how to go about with hepatic vasculature

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how to go about with hepatic vasculature

  1. 1. ULTRASOUND OF THE HEPATIC VASCULATURE- An Overview Dr. Juhi Bansal
  2. 2. Types of vascular ultrasound  Grey scale ultrasound (one plex)  Doppler ultrasound (two plex)  Spectral Doppler ultrasound (three plex)
  3. 3. Components of spectral Doppler  Diagram at left shows the general layout of a spectral Doppler image. The spectral waveform is displayed on the lower half of the image, a color Doppler image is shown above the waveform, and a velocity scale may be shown on either the right or left side (top left in this case).
  4. 4.       Magnified view (right) of the color Doppler interrogation region shows the components used to acquire the waveform: Doppler beam path (green); angle indicator (blue), which is oriented parallel to the long axis of the vessel; Doppler angle (Θ), which should be less than 60°; and sample volume or “gate” (yellow). Gray arrows = flow direction.
  5. 5.    Information for the waveform is obtained from a small (usually 2–4-mm) sample volume that is placed in the center of the vessel Ideally, the sample volume should be placed in the midportion of the lumen, rather than toward the periphery, for optimal estimation of laminar flow. An angle indicator line is subjectively placed parallel to the vessel; however, this placement can introduce error into the final velocity calculation, especially when the Doppler angle (Θ) is greater than 60°.
  6. 6.  Cardiac phasicity creates a phasic cycle, which is composed of phases as determined by the number of times blood flows in each direction. Moving away from the baseline vertically along the y-axis in either direction corresponds to increasing velocities. Any given point on the waveform corresponds to a specific velocity. The slope of the curve corresponds to acceleration (i.e., a change in velocity per unit time). A bend in the curve, or inflection point, corresponds to a change in acceleration. When these turns are abrupt, they generate audible sounds at Doppler US
  7. 7. Flow Direction The direction of blood flow may be described in two fundamentally distinct ways 1. The first is to describe flow with respect to the circulatory system. The terms antegrade and retrograde are used to describe flow in this context. 2. The second is to describe flow with respect to the US transducer. In this context, flow is described as moving either toward or away from the transducer.   Color Doppler arbitrarily displays blood flow toward the transducer as red and blood flow away from the transducer as blue. At spectral Doppler, blood flow toward the transducer is displayed above the baseline and blood flow away from the transducer is displayed below the baseline.
  8. 8.  The term antegrade refers to flow in the forward direction with respect to its expected direction in the circulatory system.  For example, antegrade flow moves away from the heart in the systemic arteries and toward the heart in the systemic veins.  the word antegrade does not describe flow toward the transducer (displayed above the baseline).  However, antegrade flow may be either toward or away from the transducer, depending on the spatial relationship of the transducer to the vessel;  therefore, antegrade flow may be displayed above or below the baseline, depending on the vessel being interrogated.  An example of antegrade flow away from the transducer (displayed below the baseline) is seen in the systolic wave (S wave) and diastolic wave (D wave) of the normal hepatic venous waveform.
  9. 9.      The term retrograde refers to flow in the reverse direction with respect to its expected direction in the circulatory system. For example, retrograde flow may be seen in severe portal hypertension, in which portal venous flow reverses direction (hepatofugal flow). the word retrograde does not describe flow away from the transducer (displayed below the base-line). However, retrograde flow may be either toward or away from the transducer. An example of retrograde flow toward the transducer (displayed above the baseline) is seen in the a wave of the normal hepatic venous waveform.
  10. 10.   Antegrade versus retrograde flow. Drawings (top) show predominantly antegrade flow from the hepatic veins (blue) to the heart and in the hepatic arteries (red) toward the liver. Retrograde flow would be in the opposite direction. Diagrams (bottom) illustrate typical spectral Doppler waveforms in these vessels. Note that antegrade flow in the hepatic veins is displayed below the baseline, whereas antegrade flow in the hepatic arteries is displayed above the baseline. Antegrade flow may be either toward the transducer (hepatic artery) or away from the transducer (hepatic vein). Similarly, retrograde flow may be either toward the transducer (displayed above the baseline) or away from the transducer (displayed below the baseline).
