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  1. 1. SekolahMenengah<br />Sayyidina Othman<br />Tutong<br />‘The oath of amanat’<br />The Reign of Sultan Abdul Momin<br />(1852-1885)<br />
  2. 2. Contents <br />Sultan Abdul Momin<br />(1852-1885)<br />Loss of Brunei’s Territories (1853-1884)<br />The Declaration of Amanat<br />Summary<br />Questions<br />
  3. 3. Sultan Abdul Momin<br />(1852-1885)<br /><ul><li>Sultan Abdul Momin was the 24th Sultan of Brunei
  4. 4. He ruled from 1852-1885
  5. 5. He was the son of PengiranShahbandarPengiranAnak Abdul Wahab
  6. 6. The son-in-law of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II</li></li></ul><li>Loss of Brunei’s Territories (1853-1884)<br />Loss of Sarawak to James Brooke<br />When Sultan Abdul Momin ascended the throne, James Brooke wanted to sign a new treaty with the Sultan<br />The Treaty<br />1852, Sultan Abdul Momin confirmed Brooke as ‘Independent Rajah’ and has to give BatangLuparin 1853<br />
  7. 7. 1861, James Brooke persuaded Sultan to give areas of Rajang to Bintulu River, including Mukah and Oya<br />This was supported by the British<br />Sultan received <br />$4,500 but Brunei lost of its sago production<br />The Treaty<br />1855, Sultan has to give 7 districts of Rajang includes Rajang, Kalakah, Lingga, Saribas, Sadong, Sekrang and Samarahan<br />Sultan received $1500 annually<br />
  8. 8. Loss of North Borneo (Sabah) to the British<br />To counter balance made by James Brooke, the British made an agreement with the sultan<br />July 1865, Sultan Abdul Momin had to sign an agreement in leasing North Borneo (Sabah) to <br />Clause Lee Moses, the United States Council General in Brunei<br />Sultan received $ 4,500 annually and $4,000 to PengiranTemenggongAnakHashim<br />
  9. 9. 1865, C.L Moses sold North Borneo to<br /> W.J Torrey<br />(American Businessman who formed American Trading Company of Borneo)<br />After 10 years, in 1875, Torrey sold the land to Baron Von Overbeck (Austrian Council in Hongkong)<br />Overbeck sold the land to Alfred Dent, a British merchant and formed a company North Borneo (Chartered ) Company in November 1881<br />
  10. 10. Further Lost of Sarawak to Charles Brooke<br />Brunei further lost more lands to the Brooke’s family, Sir Charles Brooke, the nephew of James Brooke<br /><ul><li>Charles Brooke wanted to further his territory by taking Baram River. However, the Sultan refused to give the land
  11. 11. The Sultan seek for British’s help and as a result, Charles Brooke was banned from taking more territories in the next 10 years</li></ul>He failed<br />
  12. 12. However…<br />Brooke did not stop there…<br />Rebellion in Baram in 1874 <br />by the Kayan people<br />Brooke used this opportunity to seize Baram.<br />As a result, Sultan Abdul Momin<br />has to give in<br />$2,000 paid to<br /><ul><li>PengiranTemenggongAnakHashim
  13. 13. PengiranBendahara
  14. 14. PengiranPemancha</li></ul>Sultan received $3,000 annually<br />
  15. 15. Map of losses Brunei’s territories<br />1865-1881<br />1882<br />1905<br />1884<br />1861<br />1890<br />1853<br />1846<br />James Brooke<br />Charles Brooke<br />British<br />
  16. 16. Reasons for losing more territories<br />Financial problem faced by the Sultan<br />Forced the sultan to lease the lands. As a result, Brunei lost its territories -PehinJamil-<br />Rebellions and support for Western Expansion<br /><ul><li>Rebellion by the Kayans in Baram against Brunei’s ruler because of its excessive oppression and taxation
  17. 17. People of Limbang revolted against Brunei’s ruler in 1884</li></li></ul><li>The Declaration of Amanat<br />Sultan Abdul Mominrealised that if the expansionist activities by Brooke’s family and the British North Borneo Company continued, Brunei will become a shrinking kingdom<br />Sultan Abdul Momin declared <br />‘The Oath of Amanat’<br />
  18. 18. The Oath of Amanat<br />It was an agreement between the Sultan and the Wazirs, Menterisand the holders of Tulin rights.<br />Declared by Sultan Abdul Mominon<br />20 February 1885 / 6 Jamadil–Awal 1302 H<br />Purpose<br />NOT to cede or lease any of the remaining territories of Brunei to foreign powers.<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. However.. The Amanat was ineffcetive<br /> Reasons:<br /><ul><li>Amanat was only signed by the Sultan, Wazirs, Menteris and Tulin holders and NOTwith the British North Borneo Company or Charles Brooke
  21. 21. Britain did not take the Amanat seriously, therefore the British North Borneo Company and Charles Brooke demanded more lands
  22. 22. Brunei had no sophisticated weapons to fight while Brooke and the British North Borneo Company could use steam warships and more powerful guns</li></ul>vS<br />
  23. 23. Evidences to show the ineffectiveness<br /> of Amanat<br /><ul><li>The signing of Protectorate Agreement by the Sultan Hashim</li></ul>If the Amanat was effective, Brunei did not have to sign another agreement to protect its own lands<br /><ul><li>The Lost of Limbang and Terusan to Charles Brooke</li></li></ul><li>Summary<br />the coming of…<br />Brooke’s Family<br />The British North Borneo Company<br />To <br />Brunei<br />Result to<br />Further lost of Brunei’s territories<br />
  24. 24. Summary of the lost of Brunei’s territories<br />
  25. 25. Effort done by the Sultan to stop expansionist<br />By Sultan, Wazirs, Menteri and Tulin’s holders<br />20th February 1885<br />Amanat<br /><ul><li>Without Charles Brooke and the British North Borneo Company support
  26. 26. British ignorance
  27. 27. Brunei have no sophisticated weapons like the Westerners</li></ul>Ineffective<br />
  28. 28. Questions<br />Was Charles Brooke an opportunist? Cite evidence to support/oppose the view<br />What were the impacts of the coming of the Brooke’s family to Brunei?<br />Why was the Amanat introduced? <br />Was the Amanat successful to prevent Brunei from losing any of its territories? Describe.<br />List and explain the reasons for the Amanat to be ineffective<br />Draw a map of Brunei in the 19th century and label the areas that were taken by the Brooke’s family<br />