Climate change in Tourism
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  • What’s the carbon footprint of…a cup of tea or coffee?. (2010). In The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/green-living-blog/2010/jun/17/carbon-footprint-of-tea-coffee
  • greenhouse effect. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/245233/greenhouse-effect
  • Pidwirny, M. (2006). Atmospheric Composition. In Physical Geography. Retrieved from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7a.html
  • REFERENCE !!!
  • http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/national_carbon_dioxide_co2_emissions_per_capita
  • Kyoto Protocol. (n.d.). In UNFCCC. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php
  • http://www.photosfan.com/images/carbon-emissions-per-country1.jpg
  • European Environment Agency. (2010). Gap between 2008 GHG emissions and Kyoto targets, not accounting for the effect of allocation of allowances to the EU ETS. Retrieved from: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/gap-between-2008-ghg-emissions
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2ImCO3XYXQ Vardiman, L. (2008). A New Theory of Climate Change. In Institute for Creating Research. Retrieved from http://www.icr.org/article/new-theory-climate-change/
  • http://0.tqn.com/d/space/1/0/p/6/1/Sun_Earth.jpg

Transcript

  • 1. The journey of the jeans11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 1
  • 2. CLIMATE CHANGE& the Role of TourismLaura Birlibescu - 189508Julia Seperant - 192523Julian vonPodewils - 192524
  • 3. Cup of coffee• 53g CO2: for a coffee• 71g CO2: for a coffee, if youboil double the water you need• 235g CO2: for a large cappuccino• 340g CO2: for a large latte(“What’sthe carbonfootprint”, 2010)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 3
  • 4. Learning objectives• Understand the basic physical concept of climatechange• Identifyan alternative global warmingtheory• Explainthe riskassociatedwithtemperaturerise• Discuss how society raisesawareness about global warming• Identify the main CO2 emissiongenerators in the tourismsector• Understand the importance of climate change for tourist destinations11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 4
  • 5. Climate change definition • Climate Change: “A periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system.” • Climate: “It is often defined as the average weather at a particular place, incorporating features as temperature, precipitation, humidity and windiness.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2011)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 5
  • 6. Greenhouseeffect“The greenhouse effect is a warming of the Earth s surface andtroposphere (which is the lowest layer of theatmosphere), caused by the presence of water vapour, carbondioxide, methane and certain other gases in the air.” (Greenhouse effect, 2011)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 6
  • 7. Composition of the atmosphere (Pidwirny, 2006)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 7
  • 8. Climate changeHumanactivity of burningfossil fuel and modifying land cover ofearth surface leads to :• Increasedgreenhousegases in the athmosphere• Risingtemperature• Melting of seaice• Droughts and floods• Ocean circulation changes• Influence on ecosystem and biodyversity• Coralbleaching (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2011)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 8
  • 9. Climate change• Temperature and CO2 developsimilarly Iceage (Europeanenvironmentagency, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 9
  • 10. Global warmingbased on CO2 Natural sinks : 2-3 gigatons/year Anthropogenicemis sions: 7 gigatons/year (Europeanenvironmentage ncy, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 10
  • 11. 11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 11
  • 12. Global contribution of CO2 (2008) (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 12
  • 13. Co2 per capita(“National carbondioxide”, 2005) 11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 13
  • 14. Kyoto Protocol• United Nation Framework Convention on climate change• Reducing CO2 globally• Adopted on 11th of Dec in 1997 and enteredinto force on 16th of Feb 2005• By Sept 2011, 192 countries signed and ratified it• Annex 1 countries: 37 were commited to reduce four main greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, mathane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) 5% reduction of 1990 level for period of 2008-2012• non Annex 1 No restrictions: Countries can earn “carboncredits” and sell them• Need to report regulary on emissions•  It is not a law! Parties don’t necessarily need to stick to regulations (“Kyoto Protocol”, n.d.)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 14
  • 15. Co2 per country (McCormick &Scruton, 2009)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 15
  • 16. Emissions vs. Kyoto targets (Europeanenvironmentagency, 2010)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 16
  • 17. Tourism‘s contribution to climate change Tourism: “It refers to the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity renumerated from within the place visited.“ (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 17
  • 18. Tourism‘s contribution to climate change Main tourism sub-sectors contributing to climate change: • Transportation  generates 75 % of emissions • Accommodation  generates 21% of emissions • Tourism activities  generated 4 % of emissions (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 18