  11. 11. Phasicity   Phasic blood flow has velocity and acceleration fluctuations that are generated by cyclic (phasic) pressure fluctuations, which are in turn generated by the cardiac cycle (cardiac phasicity). When phasic blood flow is sampled at spectral Doppler US, it is displayed as a phasic waveform. In other words, the waveform has phasicity.     Aphasic Non phasic Phasic Pulsatile
  12. 12. Aphasic  If there is absolutely no flow (ie, no velocity), there is no phase, and the waveform may be called “aphasic.” As long as there is flow, there is some form of phasicity.
  13. 13. Non phasic  When there is flow (ie, velocity) but no velocity or acceleration changes are present, the waveform is flat, and there is no variation in phasicity; this is called a “nonphasic” waveform.
  14. 14.   If there are changes in velocity (slopes) and acceleration (inflections), the waveform cannot be described as nonphasic; instead, it is either phasic or pulsatile, depending on the degree of waveform undulation. If there is mild undulation (shallow slopes and a small vertical range between inflections), as in normal veins, the waveform is described as phasic.
  15. 15.  If there is marked undulation (steep slopes and a wide vertical range between inflections), as in normal arteries, the waveform is described as pulsatile.
  16. 16. Phase interrpetation ambiguity   D.A.M. interprets a phase as a component of the waveform on either side of the baseline; M.M.A.Y. interprets a phase as an inflection.
  17. 17. Directionality and phase quantification.  When phase is defined as a component of phasic flow direction, waveforms may be described in terms of the number of phases. All monophasic waveforms are unidirectional; bidirectional waveforms may be either biphasic, triphasic, or tetraphasic.
  18. 18.  Arterial resistance has historically been characterized quantitatively with use of three different indices:       the resistive index (RI), systolic/diastolic ratio, and pulsatility index (PI). PI in arteries ([V1−V2]/Vmean, where V1 = peak systolic velocity and V2 = end-diastolic velocity) the PI in the portal vein (V2/V1). The most frequently used index in the hepatic arteries is the RI
  19. 19.      In general, low-resistance arteries normally have an RI of 0.55–0.7. The hepatic artery is a low-resistance vessel; however, wider normal ranges of 0.55–0.81 have been reported for this vessel Any measured RI above or below the normal range may represent disease. High-resistance arteries physiologically have an RI greater than 0.7; any RI lower than this may represent disease. As mentioned earlier, disease may affect arterial resistance. To determine whether arterial resistance is abnormal (ie, too high or too low), one needs to consider the expected resistance in that particular vessel.
  20. 20.  Low-Resistance Arteries  (Normal RI = 0.55–0.7)      Internal carotid arteries Hepatic arteries Renal arteries Testicular arteries Postprandial mesenteric arteries  High-Resistance Arteries  (Normal RI >0.7)    External carotid arteries Extremity arteries (eg, external iliac arteries, axillary arteries) Fasting mesenteric arteries (superior and inferior mesenteric arteries)
  21. 21.    A high RI is not specific for liver disease; therefore, it is less meaningful as an isolated finding than is a low RI. An RI that is too high may be the result of the postprandial state, advanced patient age, or diffuse distal microvascular disease, which has a wide variety of causes including chronic liver disease due to cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. An RI that is too low may be the result of proximal stenosis or distal vascular shunting (arteriovenous or arterioportal fistulas), as seen in severe cirrhosis; trauma (including iatrogenic injury); or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome.
  22. 22. Blood flow patterns  There are three basic patterns of blood flow:      plug flow (normal), laminar flow (normal), and turbulent flow (normal or abnormal). The wall exerts a “drag” effect on the moving blood, so that the velocity at the periphery of the lumen is lower than at the center. In large vessels, this drag effect is relatively minimal, with the majority of blood moving at a similar velocity and only a small fraction moving more slowly at the periphery.
  23. 23.    Plug flow(only in the thoracic aorta.) This pattern of flow produces a crisp spectral waveform that could be drawn with a pencil or marker. In smaller vessels with laminar flow, the drag effect is more significant, with a wider range of velocities from the center to the periphery; this range is often described as having a parabolic distribution. Turbulent flow represents disorganized flow, with pockets of flow moving at different velocities and in different directions. It represents a normal finding at bifurcations and an abnormal finding in the immediately poststenotic portion of a diseased vessel.
