Evolution part 2

57 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
57
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Evolution part 2

  1. 1. EVIDENCE
  2. 2. EVIDENCE Structural and Molecular Evidence of Shared Ancestry
  3. 3. PREDICTIONS Pattern of order that should be observed in fossil record Homologous structures and shared body plans Genomic evidence (The Modern Synthesis)
  4. 4. Structural Evidence
  5. 5. Homologous Structures Bat Wing Whale Flipper
  6. 6. The Mechanism of Inheritance: Family History as Recorded in the Genome
  7. 7. Genetic Evidence for Shared Ancestry Junk DNA
  8. 8. Genetic Evidence for Shared Ancestry Junk DNA Fossil DNA
  9. 9. Genetic Evidence for Shared Ancestry Junk DNA Fossil DNA Endogenous retroviruses
  10. 10. Genetic Evidence for Shared Ancestry Junk DNA Fossil DNA Endogenous retroviruses Gene functional redundancy
  11. 11. 14
  12. 12. Modern Humans and Neanderthals • Genomes of modern humans and Neanderthals are 99.5-percent identical
  13. 13. Mutations: A Rich Source Of Variance But Can They Help Explain Complexity?
  14. 14. We Are All Mutants!
  15. 15. We Are All Mutants!
  16. 16. Evolution of the Eye
  17. 17. Nature Has a Wild Card Up Her Sleeve Impossibility of building new complex features if only one gene is available to perform a vital function Functionally Redundant Genes - Nature deals multiple hands to each genome.
  18. 18. Developmental Regulatory Genes Human accelerated regions (HARs) • 49 segments of the human genome there are 18 base pair mutations different between humans and chimpanzees.
  19. 19. Developmental Regulatory Genes Human accelerated regions (HARs) • 49 segments of the human genome there are 18 base pair mutations different between humans and chimpanzees. • HAR1 (most mutated in humans) is an 118 base pair stretch found on the long arm of chromosome 20
  20. 20. Developmental Regulatory Genes Human accelerated regions (HARs) • 49 segments of the human genome there are 18 base pair mutations different between humans and chimpanzees. • HAR1 (most mutated in humans) is an 118 base pair stretch found on the long arm of chromosome 20 • The HAR1 sequence is found (and conserved) in chickens and chimpanzees but is not present in fish or frogs that have been studied.
  21. 21. Developmental Regulatory Genes Human accelerated regions (HARs) • 49 segments of the human genome there are 18 base pair mutations different between humans and chimpanzees. • HAR1 (most mutated in humans) is an 118 base pair stretch found on the long arm of chromosome 20 • The HAR1 sequence is found (and conserved) in chickens and chimpanzees but is not present in fish or frogs that have been studied. • These highly mutated areas have contributed to the development of human brain anatomy.
  22. 22. DARWIN’S WAY Humility, Dignity, and Patience
  23. 23. Charles Darwin February 12, 1809 – April 19, 1882
  24. 24. Charles Darwin February 12, 1809 – April 19, 1882 “It is an accursed evil to a man to become so absorbed in a subject as I am in mine.”
