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The Moon & Planetary Geology
 

The Moon & Planetary Geology

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    The Moon & Planetary Geology The Moon & Planetary Geology Presentation Transcript

    • Geologic Processes that Shape Planets
    • What Forces Shape our Planet?
      • Geologic Processes:
      • Plate Tectonics
      • Weathering & Erosion
      • Impact Cratering
    • Earth's composition
      • Crust
        • surface rock layer
      • Mantle
        • thick, dense silica layer where magma comes from
      • Outer Core
        • liquid iron/nickel
      • Inner Core
        • solid iron/nickel
      • liquid outer core spinning around solid inner core creates Earth's magnetic field
    • Other Planets' Compositions
    • Earth's Layers
      • Soil & Sediment : dirt and sand
      • Crust : top surface layer of rock
      • Thicker Continental crust, 100km (60mi)
      • Thinner Oceanic crust, 5-35 km (22 mi)
      • Mantle : thick, dense silica layer
      • Upper Mantle
        • magma (partially molten rock)
      • Lower Mantle
        • hotter & harder due to pressure
      Lithosphere Asthenosphere
    • Plate Tectonics
      • Slow-moving convection currents in the mantle cause sections of Earth's crust to move above
      • Fault lines are the boundaries where plate edges meet.
      • Earth's crust is broken up into sections called "plates" that drift slowly above the syrupy mantle.
      • Earthquakes occur as pressure is rapidly released along fault lines
      • Volcanic eruptions are triggered, trenches are formed, and ridges of newly released magma form
      Note the Pacific Plate's "Ring of Fire"
    • Tectonic Plate Boundaries
      • Convergent : plates move toward one another
      • Divergent : plates move away from each other
      • Transform : plates slide alongside each other
    • Volcanic Eruptions
      • Volcanoes form differently depending on viscosity (thickness) of lava expelled:
        • Shield Volcano - liquid lava develops long gentle slopes
        • Cinder Cone - explosive, runny lava forms a cone
        • Composite or Strato-volcano - thicker lava & pyroclastic flows form steep-sloped peaks
      • Lava Dome - very thick lava piles up into big mound around a central vent
      • Caldera - peak collapses after exploding
      Flood Basalt
    •  
    • Gradual Weathering & Erosion
      • What breaks down rocks?
        • wind
        • water & other chemicals
        • ice & glaciers
        • plants, burrowing organisms & humans
      • What carries away sand, soil & rock?
        • water (water cycle, glacial movement)
          • wind
            • natural disasters
    • Impact Cratering
      • Indentations caused by meteoroids (asteroids or comets) colliding with Earth's surface
    •  
    • Craters on Earth
      • Chunks of space rocks hurtle into Earth's atmosphere at speeds up to 72 km/s (2,700 miles per hour!)
      • These speeds make them up to 100 times more explosive than dynamite.
    •  
      • Why so many craters?
        • Earth's moon has no atmosphere.
        • Low gravity allowed any gas molecules around to escape
        • surface is rocky/dusty
      • Most meteoroids burn up in Earth's atmosphere before making impact.
        • Super-fast speeds cause meteors to be pelted by gas molecules in atmosphere, causing heat (friction)
      Earth's Moon
    • The Moon
      • Earth's only natural satellite
        • ISS, communication satellites & "space junk"
      • Less than ¼ the size of Earth
        • 5 th largest moon in the solar system (bigger than Pluto)
        • most moons in the solar system orbit planets much bigger than themselves
      • Less dense than Earth
        • no magnetic field (solid core)
        • probably less iron in core than Earth's
      • Neil Armstrong - 1 st man on moon
        • July, 20 1969 - 1 st of 6 manned lunar missions
    • Moon Origins
      • Large Impact Theory:
      • Smaller body crashes into Earth
        • Ring of debris forms around Earth
        • Earth's rotation is sped up
      • Collisions within debris ring form moon
        • accretion (smashing together of particles)
    • Moon Phases
      • Wax
      • getting bigger
      • Wane
      • getting smaller
      • Gibbous
      • between ½ & whole illuminated
      • Crescent
      • < ½ illuminated
      • When do solar eclipses occur?
      • When do lunar eclipses occur?
    • Moon - Earth Interactions
      • What Affects Tides?
        • Moon pulls water
        • Also pulls Earth
        • Causes ocean &quot;bulges&quot;
        • Earth's rotation causes 2 highs & 2 lows each day
        • Centrifugal force also contributes
      • Ocean Tides
        • Up & down, not in and out
      • Spring Tide
        • Very high tides and super lows
        • Sun/earth/moon aligned (full & new moons)
      • Neap Tide
        • Moderate high/low tides
        • Sun & moon pull at right angles (1/4 moons)
      • Proxigean Spring Tide
        • Highest of high tides
        • New moon is closest to earth in orbit (called perigee)
        • Happens once every 1.5 years
    • Moon - Earth Interactions
        • Earth's Axial Wobble
        • Earth tilted on axis by 23.5 degrees
        • Earth is not completely round, so it wobbles as it spins
        • Earth's axial tilt changes by ~ 3 degrees every 26,000 yrs (the Milankovitch cycle)
        • The Moon's gravitational pull has a stabilizing affect, keeping this wobble to a minimum
        • How does this affect us?
    • Lunar & Solar Eclipse
      • Lunar Eclipse
      • Solar Eclipse