  24. 24. Spectral window and spectral broadening      plug flow results in a thin waveform and a clear spectral window (top right). Note the actual windows (yellow) superimposed on the first two spectral windows. In vessels smaller than the aorta, blood flow is laminar. In large and medium-sized vessels (left, second from top), the waveform is thick, but there is still a spectral window (middle right). In small or compressed vessels (left, second from bottom), there is significant spectral broadening, which obscures the spectral window (bottom right). Diseased vessels with turbulent flow (bottom left) also cause spectral broadening (bottom right)
  25. 25.    Spectral broadening is seen when the waveform is no longer traceable with a pencil or marker. In other words, the spectral window starts to fill in. Spectral broadening can be created artificially, physiologically (in small vessels), or pathologically Artificial broadening is generated by either   (a) increasing the size of the sample volume, thereby increasing the range of velocities sampled in the parabolic flow distribution; or (b) increasing the Doppler gain.
  26. 26.    Physiologic spectral broadening occurs in small blood vessels, such as the hepatic or vertebral arteries ,since a wider range of velocities is sampled from the center to the periphery of the vessel. Another cause of physiologic spectral broadening is turbulent flow at bifurcations, such as in the carotid arteries due to the wide range of velocities sampled in the disorganized turbulent flow pattern. Pathologic spectral broadening occurs as a result of abormally compressed (narrowed) vessels, or as a consequence of turbulent flow in the poststenotic portion of a diseased vessel.
  27. 27. Causes of Spectral Broadening  Artificial    Physiologic    Large sample volume High gain Normal small vessels (hepatic arteries) Normal turbulence (bifurcations) Pathologic   Compressed vessels (eg, hepatic veins in cirrhosis) Turbulent flow (poststenotic flow)
  28. 28. Waveform nomenclature(normal)
  29. 29. Waveform nomenclature(abnormal)
  30. 30. Upstream vs Downstream  Upstream refers to blood that has not yet passed a reference point, whereas downstream refers to blood that has already passed the reference point. From the perspective of the stenosis, transducer A is located upstream. At the position of transducer A, a downstream stenosis is detected. From the perspective of the stenosis, transducer B is located downstream. At the position of transducer B, an upstream stenosis is perceived.
  31. 31. High grade stenosis
  32. 32. Upstream stenosis
  33. 33. Hepatic vascular ultrasound 1. 2. 3. Hepatic artery Hepatic vein Portal vein
  34. 34. Hepatic artery
  35. 35. Normal hepatic artery  The direction of flow in any patent hepatic artery is antegrade (left), which corresponds to a waveform above the baseline at spectral Doppler US (right). The hepatic artery is normally a low-resistance vessel, meaning it should have an RI ranging from 0.55 to 0.7.
  36. 36. Spectrum of increasing resistance  High resistance is less specific for disease than is low resistance.
  37. 37. Causes of Elevated Hepatic Arterial  Resistance (RI >0.7)  Pathologic (microvascular compression or disease)        Chronic hepatocellular disease (including cirrhosis) Hepatic venous congestion Acute congestion  diffuse peripheral vasoconstriction Chronic congestion  fibrosis with diffuse peripheral compression (cardiac cirrhosis) Transplant rejection (any stage) Any other disease that causes diffuse compression or narrowing of peripheral arterioles Physiologic   Postprandial state Advanced patient age
  38. 38. Causes of Decreased Hepatic Arterial  Resistance (RI <0.55)  Proximal arterial narrowing     Transplant stenosis (anastomosis) Atherosclerotic disease (celiac or hepatic) Arcuate ligament syndrome (relatively less common than transplant stenosis or atherosclerotic disease) Distal (peripheral) vascular shunts (arteriovenous or arterioportal fistulas)    Cirrhosis with portal hypertension Posttraumatic or iatrogenic causes Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome)
  39. 39.     The effect of cirrhosis on hepatic arterial microcirculation is complex and variable. Arterial resistance has been shown to be decreased, normal, or increased in cirrhotic patients Some aspects of the disease process, such as inflammatory edema, arterial compression by regenerative nodules, and arterial compression by stiff noncompliant (fibrotic) parenchyma, have been thought to increase resistance Other aspects, such as the “hepatic arterial buffer response” (compensatory small artery proliferation and increased numbers of arteriolar beds) and arteriovenous shunting, are thought to decrease resistance .
