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The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
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The Hydrosphere

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  • 1. WATER ON EARTH The Hydrosphere
  • 2. OCEANS - 97% of Earth's Water
    • 97% water
    • 2.7% sodium chloride (NaCl)
    • <1% other &quot;salts&quot;
  • 3. Salinity
    • A measure of the dissolved salt in water
      • 35 g of salt per kg of ocean water
      • concentration of salt varies with location
    • Water dissolves salts & minerals from the soil as it passes over/through the ground
      • lakes & rivers: have salts too, but are carried away with the water in the hydrologic cycle
      • Great Salt Lake has no outlet
        • water only leaves through evaporation
  • 4. Ocean Currents
    • Surface currents: influenced by air currents above
      • Move in same direction as global winds (clockwise in N hemisphere, counter-clockwise in S hemisphere)
    • Deeper currents : flow due to water temperature differences
    • Currents affect climate by creating warm, moist air masses above them
  • 5. GLACIERS & ICEBERGS - 2% of Earth's Water
    • Majority of Earth's freshwater
      • Glaciers: rivers of slow-moving ice
      • Icebergs: chunks of broken-off glaciers
  • 6. Glaciers
      • Valley glaciers move down mountainsides
      • Continental glaciers (ice sheets) flow outward in all directions from a central point
      • Typically move 1 - 3 meters each day
    • Years of continual snows compress layers below
      • Firn (hard-packed ice)
      • Polar or high-altitude areas
    • Thick layers get heavy/dense
    • Insulated bottom layer melts
  • 7. Continental Glacier Ice Shelf Calving
  • 8. Flowing Ice
    • Carve valleys by scouring mountainsides
    • Pick up, carry & deposit rocks
    • Crevasses form when glaciers move quickly (up to 30 m/day)
    • Retreat : melting occurs faster than snow accumulates
  • 9.  
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  • 11.  
  • 12. Icebergs
    • Glaciers reaching seas/lakes float on top
      • Ice Shelf = portion of connected glacier floating on water (may be miles wide/long)
          • Large chunks break away into icebergs
          • 90% of iceberg remains below water surface
  • 13. Ice Ablation
    • Growler = little chunk (<1m)
    • Bergy bit = 1 - 5 meters across (3 to 16 feet)
    • Small iceberg = 5 - 15 meters across (16 to 50 feet)
    • Very large = over 75 meters across (250+ feet)
  • 14. GROUNDWATER & SOIL MOISTURE - .7% of Earth's Water
    • 95% of the water humans use
    • Gravity pulls water down
      • deeper underground
      • out to rivers/lakes/oceans
  • 15. SURFACE FRESHWATER - .01% of Earth's Water
    • Smallest source of potable water on Earth
    • Portland's water comes from Bull Run reservoir
      • Mt. Hood surface runoff
      • dams built late 1800s
  • 16. Pure Water
    • 150 gallons/day American average
      • (includes water used for production of goods we commonly consume)
    • Needed for survival:
      • 3 gallons/day
  • 17. WATER POLLUTION
    • Open dumping of waste/litter
      • industrial legislation has helped
    • Groundwater contamination:
      • pesticides & fertilizers
      • gasoline (storage tanks, oil spills )
      • landfills (mercury, human waste, battery acid)
      • hard to test/monitor sources
      • flooding/natural disasters
    • Thermal water pollution
      • water for cooling machinery raises temperatures when discharged back into lakes/rivers
      • upsets balance of entire ecosystem
  • 18. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE - .001% of Earth's Water
    • Humidity - water vapor
    • Condensation - dew/fog/clouds
    • Precipitation - rain/snow/hail
  • 19. Humidity
    • Absolute humidity : tells the amount of moisture in the air
      • warm air holds more water vapor than cool air - why?
      • example: absolute humidity of 17.3 mg/L at 20 o C
    • Relative humidity - tells how much water the air is holding compared to the most it could hold at a certain temperature
      • 50% humidity means the air is holding half of the moisture it is able to hold at that temperature
    8.7
  • 20. Dew
    • Ground-level condensation
      • vapor condenses into liquid droplets as it touches cooler ground surfaces
    • Dew Point = temp. at which atmospheric vapor condenses
      • varies depending on the humidity (how much vapor is in the air)
  • 21. Clouds
    • Suspended ice crystals or water droplets
      • reflected sunlight causes whiteness
  • 22. Fog
    • Ground-level clouds
      • high humidity (  water vapor) + quick cooling of surface air
    • Photochemical fog = formed in very dirty or dusty air (smog)
      •  condensation nuclei =  water droplets formed

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