The Periodic Table & Chemical Bonds


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  • chalk = calcium carbonite (CaCH3) ammonia = NH3
  • Like the days of the month, the chemical elements can be arranged in a way that shows a repeating, or PERIODIC pattern. DRY ERASE EXERCISE Patterns: atomic # increases as you move left to right Groups share same # of valence electron Energy levels increase as you move down a group
  • luster is a measure of shinyness
  • Common uses: Sodium chloride is table salt, lithium in batteries, Cesium in clocks, potassium in fireworks, liquid detergents, fertilizers and vitamins, rubidium in photocells (motion detectors) Pure sodium in water = flames
  • Common uses: Beryllium in high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft & satellites, Magnesium combined with other metals to form strong but lightweight alloys. Calcium in limestone & marble, essential for strong teeth & bones, Strontium gives fireworks their red color, barium in ceramics and some types of glass (and GI x-rays). Radium is radioactive (too many protons or too few neutrons causes unstable atom where particles are released) and used in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Elements with atomic number greater than 92 are manufactured in laboratories and are highly unstable (radioactive)
  • Common uses: Boron makes boric acid (mild antiseptic), borax (laundry water softener & ant killer) and a small component of silly putty - produces green flame when burned Aluminum (most abundant metal in Earth's crust) is soft and light - found in baseball bats, drink cans, bikes & cooking utensils. Gallium is solid at room temp but melts in your hand - used in electronic devices Indium also has a low melting point - used in alloys in thermometers and flat-screen TV's Thallium is poisonous - not many uses, but sometimes mixed with other compounds to form types of glass.
  • Common uses: Graphite in pencils and powder lubricant, silicon comprises sand and used in semiconductors (computer chips), Tin lines steel food cans, mixed with copper makes bronze, Lead resists corrosion - used in ceramics, plumbing, glassmaking
  • Common uses: Nitrogen (largest component of air), builds proteins in cells, DNA/RNA Phosphorus - highly reactive/corrosive solid, also found in human body, used in match heads (very flammable) Arsenic - pesticides, pyrotechnics Antimony - hardens & strengthens lead, semiconductors, batteries Bismuth - carrier for uranium fuel in nuclear reactors, fire extinguishing systems, cosmetics, medicine
  • Common uses: Sulfur - food preservative, rubber product, bleaching & refrigeration Selenium - solar cells, light meters, photocopiers Tellurium - semiconductors, ceramics, tinting glass Polonium - rare radioactive element, named after Poland (discoverers Marie & Pierre Curie's native country)
  • Common uses: Fluorine - fluoride toothpaste, teflon Chlorine - table salt, disinfectant, bleaching of paper product or clothing Bromine - dye, disinfectant, photographic chemicals Iodine - essential for thyroid function
  • Common uses:
  • The Eagle Nebula. ( External Sample ) By weight, 75 percent of the visible universe is hydrogen. Ordinarily it is a colorless gas, but vast quantities of it in space absorb starlight, creating spectacular sights such as the Eagle Nebula (seen by the Hubble Space telescope). Found in: water, sugar, ammonia, rocket fuel, stars & nebulae, and air
  • The Periodic Table & Chemical Bonds

    1. 1. The Periodic Table of the Elements Basic Chemistry Heartlife Physical Science
    2. 2. The Periodic Table of the Elements - Review <ul><li>What does the atomic number tell you? </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of protons (& electrons) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does the atomic mass tell you? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight of protons & neutrons combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows you to calculate the # of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are atomic symbols used for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abbreviations allow easier written chemical formulas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O 2 , CO 2 , C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protons & neutrons </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Columns (called groups ) have similar chemical & physical properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>share similar arrangement of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>same # of valence electrons (electrons in outermost shell) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rows (called periods ) highlight the repeating nature of elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>displayed in order of increasing atomic number (no other similarities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>atomic radius decreases as you move left to right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ionization energy increases left to right </li></ul></ul>Periodic Table of the Elements - What patterns do you see?