  • 19. Transportation • Aviation based trips count for 17 %, but cause 40% of CO2 emissions  largest contributor within transportation sector causes CO2 but also additional warming effect at flight attitude through other gases, which is 2-5 times the radiative forcing caused by CO2 • Car is the most important contributor in domestic tourism (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 19
  • 20. Transportation• Rail, coach or water borne transportation more difficult to calculate. Number and length of trips are not clear and no data available for many countries  But contribution is small compared to other transportation means, as they are relatively energy efficient  On average: account for 16 % of all trips, but gererate 1 % of CO2 emissions (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 20
  • 21. CO2 emissions by transportation (UNWTO, 2008) Mtonnes= Metric tonnes= 1000 kg11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 21
  • 22. Accommodation • 80 different accommodation categories • Hotels • Hostels • Motels • Pensions • Bed and Breakfast • Vacation homes • Campsites • Bungalows11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 22
  • 23. Accommodation • Energy is used in form of • Heating/ Cooling • Cooking • Illumination • Cleaning • In tropical regions for desalination of seawater CO2 emissions are produced because of too much use of energy and water and too much waste (“Environmental impact“, 2010)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 23
  • 24. Energy use by accommodation type (UNWTO, 2008) 3,6 MJ = 1 Kilowatt hour11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 24
  • 25. Accommodation “The average energy consumption per bed per night in hotels are 130 MJ. Hotels use more energy per visitor than local residents as they have more energy intense facilities, such as bars, restaurants, pools and spacious rooms.” (“Environmental impact”, 2010)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 25
  • 26. Other tourism activities • Categories of attractions • Museums • Theme parks • Outdoor-oriented activities • Events (e.g. Sport events, concerts) • Shopping Data for emissions and energy used by these activities are rarely available On average per trip 27 kg of CO2 is generated (170 MJ of energy use) (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 26
  • 27. Energy use per trip • International leisure trips:  250 MJ of energy use including local transportation • Business trips:  less activity-oriented and shorter  50 MJ of energy use • Visiting friends and relatives:  familiy-related activities  100 MJ of energy use (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 27
  • 28. “Business-as-usual“ scenario Growth of 161% of CO2 emissions“Business- as-usal“: Forecast of an average 4 % annual growth ofinternational tourist arrivals up to 2020 (UNWTO, 2008)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 28
  • 29. Global warming as a part of societyHow does media and politicsraiseourawareness ofclimate change in oureveryday life?11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Ms Barbara Hoffmann 29
  • 30. Global warming as a part of society• Politics: • Media:• Climatesummits • Cinema• G8 & G20 Summit • TV• Politiciansgainingpopularity due to • Advertisement green politics • News• Election program of green parties • Newspaper article/ books• Al Gore • Special reports• Renewableengery concepts • Weatherforecast• General trust in politicians as they • Talk shows are representatives of the citizens • Documentaries11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 30
  • 31. Global warmingbased on sunspots• Henrik SvensmarkTheory (Physics professor at the danish national space center, Copenhagen)• Cosmic rays coming to earth produced by supernovas• Electro magnetic activity of sun (sunspots)  shield against rays• The more magnetic activity the less cosmic rays• The less magnetic activity the more cosmic rays• Rays hit lower atmosphere ionization of the air which releases electrons hepling the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) Clouds are formed! Reflecting more solar energy to space Cooling the planet(Vardiman, 2008)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2ImCO3XYXQ11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 31
  • 32. Global warming based on sunspots11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 32
  • 33. Impact on winter destinations - Switzerland• Shift in demand for heating to coolingsystems• Scarcity of water• Extremeweathereventswillincease• Biodiversitywill change• More frequentfloods and longer droughtperiods• Zerodegree line willrise by 360 m• Numberof ski areas willdecrease• Alpine glaciers willdiminish by ¾ in 2050• Permafrost areas willdecrease (SCNAT, 2007)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 33
  • 34. Reliablesnowcover in ski areas (Elsasser&Messerli, 2001)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 34
  • 35. Number of Snow reliable Ski Areas (SCNAT,2007)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 35
  • 36. Aletsch Glacier- Switzerland 1900 200411/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 36
  • 37. 1939201011/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 37
  • 38. Impact on coastal regions - Maldives • Location: Indian ocean • 1192 islands • 194 populated islands • $ 800 million income through tourism per year • Highest point of land is 2 m above sea level  lowest islands on earth • 7th largest coral reefs in the world (“Global warming“, n.d. & „Climate Change“, 2010)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 38
  • 39. Effects of global warming • Sea level rise • Rapid temperature rise causes melting of polar ice caps • Thousands of cubic km of water return to the oceans and increase their volume • Existing water warms up and expands • Oceans rise 1-22 mm per year • By 2100 oceans preticted to rise by 9-88 cm 80 % of Maldives would sink beneath ocean (Gössling & Hall, 2006)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 39
