • malleable (soft, can reshape)
        • conduct heat & electricity
        • ductile (drawn into thin wires )
      • Metalloids - only 7
        • have properties of both metals and nonmetals
        • all are solids
      • Nonmetals - 2 nd largest group
        • dull (not shiny)
        • brittle (shatter, not bendable)
        • good insulators
        • more than half are gases
    • 10. Group 1: Alkali Metals
      • Physical Properties
        • soft (can be cut with knife)
        • shiny and silver
        • low densities
      Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 1 valence electron
          • VERY REACTIVE!
            • usually lose 1 electron in reactions
        • never found as pure elements in nature
        • must be stored under oil in sealed containers to prevent violent reactions
      Sodium in Water
    • 11. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
      • Physical Properties
        • hard
        • gray-white
        • good electrical conductors
      Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 2 valence electrons
          • less reactive than alkali metals, but more than the other metals
          • react by losing 2 electrons
        • never found as pure elements in nature
      Berryllium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Radium Sr Calcium & Barium in Water
    • 12. Group 3-12: Transition Metals
      • Physical Properties
        • form colored compounds
        • most are hard & shiny
        • good electrical conductors
      Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 1 or 2 valence electrons
          • less reactive, but unpredictable reactions
          • can speed up reactions
          • lose different #'s of electrons
      Au * Lanthanides **Actinides Copper & Zinc Reactions
    • 13. Group 13: Boron Family
      • Physical Properties
        • Boron (metalloid) is hard, black solid and very brittle
          • good conductor at high temps
          • poor conductor at low temps
        • Al, Ga, In, & Ti are metals
          • good conductors, soft/malleable
      Bohr Diagram
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 3 valence electrons
          • reactivity varies within this group
      Metal Salts Flame Test Boron Aluminum Gallium Indium Thallium Lewis Structure Al
    • 14.
      • Physical Properties
        • Carbon (nonmetal) is found in nearly every living thing
          • elemental forms in nature:
            • graphite & diamonds
        • Si & Ge are metalloids
        • Sn & Pb are metals
      Group 14: Carbon Family Bohr Diagram
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 4 valence electrons
          • gain, lose, or share 4 electrons when reacting with other elements
      Carbon Silicon Germanium Tin Lead Lewis Structure Bronze from Tin & Copper Ge
    • 15.
      • Physical Properties
        • N & P are nonmetals
          • Nitrogen is a gas at room temp
          • All others are solids
        • As & Sb are metalloids
        • Bismuth is a metal
      Group 15: Nitrogen Family Bohr Diagram
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 5 valence electrons
          • elements vary in reactivity
      Nitrogen Phosphorus Arsenic Antimony Bismuth Lewis Structure Phosphorus video Phosphorus Bismuth As
    • 16.
      • Physical Properties
        • Oxygen is a nonmetal gas
          • most abundant element in Earth's crust (1/5 Earth's atmosphere)
        • Sulfur is a yellow, nonmetal solid
          • smells like rotten eggs
      Group 16: Oxygen Family Bohr Diagram
      • Selenium is a nonmetal solid
        • conducts electricity with sunlight
      • Te & Po are metalloids
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 6 valence electrons
          • elements vary in reactivity
      Oxygen Sulfur Selenium Tellurium Polonium Lewis Structure Sulfuric Acid on Sugar Cubes Tellurium S
    • 17.
      • Physical Properties
        • Fluorine & Chlorine are greenish-yellow gases, toxic in their pure form
        • Bromine is a smelly, reddish-brown liquid that causes burns
        • Iodine is a dark-gray solid
        • Astatine is a radioactive solid
      Group 17: Halogens
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 7 valence electrons
          • generally gain or share 1 electron
          • all very reactive
      Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine Lewis Structure Halogen Reactions I P:53 N:74 Bohr Diagram
    • 18.
      • Physical Properties
        • All are gases easily found in the atmosphere
        • Each noble gas creates a different color in "neon" lights
      Group 18: Noble Gases Bohr Diagram
      • Chemical Properties
        • have 8 valence electrons (except He)
          • have full valence shells, so NOT very reactive
      Lewis Structure Lead Balloon Demo Ar Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
    • 19.
      • Physical Properties
        • most abundant element in the universe
        • doesn't fit in any group
        • invisible gas (nonmetal), very flammable
        • pure hydrogen is lighter than air
      Hydrogen Bohr Diagram
      • Chemical Properties
        • has only 1 valence electron
          • forms many different compounds
        • has NO neutrons
      Lewis Structure Hydrogen Bomb H