The problem is, scientists can't agree which ones we should use. Most hold to the idea that ALL of these need to be true in order for something to be considered alive, but some are now saying
endotherm - internal regulation ectotherm - external regulation (lizard) Woman sweats to cool body so temp. is maintained. Monkey grows fur, draws limbs up, and shivers to maintain body temp. Cactus stores and releases water to maintain cell water content. Lizard's body
Other examples: sparrow body size increase, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, mosquito resistance to DDT
Turn to your neighbor and share two more examples of response to stimuli (external & internal).
Response = a change (in position or location, in chemical properties, in metabolism, etc.) Paramecium & hibernating doormouse
asexual (bacteria - binary fission, hydra/yeast/sponges/worts. Fungi, algae, and protozoa can reproduce by spore formation.
Tree List memory association
Practice (two volunteers on dry-erase boards) - everyone else take notes on paper - compare and note one thing you'll try or do different next time
Example: does amount of sunlight affect a plant's growth?
NOT referring to "Organically Grown" foods
NOT referring to "Organically Grown" foods
NOT referring to "Organically Grown" foods
herbivores: giant panda, cows, some birds, insects, beaver, elephants, giraffes, armadillo, horses, capybara, some fish, zebra, gorillas carnivores: lions, hyenas, ferrets, polar bears, some plants (venus fly trap, pitcher plant) and fungi, penguins, crocodiles, bats, snakes, sharks, spiders and jellyfish omnivores: humans, pigs , badgers , hedgehogs , opossums , skunks , sloths , squirrels , raccoons , rats , various birds and some lizards , turtles , fish, such as piranhas detritivores: earthworms, fungi, millipedes , dung flies , slugs , sea stars , sea cucumbers , fiddler crabs , Scavengers are typically not thought to be detritivores, as they generally eat large quantities of organic matter, but both detritivores and scavengers are specific cases of consumer-resource systems. Coprovores are also usually treated separately as they exhibit a slightly different feeding behaviour. The eating of wood, whether live or dead, is known as xylophagy. Τhe activity of animals feeding only on dead wood is called sapro-xylophagy and those animals, sapro-xylophagous.
Personal experience - U of P, mice stress-immune response - Good Sam, sleep lab/EKG - OHSU, melatonin research
Characteristics of Life
Characteristics of Life Science is Organized Knowledge
Living vs. Non Living Things• Which of these is alive? – How can you tell?• What about: – mushrooms? – mold? – pond scum?
Living vs. Non Living• Which of these is alive? – Why?• What about: – bacteria? – sea urchins? – insects?
• What do all living things have in common?• What do non-living things have in common?
Characteristics of LifeAll living things exhibit:1. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT – get bigger, more complex, or develops in some way2. ENERGY METABOLISM – eat, breathe, excrete waste; energy usage3. HOMEOSTASIS – maintain a relatively controlled internal environment4. ADAPTATION – adjust over time due to mutation and natural selection which improves survival5. RESPONSE TO STIMULI – respond to things in their external environment (often as movement)6. ORGANIZATION – made of one or more cells with complex structures and chemical processes7. REPRODUCTION – generate offspring; DNA provides the blueprint
Growth & Development• Every living thing exhibit GROWTH – living organisms increase in size and number of cells – cells get bigger and divide to create more cells • i.e. the legs of a child grow longer as osteocytes divide to create new bone cells, enlarging the femur bones• DEVELOPMENT is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult – a single cell divides to form a cluster – these cells differentiate (take on specific tasks) to form specialized tissues/organs – as the number of cells increase, the complexity of the organism increases also
Metabolism• METABOLISM refers to all the chemical reactions an organism uses to take in and transform energy from the environment – plants convert solar energy (from sunlight) into chemical energy (sugar molecules) via photosynthesis – fungi and worms take in decaying matter and break down the chemical energy stored in those molecules to provide energy for growth and life – mammals change the chemical energy stored in plants and other animals into a form of energy called ATP that their cells can use • ALL energy comes from the SUN (directly or indirectly) ATP molecule
Homeostasis• The maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions is called HOMEOSTASIS – All living things have mechanisms that regulate their bodies so things stay balanced • e.g., body temperature, water content, glucose levels, etc. stay constant even though environmental conditions change – Metabolic processes are involved in many of these mechanisms