  40. 40. Hepatic vein
  41. 41. Hepatic venous waveform   First, the bulk of hepatic venous flow is antegrade. Although there are moments of retrograde flow, the majority of blood flow must be antegrade to get back to the heart. Antegrade flow is away from the liver and toward the heart; thus, it will also be away from the transducer and, therefore, displayed below the baseline. Second, just as pressure changes in the left ventricle are transmitted to the systemic arteries, pressure changes in the right atrium will be transmitted directly to the hepatic veins. Viewing oneself as actually sitting inside the right atrium will help predict which way, and how fast, blood flows at each moment of the cardiac cycle.
  42. 42.  Anything that increases right atrial pressure (atrial contraction toward end diastole, late systolic atrial filling against a closed tricuspid valve) will cause the wave to slope upward.  Anything that decreases right atrial pressure (downward early systolic atrioventricular septal motion, early diastolic right ventricular filling) will cause the wave to slope downward.
  43. 43. Normal hepatic waveform
  44. 44. A Wave  During atrial systole, a portion of the blood flow is toward the liver, yielding a retrograde A wave. PA = pulmonary artery, RA = right atrium, RV = right ventricle.
  45. 45. The A wave      The a wave is the first wave encountered on the waveform. generated by increased right atrial pressure resulting from atrial contraction, which occurs toward end diastole. an upward-pointing wave with a peak that corresponds to maximal retrograde hepatic venous flow. In physiologic states, the peak of the a wave is above the baseline, and the a wave is wider and taller than the v wave . Even in pathologic states, the a wave remains wider than the v wave(except in cases of severe tricuspid regurgitation, when the S wave becomes retrograde and merges with the a and v waves to form one large retrograde a-S-v complex.
  46. 46. S wave  During ventricular systole, the tricuspid annulus moves toward the cardiac apex (thin white arrows), causing suction of blood into the right atrium from the liver. The result is the dominant antegrade S wave.
  47. 47. The S wave    Its initial downward-sloping portion is generated by decreasing right atrial pressure, as a result of the “sucking” effect created by the downward motion of the atrioventricular septum as it descends toward the cardiac apex during early to midsystole. Note that the tricuspid valve remains closed. If it were open (tricuspid regurgitation), the result would be pathologic retrograde flow. The S wave corresponds to antegrade hepatic venous flow and is the largest downward-pointing wave in the cycle. The lowest point occurs in midsystole and is the point at which negative pressure is minimally opposed and antegrade velocity is maximal. After this low point, the wave rises again as pressure in the right atrium builds due to ongoing systemic venous return.
  48. 48. V Wave  As the tricuspid valve returns to its resting position, the velocity of blood out of the liver decreases and a transitional equilibrium is reached, yielding the V wave.
  49. 49. The V wave     The upward-sloping portion is generated by increasing right atrial pressure resulting from continued systemic venous return against the still-closed tricuspid valve, all of which occurs toward the end of systole. The peak of the wave marks the opening of the tricuspid valve and the transition from systole to diastole. Thereafter, the wave slopes downward because right atrial pressure is relieved during rapid early diastolic right ventricular filling. position of the peak of the v wave varies from above to below the baseline in normal states. It should be remembered that if the v wave never rises above the baseline, it cannot be called retrograde, since the baseline marks the transition from antegrade to retrograde
  50. 50. D Wave  During diastole, with the heart relaxed and the tricuspid valve open, blood flows passively from the liver into the heart, yielding the antegrade D wave
  51. 51. The D wave     fourth and last wave encountered on the waveform. initial downward-sloping portion is generated by decreasing right atrial pressure resulting from rapid early diastolic right ventricular filling. The D wave corresponds to antegrade hepatic venous flow and is the smaller of the two downward-pointing waves. The lowest point occurs when the antegrade diastolic velocity is maximal. The subsequent rising portion results from increasing right atrial pressure generated by the increasing right ventricular blood volume.
  52. 52. Abnormal hepatic venous waveforms Increased phasicity (pulsatility) Decreased phasicity and spectral broadening Absent hepatic venous flow
  53. 53. Causes of Pulsatile Hepatic Venous Waveform  Tricuspid regurgitation  Decreased or reversed S wave  Tall a and v waves  Right-sided CHF  Maintained S wave/D wave relationship  Tall a and v waves
  54. 54. Trcuspid regurgitation
  55. 55.  The atrium contracts, forcing blood antegrade into the ventricle as well as retrograde toward the liver, producing a retrograde A wave as usual.
