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Geothermal Energy Resources In Ireland
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Geothermal Energy Resources In Ireland

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Presentation forming part of course assessment for PGCert in Geothermal Energy Technology.

Presentation forming part of course assessment for PGCert in Geothermal Energy Technology.

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  • at the Causeway it eventually accumulated as a large lava lake in the bend of a river. With a depth of 90m, this lake was slow to cool. The lava in contact with the cold rock below quickly chilled and solidified, forming irregular miniature columns a few centimetres across. This base became an effective insulating layer and allowed the great homogeneous mass of the lava lake to cool slowly and evenly, developing regular stress patterns as it solidified. As contraction continued these patterns were expressed as evenly spaced cooling cracks that permeated the entire solidifying mass, creating thousands of mainly six-sided columns, about 30-40cm across
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    • 1. Geothermal energy resources in ireland
      PGCert Geothermal Energy Technology
      University of Auckland
      Julian McDowell
    • 2. Disclaimer
      The following presentation represents the views and opinions of the author. Reproduction of the slides and views within the presentation is not permitted without permission from the author. All information and data presented has been approved for use in the public domain. References can be provided upon request.
    • 3. contents
      • Geological setting
      • 4. Geothermal setting
      • 5. Shallow geothermal exploitation
      • 6. Deep geothermal exploration
      • 7. GT Energy – Newcastle, Dublin
      • 8. Future Development
    • Geological setting
      • Closure of Iapetus Ocean (c.400mya)
      • 9. NE/SW fault trend
      • 10. Extensive folding and faulting – Caledonian Orogeny
      • 11. Magmatic Intrusions/Eruptions
      - Granites – Devonian,400mya
      - Basalts – Cretaceous, 60mya
      • Shallow seas – Carboniferous Limestone
      • 12. Recent glaciations
    • Giant’s Causeway
      Flood Basalts – Northern Ireland
      Source: http://www.irishviews.com/antrim-irish-coast.html
    • 13. Geothermal setting
      • Low enthalpy area
      • 14. Shallow Geothermal:
      -High potential for GSHP
      - temperate climate
      - high conductivities
      - 20MWth (WGC,2005)
      - 2009: 100MWth+
      - shallow aquifers –urban heat
      island
      • Deep geothermal:
      - not on active plate boundary
      - no activity in last 60mya
      - average gradient 25-30◦C/km
    • 15. Shallow Geothermal Resource Map
      Geothermal Resource Map of Ireland (CSA, SEI 2004):
    • 16. Shallow geothermal Case study
      • Lewis Gluckman Gallery, Cork, SW Ireland
      • 17. Palaeo-channel gravel aquifer
    • Lewis Gluckman Gallery
      (Arup, 2006)
      CoP = Coefficient of Performance. For each 1kWh consumed there is 4.5kWh of heat output
    • 18. Lewis Gluckman Gallery
      (Arup, 2006)
    • 19. Lewis Gluckman Gallery
      • Summary:
      - Cost saving against conventional cooling and heating : €12,000 (NZD$25,000)
      - Payback period : 14.6 years
      - CO2 emission reduction : 256t/year
      - Closely controlled temperature and humidity
      - Award winning design – architectural and environmental awards
    • 20. Deep geothermal gradient
      Geothermal Resource Map of Ireland (CSA, SEI 2004):
      • Studied both shallow and deep resources
      Deep Geothermal Conclusions:
      • Borehole records from consultancies and mining industry: limited dataset
      • 21. Geothermal gradients : max.70-90oC at 2500m
      max. 150C+ at 5000m
      • Highest geothermal gradient in Northern Ireland: due to thinned crustal rocks beneath the flood basalts
      • 22. Abundance of deep penetrating more recent faults and fractures in the South of Ireland results continuous leaking of heat to the surface – poor geothermal gradients
      • 23. Carboniferous rocks act as good insulators of geothermal heat where fracturing is absent
    • Deep geothermal resource map
      CSA, 2005
      GAI Conference 2008
    • 24. Deep Geothermal exploration
      • Geothermal Energy Ltd.
      • 25. Newcastle Deep Borehole Project
      • 26. Dublin Basin
    • Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
      DUBLIN CBD
      NEWCASTLE
      GREATER DUBLIN AREA
      BLACKROCK – NEWCASTLE FAULT (BNF)
      (Bedrock Geology, 1:100,000 Map Series, Sheet 16. GSI)
      3km
    • 27. Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
      • The project involved three phases and the last phase was supported by Sustainable Energy Ireland (national energy agency). The three phases included:
      1. The drilling of two shallow boreholes to 300m in depth to mark the edge of the Dublin Basin along the BNF (WEB1 & WEB2);
      2. The drilling of two deep geothermal boreholes to 1,400m in depth to identify the presence of deep geothermal target formations (NGE1 & NGE2);
      3. The analysis and report writing of the data extracted during the drilling and the testing of the geothermal boreholes for the presence of geothermal heat at depth.
    • 28. Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
      (Phase 2 Deep Geothermal Exploration Report. SLR, 2008)
    • 29. Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
      Exploration Summary:
      • Deep seated fractures associated with the BNF
      • 30. Temperature measured at 1,400m : 46.2oC
      • 31. Artesian flows at both NGE1 and NGE2
      • 32. Geothermal fluids associated with fracturing in deep Carboniferous limestone and sandstone
      • 33. Younger shale rich limestone above with poor permeability act as containment (up to 800m thick in places)
      • 34. Basement rocks are greywackes, siltstones and shales
    • Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
    • 35. Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
      Conclusions/Future Plans:
      • Thermal gradient of 32oC / km is suggested
      • 36. Considerable fracturing at depth associated with BNF
      • 37. Favourable groundwater water pressure heads – artesian flow
      • 38. Deep seismic survey over next few months followed by proposed 3000m well to N of NGE1 and NGE2
      • 39. Currently tendering for drilling contract.
      • 40. Propose construction of 15MWth district heating plant: T - 100oC, Q – 100l/sec with re-injection at 60oC
    • Geothermal ENERGY ltd.
      Technical data on drilling device:
      Type                  Terra Invader 350 Output              4,500kWHook load         3,500kNDrilling depth   up to 6,000mMast height      51.8m
    • 41. Future development
      European Directive Targets
      • 12% of heating supplied by renewable energy (currently about 6%)
      Community Linked Projects
      • Agreement in place to investigate potential in Ballymena, N. Ireland for district heating
      • 42. Modelled on German examples – Pullach, Munich.
      (10MWth, €24M, 100% community owned)
      Barriers to deep geothermal development in Ireland (aside from low enthalpy):
      • Investment – Cautious environment, Government backing
      • 43. Legislative barriers – potential to use mining legislation
      • 44. Economic crisis – €20B cash deficit (July 09)
      Unemployment (July 2009) 12.2% (~400,000)
      Electricity Generation from geothermal– dependant on advances in Binary and EGS
    • 45. One for the engineers....
      Calvin & Hobbes. Waterson
      THANK YOUFOR YOUR ATTENTION

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