Why cite sources? 1. Academic Integrity 2. Powerful backup for your own ideas
Your papers will more or less be a synthesis (a combination) of one paraphrase, summary, or quote after paraphrase, summary, or quote linked together by your own words and analysis. You need to introduce, analyze and put into context the paraphrases you use. This is the nature of the research paper, after all, you are not the expert, but your resources are. Most everything you need to know about integrating source information into your text is found in your textbook, in Connect Composition, and at the following websites.
Explore these sites:http://widstudents.wordpress.com/tag/integrating-sources/ http://jerz.setonhill.edu/writing/academic/sources/integrating.htm http://www.perpetualrevision.com/help/sources-mla/integrating.html http://essay-writing.suite101.com/article.cfm/how_to_integrate_sources_in_an_essay
Using Paraphrase: (putting source information into your own words)
Original Text: (From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.)While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building.
Paraphrase of the Original Text in a Research Paper:How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than the world’s tallest building, the Sears Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15).Note the following. The writer never uses the exact words of the author therefore there is no need to use quotation marks. The writer summarizes, uses his or her own words and then cites the source at the end. Sometimes a paraphrase will be large and must be broken up. A good rule of thumb is to break up a paragraph that is completely paraphrased into two or three citations. The writer has given credit to the author and thus has avoided plagiarism. Now the author would just continue writing after double spacing.
If you cite from the same author in the very next citation you do not have to put the authors last name in the in line citation, just the page number. Example Using Paraphrase in a Research Paper: How much higher will skyscrapers of the future rise from the world’s tallest building, the Sears Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15). As a matter of fact the architect William LeMessurier claims he designed a skyscraper that is over a half a mile tall (15).
Using a Direct Quote:Integrating a direct quote is nearly the same form as integrating a paraphrase. The differences is that you are using someone else's words directly and not your own. In order to avoid plagiarism you MUST USE QUOTATION MARKS unless the direct quote is over four lines. If the quote is over four lines, see directions below.
A short quotation of no more than 4 lines, with author mentioned in your writing: Subject: Using a quote from Joseph Campbell, educator and author, who is famous for his books on mythology Lucille French, writing in the magazine The Village Voice, wrote, “There is no one quite like Joseph Campbell. He knows the vast sweep of man’s panoramic past as few have ever known it” (24).Note that the above is double-spaced, just like your paper should be. Also note that the author is named in the student’s text. Finally, note that the quotation ends with the second set of quotation marks, followed by a space, then a parenthesis, then the page number the quote is from, then the other parenthesis, and THEN the period of the sentence.
A short quotation of no more than 4 lines, with author not mentioned in your writing: As one critic noted in the magazine The Village Voice, “There is no one quite like Joseph Campbell. He knows the vast sweep of man’s panoramic past as few have ever known it” (French 24).Note that the author’s name now appears inside the parentheses, before the page number. Further note that there is no comma or anything else—just one space—between the author’s name and the page number.
The Grimms were visionaries: the first substantial collectors to like folk tales for their own sake; the first to write the tales down in the way ordinary people told them. . . ; and the first to include the identity of the people who told the tale. The Grimms revived popular interest in the oral tradition at the same time that they instituted critical interest, beginning an interest in a previously unexamined literary past. (39) A long quotation of more than 4 full lines, with author mentioned in your writing: Subject: The Brothers Grimm, publishers of fairy tales in Germany in 1812 Peter Opie, author of The Classic Fairy Tales, recognized the important contribution made by the Grimm Brothers. He wrote:Notice how longer quotations are indented from the left margin of the page—tab twice (they are indented twice as much as your paragraphs are). Also note how they have no quotation marks around them. Finally, note that the period is at the end of the sentence, followed by two spaces and then your page number in parentheses. Also note that they are double-spaced like the rest of your paper and the right margin does not change.
The Grimms were visionaries: the first substantial collectors to like folk tales for their own sake; the first to write the tales down in the way ordinary people told them. . . ; and the first to include the identity of the people who told the tale. The Grimms revived popular interest in the oral tradition at the same time that they instituted critical interest, beginning an interest in a previously unexamined literary past. (Opie 39) A long quote of more than 4 full lines, with author not mentioned in your writing: The author of The Classic Fairy Tales recognized the important contribution made by the Grimm Brothers. He wrote: As you can see, the change is identical to the change from author mentioned to no author mentioned for shorter quotations—you put the author’s name inside the parentheses.
