Genetically modified food Produced a 11-student class Voronovа Anastasia
Genetically modified foods (GM foods, or biotech foods) are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), specifically,genetically modified crops.
GMOs have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by geneticengineering techniq ues.
These techniques are muchmore precise than mutagenesis(mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding andsomaclonal variation.
Commercial sale of geneticallymodified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato.
Typically, genetically modified foods are transgenicplant products: soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil.
These may have been engineered for faster growth, resistance to pathogens, production ofextra nutrients, or any other beneficial purpose.
GM livestock have also been experimentally developed, althoughas of July 2010 none are currently on the market.
While there is broad scientific consensus that food on the market derived from GM crops pose no greater risk to human health than conventional food, critics have objected to GM foods on several grounds, including safety issues, ecological concerns, and economic concerns raised by the fact GM plants (andpotentially animals) that are food sources are subject to intellectual property law.
HistoryScientists first discovered that DNA can transfer between organisms in 1946 The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. In 1994, the transgenic Flavr Savr tomato was approved by the FDA for marketing in the US - the modification allowed the tomato to delay ripening after picking.
In the US in 1995, the following transgenic crops received marketing approval: canola with modified oil composition (Calgene), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn/maize (Ciba-Geigy), cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil (Calgene), Bt cotton (Monsanto), Bt potatoes (Monsanto), soybeans resistant to the herbicide glyphosate (Monsanto),virus-resistant squash (Asgrow), and additional delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto, and Monsanto )
In 2000, with the creation of golden rice, scientists genetically modified food toincrease its nutrient value for the first time. As of 2011, the U.S. leads a list of multiple countries in the production of GM crops, and 25 GM cropshad received regulatory approval to be grown commercially.
Foods made from GM cropsCurrently, there are several GM crops that are food sources. In some cases, the product isdirectly consumed as food, but In most cases, crops that have been genetically modified are sold as commodities, which are further processed into food ingredients.
FloursSoy flour is made by grinding soybeans into a fine powder. It comes in three forms: natural or full-fat (contains natural oils); defatted (oils removed) with 50% protein content and with either high water solubility or low water solubility; and lecithinated (lecithin added). As soy flouris gluten-free, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour aredense in texture. Soy grits are similar to soy flour except the soybeans have been toasted and cracked into coarse pieces. Kinako is a soy flour used in Japanese cuisine