  • 40. Effects of global warming • Increasing storminess • Increase in cyclones in the atmosphere and storms • Increasing storms and sea level rise go together • The wind pushes the surface sea water in front and causes floods (Gössling & Hall, 2006)11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 40
  • 41. Effects of global warming• Changing levels of cloudiness • Changing distribution of cloud cover and rainfall pattern • More cloud cover: decrease of day time temperature • Less cloud cover: increase of day time temperature and coral bleachingGlobal warming will lead to disappearance of the island anddeath of coral reefs within the next 100 years(Gössling & Hall, 2006) 11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 41
  • 42. Conclusion• Rise of temperatureisoccuringmuchfasterthanatany time in history• Climatechange caused by naturalfactors and reinforced by humanfactorssince the industrialrevolution• Althoughthere has been a considerableamount of researchconducted, scientists have different conclusions about the development of the Earth`sclimate• Tourism destinations will shift to the North on the northernhemisphere and South on the southernhemisphere• Tourism destinations have to adapt to the future climate conditions• Tourismsectorneeds to reduce CO2 emissions, sinceit a large contributer to global warming11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 42
  • 43. Reference listBaumert, K. A., Herzog, T., & Pershing, J. (2005). Navigating the numbers: Greenhouse gas data and international climate policy. Retrieved from http://www.wri.org/publication/navigating-the-numbersBows, A., Anderson, K. & Peeters, P. (2009). Air transport, climate change and tourism . Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development. 6(1), 7-20. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14790530902847012Climate change. (2011). EncyclopædiaBritannica. Retrievedfrom http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/121632/climate-changeClimate change in the Maldives. (2010). The world bank. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/0,,contentMDK:224136 95~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:223547,00.htmlElsasser, H., &Messerli, P. (2001). The vulnerability of the snow industry in the Swiss alps. Mountain Research and Development.21(04), 335-339. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741Environmental impact of hotels. (2010). Green hotels & responsible tourism initiative. Retrieved from http://green.hotelscombined.com/GreenYourHotelWhitePaper.php#environmental-impact-of- hotelsEuropean Environment Agency. (2008). Observed global and european annual average temperature deviations, 1850-2007. Retrieved from http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/observed-global- and-european-annual-average-temperature-deviations-1850-2007Glaciers online. (n.d.). Grosser Aletschgletscher. Retrieved from http://www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers/alps/grosser_aletschgletscher/aletsch_1_1900 -2004-en.html11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 43
  • 44. Reference listGlobal warming. (2011). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/235402/global-warmingGlobal warming threatens the state of Maldives with disappearance in the future. (n.d.). Genistra.com. Retrieved from http://www.genistra.com/blog/2010/10/18/global-warming-threatens-the-state-of-maldives- with-disappearance-in-the-future/Gössling, S. & Hall, M. (Eds.). (2006). Tourism & global environmental change. Great Britain: RoutledgeGreenhouse effect. (2011). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/245233/greenhouse-effectKyoto Protocol. (n.d.). UNFCCC. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.phpKyoto Protocol. (2011). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/737984/Kyoto-ProtocolLamb, S. (2005). Paradise(soon to be) lost. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,341669,00.htmlLane, J. E. (2011). Co2 emissions and gdp. International Journal of Social Economics. 38(11), 911-918. doi: 10.1108/03068291111171414Müller, H., & Weber, F. (2008). 2030: Der schweizer tourismus. Retrieved from http://www.fif.unibe.ch/unibe/wiso/fif/content/e6012/e6025/e6026/e6679/Klimabericht_ST_Apr08g er.pdf11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 44
  • 45. Reference listNational carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita. (2005). UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Retrieved from http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/national_carbon_dioxide_co2_emissions_per_capitaPidwirny, M. (2006). Atmospheric Composition. Physical Geography. Retrieved from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7a.htmlSCNAT. (2007). Climate change and Switzerland 2050. Retrieved from http://proclimweb.scnat.ch/portal/ressources/794.pdfSteiger, R. (2011). The impact of snow scarcity on ski tourism: an analysis of the record warm season 2006/2007 in tyrol (austria). Tourism Review. 66(03), 04-13. doi: 10.1108/16605371111175285UNWTO. (n.d.). Climate change and tourism. Retrieved from http://www.unwto.org/climate/bkg/en/bkg.php?op=1UNWTO. (2008). Climate change and tourism. Madrid, Spain: WorldTourism OrganizationVardiman, L. (2008). A New Theory of Climate Change. Institute for Creating Research. Retrieved fromhttp://www.icr.org/article/new-theory-climate-change/What’s the carbon footprint of…a cup of tea or coffee?. (2010). The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/green-living-blog/2010/jun/17/carbon-footprint-of- tea-coffee11/28/2011 HTM – 301 Tourism Trends – Compiled by Laura, Julia & Julian 45