    4. 4. Reactivity - What makes atoms interact? <ul><li>Atoms are happiest (most stable): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with full energy levels (filled electron shells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with paired electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atoms will interact with other atoms to make electron pairs and filled shells happen </li></ul>Phosphorus
    5. 5. Drawing Chemical Reactions - Two ways to draw an atom <ul><li>Bohr Models show ALL electrons orbiting an atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But only valence electrons (those in the outermost shell) are involved in chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lewis Dot Structures display ONLY the valence electrons </li></ul>Lewis Structure Bohr Model
    6. 6. Periodic Table of Elements - Lewis Dot Structures
    7. 7. Reactivity - Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Sometimes valence electrons are shared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They spend part of their time orbiting each atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These shared electrons help hold the molecule together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrons are shared by the compound's individual atoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COVALENT BOND </li></ul></ul>O Water H H
    8. 8. Bonding - Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Sometimes electrons are donated (and received) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in this case, ions are formed (charged particles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the opposite charges of the atoms bind them together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrons donated/received by individual atoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IONIC BOND </li></ul></ul>Table Salt
    9. 9. Three General Classes of Elements <ul><li>Metals ~ 80% of all elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shiny, solid (except Hg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>malleable (soft, can reshape) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conduct heat & electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ductile (drawn into thin wires ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metalloids - only 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have properties of both metals and nonmetals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all are solids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals - 2 nd largest group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dull (not shiny) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brittle (shatter, not bendable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good insulators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more than half are gases </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Group 1: Alkali Metals <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soft (can be cut with knife) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shiny and silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low densities </li></ul></ul>Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 1 valence electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VERY REACTIVE! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually lose 1 electron in reactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>never found as pure elements in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must be stored under oil in sealed containers to prevent violent reactions </li></ul></ul>Sodium in Water
    11. 11. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gray-white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good electrical conductors </li></ul></ul>Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 2 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less reactive than alkali metals, but more than the other metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>react by losing 2 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>never found as pure elements in nature </li></ul></ul>Berryllium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Radium Sr Calcium & Barium in Water
    12. 12. Group 3-12: Transition Metals <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>form colored compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most are hard & shiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good electrical conductors </li></ul></ul>Bohr Diagram Lewis Structure <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 1 or 2 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less reactive, but unpredictable reactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can speed up reactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lose different #'s of electrons </li></ul></ul></ul>Au * Lanthanides **Actinides Copper & Zinc Reactions
    13. 13. Group 13: Boron Family <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boron (metalloid) is hard, black solid and very brittle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>good conductor at high temps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor conductor at low temps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al, Ga, In, & Ti are metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>good conductors, soft/malleable </li></ul></ul></ul>Bohr Diagram <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 3 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reactivity varies within this group </li></ul></ul></ul>Metal Salts Flame Test Boron Aluminum Gallium Indium Thallium Lewis Structure Al
    14. 14. <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (nonmetal) is found in nearly every living thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elemental forms in nature: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphite & diamonds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Si & Ge are metalloids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sn & Pb are metals </li></ul></ul>Group 14: Carbon Family Bohr Diagram <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 4 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gain, lose, or share 4 electrons when reacting with other elements </li></ul></ul></ul>Carbon Silicon Germanium Tin Lead Lewis Structure Bronze from Tin & Copper Ge
    15. 15. <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N & P are nonmetals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is a gas at room temp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All others are solids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As & Sb are metalloids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismuth is a metal </li></ul></ul>Group 15: Nitrogen Family Bohr Diagram <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 5 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elements vary in reactivity </li></ul></ul></ul>Nitrogen Phosphorus Arsenic Antimony Bismuth Lewis Structure Phosphorus video Phosphorus Bismuth As
    16. 16. <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is a nonmetal gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant element in Earth's crust (1/5 Earth's atmosphere) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur is a yellow, nonmetal solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smells like rotten eggs </li></ul></ul></ul>Group 16: Oxygen Family Bohr Diagram <ul><li>Selenium is a nonmetal solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conducts electricity with sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Te & Po are metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 6 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elements vary in reactivity </li></ul></ul></ul>Oxygen Sulfur Selenium Tellurium Polonium Lewis Structure Sulfuric Acid on Sugar Cubes Tellurium S
    17. 17. <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorine & Chlorine are greenish-yellow gases, toxic in their pure form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine is a smelly, reddish-brown liquid that causes burns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine is a dark-gray solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astatine is a radioactive solid </li></ul></ul>Group 17: Halogens <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 7 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generally gain or share 1 electron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all very reactive </li></ul></ul></ul>Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine Lewis Structure Halogen Reactions I P:53 N:74 Bohr Diagram
    18. 18. <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All are gases easily found in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each noble gas creates a different color in &quot;neon&quot; lights </li></ul></ul>Group 18: Noble Gases Bohr Diagram <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have 8 valence electrons (except He) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have full valence shells, so NOT very reactive </li></ul></ul></ul>Lewis Structure Lead Balloon Demo Ar Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
    19. 19. <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant element in the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doesn't fit in any group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>invisible gas (nonmetal), very flammable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pure hydrogen is lighter than air </li></ul></ul>Hydrogen Bohr Diagram <ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has only 1 valence electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forms many different compounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has NO neutrons </li></ul></ul>Lewis Structure Hydrogen Bomb H