  25. 25. William Paley Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity 1802
  26. 26. 28
  27. 27. Eye-openers • Different types of people
  28. 28. Eye-openers • Different types of people • Earth Quake in Chile
  29. 29. Eye-openers • Different types of people • Earth Quake in Chile • Tremendous varieties of species
  30. 30. Eye-openers • Different types of people • Earth Quake in Chile • Tremendous varieties of species • Island ecology
  31. 31. Eye-openers • Different types of people • Earth Quake in Chile • Tremendous varieties of species • Island ecology • Species traits coadapted to ecology
  32. 32. After the Beagle
  33. 33. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety of topics
  34. 34. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety of topics • Many scientific articles
  35. 35. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety of topics • Many scientific articles • Network of colleagues
  36. 36. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety of topics • Many scientific articles • Network of colleagues • Reef geology of islands
  37. 37. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety of topics • Many scientific articles • Network of colleagues • Reef geology of islands • Barnacle project
  38. 38. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety • Home Experiments of topics • Dispersal • Many scientific • Pigeons articles • Embryology • Network of colleagues • Reef geology of islands • Barnacle project
  39. 39. After the Beagle • 8 books on a variety • Home Experiments of topics • Dispersal • Many scientific • Pigeons articles • Embryology • Personal tragedies • Network of and challenges colleagues • Health • Reef geology of • Deaths of Annie, islands Charles, & Mary • Barnacle project Eleanor
  40. 40. Species • Tremendous variety • Geographical organization of species • Extinction
  41. 41. Seeds
  42. 42. Seeds
  43. 43. Seeds
  44. 44. Malthus’s Principle
  45. 45. Malthus’s Principle
  46. 46. Malthus’s Principle
  47. 47. Overview of the Principles of Natural Selection
  48. 48. Overview of the Principles of Natural Selection Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Population Fact 2 Steady-state stability of populations Fact 3 Limitation of resources
  49. 49. Overview of the Principles of Natural Selection Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Population Fact 2 Inference 1 Steady-state stability Struggle among of populations individuals to survive Fact 3 Fact 4 Limitation of resources Uniqueness of individual Fact 5 Heritability of Individual variation
  50. 50. Overview of the Principles of Natural Selection Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Population Fact 2 Inference 1 Steady-state stability Struggle among of populations individuals to survive Fact 3 Fact 4 Inference 2 Limitation of resources Uniqueness of Differential Survival individual Fact 5 Heritability of Individual variation
  51. 51. Overview of the Principles of Natural Selection Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Population Fact 2 Inference 1 Steady-state stability Struggle among of populations individuals to survive Fact 3 Fact 4 Inference 2 Inference 3 Limitation of resources Uniqueness of Differential Survival Gradual Evolution individual Fact 5 Heritability of Individual variation
  52. 52. Alfred Wallace
  53. 53. Alfred Wallace
  54. 54. “This view may be true, and yet it may never be capable of full proof.”
  55. 55. “Well, it is a beginning, and that is something…..”
  56. 56. Consequences of Darwin’s Theory
  57. 57. Fundamental Unifying Law of Biology n “All biology is evolutionary biology.” n Ecology n Population Genetics n Comparative Anatomy and Physiology
  58. 58. Medicine
  59. 59. Influences of Darwin’s Theory n Behavior Genetics - Francis Galton n The heritability of behavioral characteristics n Freud n William James
  60. 60. Sociobiology n E.O Wilson n Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that attempts to explain social behavior in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages the behaviors may have.
  61. 61. Behaviorism n B.F. Skinner - Selection by Consequences
  62. 62. Cognitive Psychology
  63. 63. DARWIN’S DANGEROUS IDEA The Classifier’s Conundrum: How to group life forms that range in similarity across a broad continuum.
  64. 64. DARWIN’S DANGEROUS IDEA The Classifier’s Conundrum: How to group life forms that range in similarity across a broad continuum. Start with a small number of self-replicating systems that produce imperfect copies resulting in variable traits. Some replicators gain a reproductive advantage and the traits possessed by the most successful reproducers will, over generations, numerically outpace traits of the less adapted forms. Divergent lineages will naturally emerge when interbreeding is prohibited.
  65. 65. There is grandeur in this view of life ….
  66. 66. IMPLICATIONS Biology is a natural science
  67. 67. IMPLICATIONS Biology is a natural science Effects in nature have antecedent causes in nature
  68. 68. On Theological and Metaphysical Questions “I cannot pretend to throw the least light on such abstruse problems.”