Adaptation• An ADAPTATION is an inherited feature that improves an organism’s ability to survive. – Adaptations can take many forms: • a behavior that allows better evasion of predators • a protein that functions better at body temperature • a body structure that allows easier resource-gathering – They happen because of mutations • Random, spontaneous changes in genetic code • Organism’s adaptation improves likelihood of mutation being reproduced • Only .01% of mutations are beneficial – The gradual accumulation of adaptations leads to micro-evolution
Response to Stimuli• Living things RESPOND TO A STIMULUS – a physical or chemical change in the environment produces a purposeful response • stimulus can be within or outside the organism – Examples: • Deciduous trees respond to fewer hours ofExternalStimuli sunlight by dropping leaves (hibernation) • Lizards body temperature drops when air cools, so it moves to a sunny rock for warmthInternal • Your body reacts to a disturbing dream with fasterStimuli breathing and heart rate, possibly waking you up. • A hamster is thirsty, so it gets a drink of water.• Responses can be the result of – instinct (automatic reactions were born with) • eyes blinks, sneezing, startle reflex • bird migration, seed germination, wet dog shaking – conditioned response (learned behavior) • hunting skills, reading, Pavlovs Dog
Movement• Movement is a type of response to stimuli – a unicellular organism moves in response to chemical changes outside the cell • amoeba exhibits locomotion (change in location) • paramecium use cilia to get around – a sessile organism such as a plant turns toward the sun (change of position) • phototropism – movement also occurs inside organisms, within organs, tissues, and cells • fluids transported up and down plant stems • molecules move within & between cells • food moved through the intestines
Organization• All living things are composed of one or more microscopic cells• Cells are the smallest units able to perform all the necessary processes to sustain life• The size of multi-celled organisms depends on the number of cells, NOT their size• In multicellular organisms, many cells are specialized to perform specific functions • Cells can take in molecular substances from the environment and organize them in complex ways • Within cells, organelles carry out specific functions • All cells contain DNA which carry information that directs cell processes
Reproduction• Production of new organisms is essential for the continuation of a species• Hereditary information (DNA) is transferred to offspring in one of two ways: – Sexual reproduction • two parents supply the DNA • hereditary information recombines from two organisms of the same species • most plants & animals – Asexual reproduction • a single parent supplies DNA • original and new organisms are genetically the same • bacteria, some plants & algae, primitive animals (worms, sponges, hydra)
Characteristics of Life1. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT – get bigger, more complex, or develops in some way2. ENERGY METABOLISM – eat, breathe, excrete waste; energy usage3. HOMEOSTASIS – maintain a relatively controlled internal environment4. ADAPTATION – changes over time due to natural selection and mutation5. RESPONSE TO STIMULI – respond to things in their external environment (often as movement and adaptation over a period of time)6. CELLS – made of at least one cell containing highly complex structures organized chemical processes7. REPRODUCTION – generate offspring with new combinations of parent DNA
Note-Taking 101• Tips for good note-taking: – Dont write every word down – Listen for major points/themes – Draw pictures to illustrate details – Resist distractions • texting • doodling – USE notes for review & test prep • Many different methods: – Full Sentences • breaks rule #1 – Outlining • tried & true – Cornell Method – Mind Mapping – Charting • need content before lecture
Cornell Method• Mark off sections: – Cues (during/after class) • main points – Notes (during class) • outline form or brief sentences • leave space to fill in later – Summary (after class) • big-picture ideas Practice Video
Week 2 Lab Review Procedures & Lab NotebooksLaboratory Science as a Career
Lab Procedures• Safety first! – always scan the Materials section first to see what will be needed and whether or not lab coats/goggles are required• Instructions will be provided - READ THEM CAREFULLY!! – you MUST read through the entire set of procedures before beginning – verbal instructions will also be given – LISTEN CAREFULLY!!!• Record all procedures, observations, data, etc. in your lab notebooks. – Ill try to get the labs out to you ahead of time so you can paste or write them into your notebooks before class.