  56. 56.  During systole, the ventricle contracts and the tricuspid annulus moves toward the cardiac apex. Blood regurgitates retrograde through the tricuspid valve into the atrium, IVC, and hepatic veins. The result is a retrograde S wave.
  57. 57.  As the ventricle begins to relax and the tricuspid annulus returns to its original position, blood is again forced out of the atrium back into the IVC and liver, producing the retrograde V wave.
  58. 58.  With the atrium and ventricle relaxed and the tricuspid valve open during diastole, blood finally flows passively out of the liver and IVC into the heart, thereby producing the only antegrade wave, the D wave
  59. 59. Tricuspid regurgitation   salient findings in tricuspid regurgitation are a pulsatile waveform with tall a and v waves and either a decreased or a reversed S wave the incompetent valve limits or even reverses antegrade flow during early systolic contraction and allows retrograde flow during late systole.
  60. 60.   In early systole, when the atrioventricular septum is descending and would normally create a large burst of negative right atrial pressure, creating the deepest antegrade wave (S wave), the incompetent valve instead relieves all or part of the vacuum effect. The result is an S wave that is no longer as deep as the D wave. This finding has been called the decreased S wave . When tricuspid incompetence is severe enough, flow can switch to retrograde, resulting in an S wave that is above the baseline, merging with the a and v waves to form one large retrograde a-S-v complex. This finding has been called the reversed S wave and is seen at clinical examination as a highly pulsatile jugular vein.
  61. 61.  During late systole, when there should normally be continued systemic venous return against a closed tricuspid valve (rising portion of the v wave), the incompetent valve allows large amounts of retrograde flow. This results in the other finding in tricuspid regurgitation, namely, an abnormally tall v wave.  Toward end diastole, when the right atrium contracts, there is a much higher blood volume (and thus, pressure) than normal, resulting in a tall a wave.
  62. 62. (a) Tricuspid regurgitation. Spectral Doppler image clearly depicts increased pulsatility (ie, wide variation between peaks and troughs). The v wave is very tall, and the S wave is not as deep as the D wave. (decreased S wave” ).; (b) Reversed S wave in severe Tricuspid regurgitation
  63. 63. Congestive heart failure
  64. 64. In right-sided CHF with competent tricuspid valve      too much blood volume on the systemic venous side of the cardiovascular system (including the right atrium) manifests as abnormally tall a and v waves. The tall a wave is due to increased right atrial pressure toward end diastole, generated by the larger-than-normal volume contained by the right atrium as it contracts. The tall v wave is also due to increased right atrial pressure toward end systole, due to the larger-than-normal volume the right atrium contains while still trying to accommodate continued systemic venous return. Because the tricuspid valve remains competent, the S and D waves keep their normal configurations relative to each other. pulsatile waveform with tall a and v waves and a normal relationship between the S and D waves.
  65. 65. Right-sided CHF without tricuspid regurgitation.    increased pulsatility. The a wave is very tall, and the normal relationship between the S and D waves is maintained (S [systole] is deeper than D [diastole])
  66. 66. Causes of Decreased Hepatic Venous Phasicity  Cirrhosis  Hepatic vein thrombosis (Budd-Chiari syndrome)  Hepatic veno-occlusive disease  Hepatic venous outflow obstruction from any cause
  67. 67. Decreased hepatic venous phasicity.    Diagrams illustrate varying degrees of severity of decreased phasicity in the hepatic vein. Observe the position of the a wave relative to the baseline and peak negative S wave excursion. As the distance between the a wave and peak negative excursion decreases, phasicity is more severely decreased.
  68. 68. Absent hepatic venous flow  Diagnostic for hepatic veno-occlusive disease although this may also manifest in two other ways (a) incomplete obstruction, which may have a spectral waveform with decreased phasicity (eg, nonphasicity); or (b) increased flow velocities and turbulence at the level of stenosis
  69. 69.   Diagram shows a clot in the right hepatic vein. When an area peripheral to the obstruction is interrogated, a monophasic waveform in the reverse direction (hepatopetal) may be present because blood is flowing retrograde toward another route to exit the liver, either via one of the main hepatic veins or via a minor hepatic vein.