  69. 69. Evolution: “The Controversy”
  70. 70. Evolution: “The Controversy”
  71. 71. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Induction as the Path to Reliable Knowledge
  72. 72. “A wise man proportions his belief to the evidence.” David Hume
  73. 73. Reading God’s Thoughts
  74. 74. William Paley • Natural Theology • Watchmaker Analogy • We Recognize Design Intuitively Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity 1802
  75. 75. William Paley • Natural Theology • Watchmaker Analogy • We Recognize Design Intuitively Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity 1802
  76. 76. William Paley • Natural Theology • Watchmaker Analogy Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity 1802
  77. 77. William Paley • Natural Theology • Watchmaker Analogy • We Recognize Design Intuitively Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity 1802
  78. 78. William Behe • Natural Theology - a.k.a., Intelligent Design • Irreducible Complexity a.k.a., Watchmaker Analogy • We Recognize Design Intuitively
  79. 79. William Behe • Natural Theology - a.k.a., Intelligent Design • Irreducible Complexity a.k.a., Watchmaker Analogy • We Recognize Design Intuitively
  80. 80. William Behe • Natural Theology - a.k.a., Intelligent Design • Irreducible Complexity a.k.a., Watchmaker Analogy
  81. 81. William Behe • Natural Theology - a.k.a., Intelligent Design • Irreducible Complexity a.k.a., Watchmaker Analogy • We Recognize Design Intuitively
  82. 82. Are We Really Good at Recognizing Design?
  83. 83. Recognizing Intelligence • As good as we think we are?
  84. 84. Recognizing Intelligence • As good as we think we are? • What does Recognition mean? • Memory - To Discriminate familiar from unfamiliar • Does what I am seeing here resemble other designed things in memory? • False recognition, overgeneralization, & cognitive bias
  85. 85. Recognizing Intelligence • As good as we think we are? • What does Recognition mean? • Memory - To Discriminate familiar from unfamiliar • Does what I am seeing here resemble other designed things in memory? • False recognition, overgeneralization, & cognitive bias • Later: What is intelligence?
  86. 86. “Evolution’s Nightmare”
  87. 87. “Evolution’s Nightmare”
  88. 88. “Evolution’s Nightmare”
  89. 89. “Salmonella's Nightmare”
  90. 90. “Salmonella's Nightmare”
  91. 91. Interdependent Irreducible Complexity
  92. 92. Interdependent Irreducible Complexity
  93. 93. Tales of Even Tinier Tails
  94. 94. Tales of Even Tinier Tails
  95. 95. Thinking Non-Egocentrically Proliferation rate and time Variation Struggle Selection Once you get to the single cell stage, you are more than halfway to us.
  96. 96. Intelligent Design: What is Intelligence?
  97. 97. The Mouse Trap’s Nightmare
  98. 98. The Mouse Trap’s Nightmare
  99. 99. The Mouse Trap’s Nightmare
  100. 100. What you see before you now is a state of transition, not The END GOAL. •The struggle continues •Everything is changing right now and, as long as life continues, always will be.
  101. 101. The Property Owner’s Nightmare
  102. 102. The Property Owner’s Nightmare
  103. 103. The Property Owner’s Nightmare
  104. 104. The Property Owner’s Nightmare
  105. 105. Incredulity
  106. 106. Incredulity Creates Mental Blind Spots "... there are many reasons why you might not understand an explanation of a scientific theory ... Finally, there is this possibility: after I tell you something, you just can't believe it. You can't accept it. You don't like it. A little screen comes down and you don't listen anymore. I'm going to describe to you how Nature is - and if you don't like it, that's going to get in the way of your understanding it. It's a problem that scientists have learned to deal with: They've learned to realize that whether they like a theory or they don't like a theory is not the essential question. Rather, it is whether or not the theory gives predictions that agree with experiment. It is not a question of whether a theory is philosophically delightful, or easy to understand, or perfectly reasonable from the point of view of common sense. A scientific theory describes Nature as absurd from the point of view of common sense. And it agrees fully with experiment. So I hope you can accept Nature as She is - absurd. Please don't turn yourself off because you can't believe Nature is so strange. Just hear me all out, and I hope you'll be as delighted as I am when we're through. " - Richard P. Feynman (1918-1988)
  107. 107. 'It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.' Charles Darwin
  108. 108. There is grandeur in this view of life ….

×