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Amanat Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SekolahMenengah
    Sayyidina Othman
    ‘The oath of amanat’
    The Reign of Sultan Abdul Momin
  • 2. Contents
    Sultan Abdul Momin
    Loss of Brunei’s Territories (1853-1884)
    The Declaration of Amanat
  • 3. Sultan Abdul Momin
    • Sultan Abdul Momin was the 24th Sultan of Brunei
    • 4. He ruled from 1852-1885
    • 5. He was the son of PengiranShahbandarPengiranAnak Abdul Wahab
    • 6. The son-in-law of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II
  • Loss of Brunei’s Territories (1853-1884)
    Loss of Sarawak to James Brooke
    When Sultan Abdul Momin ascended the throne, James Brooke wanted to sign a new treaty with the Sultan
    The Treaty
    1852, Sultan Abdul Momin confirmed Brooke as ‘Independent Rajah’ and has to give BatangLuparin 1853
  • 7. 1861, James Brooke persuaded Sultan to give areas of Rajang to Bintulu River, including Mukah and Oya
    This was supported by the British
    Sultan received
    $4,500 but Brunei lost of its sago production
    The Treaty
    1855, Sultan has to give 7 districts of Rajang includes Rajang, Kalakah, Lingga, Saribas, Sadong, Sekrang and Samarahan
    Sultan received $1500 annually
  • 8. Loss of North Borneo (Sabah) to the British
    To counter balance made by James Brooke, the British made an agreement with the sultan
    July 1865, Sultan Abdul Momin had to sign an agreement in leasing North Borneo (Sabah) to
    Clause Lee Moses, the United States Council General in Brunei
    Sultan received $ 4,500 annually and $4,000 to PengiranTemenggongAnakHashim
  • 9. 1865, C.L Moses sold North Borneo to
    W.J Torrey
    (American Businessman who formed American Trading Company of Borneo)
    After 10 years, in 1875, Torrey sold the land to Baron Von Overbeck (Austrian Council in Hongkong)
    Overbeck sold the land to Alfred Dent, a British merchant and formed a company North Borneo (Chartered ) Company in November 1881
  • 10. Further Lost of Sarawak to Charles Brooke
    Brunei further lost more lands to the Brooke’s family, Sir Charles Brooke, the nephew of James Brooke
    • Charles Brooke wanted to further his territory by taking Baram River. However, the Sultan refused to give the land
    • 11. The Sultan seek for British’s help and as a result, Charles Brooke was banned from taking more territories in the next 10 years
    He failed
  • 12. However…
    Brooke did not stop there…
    Rebellion in Baram in 1874
    by the Kayan people
    Brooke used this opportunity to seize Baram.
    As a result, Sultan Abdul Momin
    has to give in
    $2,000 paid to
    • PengiranTemenggongAnakHashim
    • 13. PengiranBendahara
    • 14. PengiranPemancha
    Sultan received $3,000 annually
  • 15. Map of losses Brunei’s territories
    James Brooke
    Charles Brooke
  • 16. Reasons for losing more territories
    Financial problem faced by the Sultan
    Forced the sultan to lease the lands. As a result, Brunei lost its territories -PehinJamil-
    Rebellions and support for Western Expansion
    • Rebellion by the Kayans in Baram against Brunei’s ruler because of its excessive oppression and taxation
    • 17. People of Limbang revolted against Brunei’s ruler in 1884
  • The Declaration of Amanat
    Sultan Abdul Mominrealised that if the expansionist activities by Brooke’s family and the British North Borneo Company continued, Brunei will become a shrinking kingdom
    Sultan Abdul Momin declared
    ‘The Oath of Amanat’
  • 18. The Oath of Amanat
    It was an agreement between the Sultan and the Wazirs, Menterisand the holders of Tulin rights.
    Declared by Sultan Abdul Mominon
    20 February 1885 / 6 Jamadil–Awal 1302 H
    NOT to cede or lease any of the remaining territories of Brunei to foreign powers.
  • 19.
  • 20. However.. The Amanat was ineffcetive
    • Amanat was only signed by the Sultan, Wazirs, Menteris and Tulin holders and NOTwith the British North Borneo Company or Charles Brooke
    • 21. Britain did not take the Amanat seriously, therefore the British North Borneo Company and Charles Brooke demanded more lands
    • 22. Brunei had no sophisticated weapons to fight while Brooke and the British North Borneo Company could use steam warships and more powerful guns
  • 23. Evidences to show the ineffectiveness
    of Amanat
    • The signing of Protectorate Agreement by the Sultan Hashim
    If the Amanat was effective, Brunei did not have to sign another agreement to protect its own lands
    • The Lost of Limbang and Terusan to Charles Brooke
  • Summary
    the coming of…
    Brooke’s Family
    The British North Borneo Company
    Result to
    Further lost of Brunei’s territories
  • 24. Summary of the lost of Brunei’s territories
  • 25. Effort done by the Sultan to stop expansionist
    By Sultan, Wazirs, Menteri and Tulin’s holders
    20th February 1885
    • Without Charles Brooke and the British North Borneo Company support
    • 26. British ignorance
    • 27. Brunei have no sophisticated weapons like the Westerners
  • 28. Questions
    Was Charles Brooke an opportunist? Cite evidence to support/oppose the view
    What were the impacts of the coming of the Brooke’s family to Brunei?
    Why was the Amanat introduced?
    Was the Amanat successful to prevent Brunei from losing any of its territories? Describe.
    List and explain the reasons for the Amanat to be ineffective
    Draw a map of Brunei in the 19th century and label the areas that were taken by the Brooke’s family