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Earth's Geosphere
 

Earth's Geosphere

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  • There are very thin layers of the lithosphere (only 5 km thick), but they only exist beneath the deepest parts of the ocean. Now you know why we have not observed any section of the earth other than the lithosphere. The deepest that any drill has ever penetrated the lithosphere is 15 kilometers. Since drilling does not take place in the deep ocean, you can see that drilling has not come close to penetrating through the lithosphere. Mantle: like warm plastic, flows about 10cm per year.
  • 15 large plates, plus many more small plates.
  • The Worldwide Standardized Seismic Network created a global system of seismographs all using common timekeeping standards and sending data to common repositories. This system allowed radical improvements in accuracy of earthquake locations. Instead of showing a diffuse smear of seismicity along the mid-ocean ridges, the system showed that earthquakes were confined to extremely narrow zones along the crest of the ridges. Basically, the new maps showed that the earth consisted of large blocks or plates of crust with little earthquake activity, bounded by narrow zones of high activity. There is some activity within the plates. If it looks like the U.S. and Western Europe are particularly hard hit, that reflects the concentration of sensitive instruments capable of detecting tiny earthquakes in those regions.
  • Theories: Slab pull - The sinking of the cooled dense oceanic plates pulls on the rest of the plate Ridge rises - The material deposited on the top of the ridge slides downs from the rise pushing on the plate Convection - Movement within the mantle could be part of the driving force behind the motion of the plates No single idea explains everything but we can identify several forces that contribute to the movement of the plates.
  • The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans . It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long but has an average width of only 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10.911 km (10,911 ± 40 m) or 6.831 mi (36,069 ± 131 ft) at the Challenger Deep, a small slot-shaped valley in its floor, at its southern end,[2] although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11.03 kilometres (6.85 mi).

Earth's Geosphere Earth's Geosphere Presentation Transcript