  70. 70. Portal Vein
  71. 71. Portal venous flow    physiologic flow should always be antegrade, which is toward the transducer and therefore creates a waveform that is above the baseline. hepatic venous pulsatility is partially transmitted to the portal veins through the hepatic sinusoids, which accounts for the cardiac variability seen in this waveform. It should also be kept in mind that the flow velocity in this vessel is relatively low (16–40 cm/sec) compared with that in the vessel coursing next to it, namely, the hepatic artery
  72. 72. Normal portal vein   the direction of flow is is antegrade, or hepatopetal, which corresponds to a waveform above the baseline at spectral Doppler US. Normal phasicity may range from low to high . Abnormally low phasicity results in a nonphasic waveform, whereas abnormally high phasicity results in a pulsatile waveform. The PI is used to quantify pulsatility. Normal phasicity results in a PI greater than 0.5
  73. 73.      The normal portal venous waveform should gently undulate and always remain above the baseline. The peak portal velocity (V1) corresponds to systole, and the trough velocity (V2) corresponds to end diastole. At first, one may incorrectly reason that systole should cause back pressure and create the trough; however, such is not the case. The primary influence on variation in portal venous pressure is atrial contraction, which occurs at end diastole. Atrial contraction, toward end diastole, transmits back pressure, first through the hepatic veins, then to the hepatic sinusoids, and ultimately to the portal circulation, where forward portal venous flow (velocity) is consequently decreased (the trough).
  74. 74.    PI calculation for the portal vein is different from that for the hepatic arteries (arterial PI = (V1–V2)/Vmean). In the portal veins, the PI is calculated as V2/V1 with V1 normally being greater than 0.5. Another point worth emphasizing is that lower calculated PIs correspond to higher pulsatility.
  75. 75. Normal and abnormal portal venous phasicity.     Images show a spectrum of increasing pulsatility (bottom to top). Note that increasing pulsatility corresponds to a decrease in the calculated PI. Although normal phasicity ranges widely in the portal veins, the PI should be greater than 0.5 (middle and bottom). When the PI is less than 0.5 (top), the waveform may be called pulsatile; this is an abnormal finding.
  76. 76. Abnormal portal venous waveforms 1. 2. 3. 4. Increased flow(pulsatility) Slow flow Hepatofugal flow Absent flow
  77. 77. Causes of Pulsatile Portal Venous Waveform     Tricuspid regurgitation - dilated hepatic veins Right-sided CHF- dilated hepatic veins Cirrhosis with vascular arterioportal shuntingcompressed hepatic veins Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia–arteriovenous fistulas
  78. 78.   Spectral Doppler US image shows a pulsatile waveform with flow reversal in the right portal vein. The waveform may be systematically characterized as predominantly antegrade, pulsatile, biphasicbidirectional, and diinflectional.
  79. 79. Slow portal flow    Diagnostic for portal hypertension In this case, the peak velocity is 9.0 cm/sec, which is well below the lower limit of normal (16-40 cm/sec). Although portal hypertension may cause a pulsatile-appearing waveform as seen in this case, the slow flow helps differentiate this condition from hyperpulsatile highvelocity states such as CHF and tricuspid regurgitation.
  80. 80. Findings That Are Diagnostic for Portal Hypertension  Low portal venous velocity (<16 cm/sec)  Hepatofugal portal venous flow  Portosystemic shunts (including a recanalized umbilical vein)  Dilated portal vein
  81. 81. Hepatofugal flow  Spectral Doppler US image shows retrograde (hepatofugal) flow in the main portal vein, a finding that appears blue on the color Doppler US image and is displayed below the baseline on the spectral waveform. Hepatofugal flow is due to severe portal hypertension from any cause.
  82. 82. Causes of Absent Portal Venous Flow  Stagnant flow (severe portal hypertension)  Portal vein thrombosis (bland thrombus)  Tumor invasion
  83. 83. Portal vein thrombosis (acute bland thrombus).  On a spectral Doppler US image, the interrogation zone shows no color flow in the main portal vein. The spectral waveform is aphasic, which indicates absence of flow. An aphasic waveform may be produced by either obstructive or nonobstructive disease.
  84. 84. Portal vein thrombosis (malignant)     echogenic material in a distended main portal vein without color flow. Tumor thrombus tends to enlarge veins; however, acute thrombus may do this as well. The spectral waveform is pulsatile, a finding that is abnormal in the portal vein. In fact, the pulsatility of this waveform resembles that seen in arteries; hence the term arterialization (of the portal venous waveform). This finding is specific for malignant tumor thrombus.

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