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Biomes

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An overview of the main terrestrial biomes with a focus on the taiga.

An overview of the main terrestrial biomes with a focus on the taiga.

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  • 1. Biodiversity - the variety ofspecies living in balance withinan ecosystem, biome or planet.
  • 2. The Amazon rainforest is abiodiversity hotspot due to thenumber and variety of species
  • 3. Biome - a major ecosystemcharacterised by commonalitiesof animals, plants and climateand soil.
  • 4. For example, most hot and drydeserts have little rainfall withfew plants and mammals.
  • 5. Biodiversity
  • 6. High biodiversity usually meansa more stable system, withfewer cyclical explosions in preyor predator.
  • 7. Biodiversity is a measure of thehealth of ecosystems, but notthe total indicator. Polar icesheets support less biodiversitybut this healthy.
  • 8. Biodiversity is read on threelevels.
  • 9. • Species Diversity - The amount of different species inthe community and variation within populations of agiven species.
  • 10. • Species Diversity - The amount of different species inthe community and variation within populations of agiven species.• Ecosystem Diversity - The variety of habitats,communities and ecological processes within andbetween ecosystems.
  • 11. • Species Diversity - The amount of different species inthe community and variation within populations of agiven species.• Ecosystem Diversity - The variety of habitats,communities and ecological processes within andbetween ecosystems.• Genetic Diversity - The variety of genes held withinall members of a population.
  • 12. Biodiversity can affect thestability of ecosystems and thesustainability of populations,including humans...
  • 13. ... as each species areinterdependent in bothstraightforward and subtleways.
  • 14. Biomes in more detail
  • 15. There are 8 officially classified terrestrial biomes (plusmarine and freshwater):1. Temperate forest2. Tropical forest3. Conifer (taiga/boreal)4. Tropical savannah5. Temperate grassland6. Chaparral7. Tundra8. Desert
  • 16. Temperate forests occur ineastern North America, north-eastern Asia, plus western andcentral Europe.
  • 17. Climatic influences includewell-defined seasons.
  • 18. Flora is typified by deciduoustrees is such species as oak andbeech, plus temperatewoodland flowers and fungi.
  • 19. Fauna is represented bysquirrels, rabbits, birds, deer,fox, and black bear.
  • 20. Tropical forests occur closer tothe equator than temperateforest.
  • 21. Climatic influences include littleseasonality or temperaturevariation, although they mayhave a rainy season.
  • 22. Flora is highly diverse, with avast variety of tree species andplants such as orchids, vines,ferns and mosses.
  • 23. Fauna include numerous birds,bats, primates, small mammals,and insects.
  • 24. Coniferous forests(taiga/boreal), are found innorthern latitudes; Siberia,Scandinavia, Alaska, andCanada and Eurasia.
  • 25. The main climatic influences arelong winters and a shortsummer growing season.
  • 26. Flora consists mostly of cold-tolerant evergreen conifers withneedle-like leaves, such as pine,fir, and spruce.
  • 27. Fauna include woodpeckers,hawks, moose, bear, weasel,lynx, fox, wolf, deer and hares
  • 28. Tropical savannahs are found ina wide band on either side ofthe equator on the edges oftropical rainforests.
  • 29. The main climatic influence israinfall concentrated in half theyear, followed by a long periodof drought when fires canoccur.
  • 30. Flora consists mostly ofgrasslands with scatteredshrubs or trees.
  • 31. Fauna is highly diverse,including giraffes, zebras,snakes, worms, lions, leopards,hyenas, and elephants.
  • 32. Chaparral is found on mostcontinents, from the west coastof the US to the western tip ofAustralia and the coastal areasof the Mediterranean.
  • 33. The main climatic influence isheat and lack of moisture.Winters are mild with summerso hot and dry that fires anddroughts are common.
  • 34. Flora is typified by small, hardleaves which hold moisture.Some of these plants are poisonoak, scrub oak and cacti.
  • 35. Fauna includes coyotes, jackrabbits, mule deer, alligatorlizards, horned toads andpraying mantis.
  • 36. Arctic tundra is located in thefar northern hemisphere,encircling the North Pole andextending south to theconiferous forests.
  • 37. The main climatic influence iscold (-34°C) and lack ofmoisture with a summergrowing season (3-12°C) of just50 to 60 days.
  • 38. Flora includes shrubs, sedges,reindeer mosses, liverworts, andgrasses, small flowers andlichen.
  • 39. Fauna includes caribou, arctichares and squirrels, foxes andwolves.
  • 40. Desert biomes occur whereverthe rainfall is less than 50cm/year. Hot-dry deserts occurin North Africa, south-westernU.S., Mexico, and Australia.
  • 41. Hot-dry desert biome is typifiedby heat with little seasonalvariation, evaporation ratesusually exceed rainfall rates.
  • 42. Hot-dry desert vegetation israre outside of oases. Plants arealmost all ground-huggingshrubs such as Prickly Pears andBrittle Bush.
  • 43. Hot-dry desert fauna includesnocturnal insects, arachnids,reptiles and birds.
  • 44. Hot-dry desert fauna includesnocturnal insects, arachnids,reptiles and birds.
  • 45. Taiga
  • 46. Taiga is the largest terrestrialbiome at 28% of the planet,located just below the tundrabiome.
  • 47. The main seasons are coldwinters and snow, with humidityand high precipitation insummer.
  • 48. There are few species of faunain the taiga because of theharsh conditions, poor soil andpermafrost.
  • 49. Frost-resistant coniferous treeslike pine, spruce and Douglas firpredominate as well as lichensand mosses.
  • 50. Seed eaters like finches andsparrows, and omnivorous birdslike crows stay all year round.
  • 51. The taiga has an abundance ofinsects in summer, when manyinsect-eating birds like geesecome to feed and breed.
  • 52. Fauna of the taiga includesnowshoe rabbits, red squirrelsand voles. They are predatedupon by wolverines, arctic fox,lynx and bobcat.
  • 53. The current rate logging inboreal forests may cause theirdisappearance.
  • 54. The permafrost contains a hugequantity of methane, a powerfulgreenhouse gas which may bereleased if the permafrost melts
  • 55. END

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