Here is another sample direct quote: Original Text: (From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon (May 1990): 17."The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity."
Here is another sample direct quote: Direct Quote Not Used Well in a Research Paper:The importance of the sea to the environment of the earth cannot be underestimated. "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate (Cousteau 17)." Note the following problems: floating quote, quotation mark placement, and the quote’s source.
Check out this YouTube Video for further insight: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2BJAqOeQjAo
Using Summary in life, college, and after:
In life, to answer questions such as “what was the movie about?” “how did the game go?” and “what did I miss in class today?” you must be able to summarize. Your questioner doesn't want to know every line and action in the movie, every play in the game, or every word from class; the question asks you to select the important details and summarize them. Similarly, when you summarize a reading you need to be able to find the important data and then present it as clearly and concisely as possible.
In college, the ability to write an effective summary might be the most important writing skill a college student can possess. You need to be able to summarize before you can be successful at most of the other kinds of writing that will be demanded of you in college, and it is an important part of note taking, too.
After, politicians and corporations employ people to read every newspaper and newsmagazine and summarize relevant stories and articles. The more concise the summary the better, yet if any major details are omitted the purpose of the summary is lost--its readers will be uninformed on key aspects of the news and may make embarrassing errors as a result. The summaries that you write in college are as important to your academic career as these summaries are to these politicians and business people, and accuracy and concision are just as important, too.
Sample Source: Heilbroner, Robert. “Don’t Let Stereotypes Warp Your Judgment.” The Prose Reader: Essays for Thinking, Reading, and Writing. Ed. Flachmann, Kim, and Michael Flachmann.. New Jersey: Pearson, 2005. 525-8. Print We not only grow up with standardized pictures forming inside of us, but as grown-ups we are constantly having them thrust upon us. Some of them, like the half-joking, half-serious stereotypes of mothers-in-law, or country yokels, or psychiatrists, are dinned into us by the stock jokes we hear and repeat. In fact, without such stereotypes, there would be a lot fewer jokes. Still other stereotypes are perpetuated by the advertisements we read, the movies we see, the books we read. (found on page 526)
Summary: When you need to condense a larger piece of writing into a single sentence or paragraph.Example of Summary Use in a Research Paper: The authors state that individuals form stereotypes based on the jokes they hear and the media in which they are exposed (Heilbroner 526).
Paraphrase: When you want to restate the author’s meaning in your own words. Note: sometimes you may want to keep some of the author’s words when you paraphrase, but if you do, you must put those words in quotation marks.Example of Paraphrase Use in a Research Paper: Our views of “mothers-in-law, country yokels, or psychiatrists” are shaped by the jokes we hear about them (Heilbroner 526).
Direct Quotation: IF you feel like the author has said something in the best way possible, if you are citing a well-known figure, if you are citing a piece of literature, or if you are citing something controversial. Note: when you are quoting something directly, you must use quotation marks! If you are quoting a statement(s) that take up more than three lines, use a block quote (i.e. set the quote off by itself and indent). Stereotypes are essential for comedy. “In fact…there would be a lot fewer jokes” (Heilbroner 526) if we didn’t have stereotypes.
This process of integrating source material into our own work is challenging; I won’t lie to you. It takes practice and understanding and feedback and more practice. Writing well is not that different from doing anything well. It takes time, care, will, and ability.For your Hybrid lessons, go to Connect Composition and do the MLA Assignments that I’ve posted for you. They will help you review these concepts to build your understanding. If it helps, review this PPT, too. Then, we’ll practice doing this with our drafts. Next week, we will go into detail about the Works Cited page, and I will supply some of the citations for your first paper. For your Homework this week, you are to write a full draft of your paper #1 based on the guidelines, your readings, your outline, and your learning so far. Bring this full draft to class next Thursday, and we will work on MLA Works Cited and Revision Techniques.