Lab NotebooksAlways include:• date the experiment is performed• names of your lab partnersOBSERVATION: The Problem: in the form of a question. Background research: what you already know or have learned.HYPOTHESIS: what you think will happen.EXPERIMENT: Materials: a list of the needed equipment and materials. Procedures: step-by-Step instructions to perform the experiment. Data: measurable results (written observations, lists, charts, graphs, labeled diagrams, etc.) CONCLUSION: how your data relates to your hypothesis.
Lab Procedures, continued• You will sometimes be required to work independently. – STAY ON TASK, pay attention to instructions, and include everyone in all parts of the lab• When finished, CLEAN UP your station. – If you have extra free time, work on SCIENCE. – Lunch is not until 12:00
Organic vs. Inorganic• General definition – Organic compounds are those which are of biological origin. • come from living or previously-living things – Inorganic compounds are of inanimate (non- living) origin. • Chemical definition – Organic compounds contain carbon as well as having carbon-hydrogen bonds. • i.e. a diamond contains pure carbon, but is an inorganic substance because it lacks C-H bonds – Inorganic substances usually do not contain carbon and never have C-H, C-N or C-O bonds.
Organic Compounds• Molecules associated with living organisms are organic. – Include nucleic acids, fats, sugars, proteins, enzymes and many fuels. • DNA • table sugar or sucrose, C12H22O11 • benzene, C6H6 • methane, CH4 • All Organic Compounds: – come from a currently living thing, or were formed from a deceased organism – contain carbon AND Carbon-Hydrogen bonds
Inorganic Compounds• Inorganic substances do not come from living things or previously living organisms. – Salts, metals, and substances made from a single element – Any compounds that dont contain carbon – Carbon-containing substances that lack carbon-hydrogen bonds • table salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) • carbon dioxide, CO2 • diamond (pure carbon)
Taking a Deeper Look at Metabolism• Organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs – Phototrophs – use solar energy (photosynthesis) to get energy • Convert H2O and CO2 into sugar and O2 • i.e. plants and algae – Chemotrophs – use different chemical processes to get energy • i.e. iron-oxidizing bacteria near lava beds• Organisms that must take in food to meet their energy needs are called heterotrophs – Complex chemicals are broken down and reassembled into chemicals and structures needed by organisms • herbivores consume only autotrophs • carnivores eat other heterotrophs • omnivores take in both for their energy needs • detritivores get their energy from dead and decaying matter (plants or animals)
Types of Asexual Reproduction• Binary fission: parent cell simply divides into two parts – simplest form of asexual reproduction – protozoa, bacteria, algae• Budding: small growths on surface of parent organism break off – yeast, hydra, sponges, liverworts• Spores: special cells released by the parent become new organisms – fungi, algae, protozoa• Fragmentation: severed body parts grow into new organisms – sea stars, earthworms, hydra, and planarian (type of worm)• Vegetative propagation: new plant grows from sections of roots, stems, or leaves which are cut or fall off the parent – some plants use bulbs, corms, tubers, runners, and rhizomes• Cloning: scientifically-engineered reproductive technology that – involves replacing an embryonic cells DNA
Careers in Laboratory Science• Researcher – PhD or MD/PhD – Design experiments, publish conclusions – Apply for grants, hire staff• Research Assistant – Manages experiments – Assists with data collection, data entry, and statistical analysis• Medical Lab Tech – Run lab tests and reports data • research or medical treatment • Forensic science • genetic counseling• Pharmaceutical Production & Sales – Requires business skills & knowledge of chemistry and human physiology