Class 5 adoption part 1


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Class 5 adoption part 1

  1. 1. ADOPTION
  2. 2. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Dates to 2000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full legal status as child of adoptive parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow to recognize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutes: 1891 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on child’s welfare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RCW 26.33 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. STATUTORY COMPLIANCE <ul><li>Derogation of common law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict compliance required - balanced against best interest of child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See: In re Santore , 28 Wn. App. 319, 623 P.2d 702 (1981). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ADOPTION IS <ul><li>Legal & social process establishing relationship of child and parent where not related by birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAC 388-70-420(1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Makes adoptee: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal heir, lawful issue of adoptive parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminates all rights of adoptee as to birth parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except past-due child support payments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WHO CAN ADOPT? <ul><li>RCW 26.33.140(2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally competent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petitioner must be WA resident or adoptee must be domiciled in WA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No requirements about: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marital status, sexual preference, or age of adoptive parents (except must be at least 18) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. WHO MAY BE ADOPTED? <ul><li>Any person regardless of age </li></ul>
  7. 7. ADOPTIVE PROCESS <ul><li>Private adoption </li></ul><ul><li>State-licensed child-placing agency (“agency”) </li></ul><ul><li>DSHS </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRE-PLACEMENT REPORT (“HOME-STUDY”) <ul><li>Adoptive parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe, stable, supportive environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Completed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency, DSHS, or court appointed person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum 1 month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report must be on file before child can be placed with adoptive parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still requires report by agency </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. THE REPORT <ul><li>File with court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually to attorney who files with court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fee charged with petition </li></ul><ul><li>Person adopting - entitled to copy </li></ul>
  11. 11. CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Birth parents contact - if parties desire </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising not permitted unless agency, DSHS </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption facilitator (attorney) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathers child’s medical status info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides to adoptive parents before placement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires birth parents to sign release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth family background check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit to adoptive parents before placement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inquire about possible Native American heritage, whereabouts of putative fathers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither requires disclosure of birth parents’ names without specific release </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. CONSENT TO ADOPT (SURRENDER & RELEASE) <ul><li>Legal document </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates birth parent’s desire to relinquish parental rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoptee, if 14 or older </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth parents, putative fathers (but both not required) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agency to whom adoptee was relinquished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoptee’s legal guardian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not terminate parental rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be approved by court order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict of interest </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. CONSENT FORM <ul><li>RCW 26.33.160(4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given subject to court’s approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No force or effect until court approves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth parent not Native American or Alaskan native ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not presented to court until 48 hours after it is signed or 48 hours after birth, whichever is later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revocable by consenting party any time up to court approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post: must show fraud, duress, incompetency of consentor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After 1 year, no revocation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CONSENT FORM <ul><li>“ I understand that my decision to relinquish the child is an extremely important one, that the legal effect of this relinquishment will be to take from me all legal rights and obligations with respect to the child, and that an order permanently terminating all of my parental rights to the child will be entered. I also understand that there are social services and counseling services available in the community, and that there may be financial assistance available through state and local governmental agencies.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. CONSENT FORM <ul><li>If birth parents’ identities not disclosed then: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ consent is voluntarily executed without disclosure of the name or other identification of the adopting parent.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form must be witnessed by person chosen by birth parent </li></ul>
  16. 16. PETITION FOR RELINQUISHMENT <ul><li>Filed by: birth parent or adoptive parent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent form must accompany it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent by adoptive parents must accompany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition and adoptive consent may be filed before birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies petitioners, child, birth parents, one or more signed consents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Child Welfare Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers & Sailors Civil Relief Act of 1940 applies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notice </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Non-consenting birth parent process </li></ul>
  17. 17. PUTATIVE FATHERS <ul><li>Entitled to notice of hearing terminating parental rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include waiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning and consequence of waiver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. G.A.L. <ul><li>Used for - Birth parent under age 18 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court appoints GAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Order to appoint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigates circumstances; files report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fee </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. POST-ADOPTION COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Before 6/7/90, courts did not approve or enforce </li></ul><ul><li>Now: follow RCW 26.33.295 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written court order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved by all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best interests of adoptee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to follow not grounds for setting aside adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil action </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. BIRTH CERTIFICATE <ul><li>Application for Adoption Registration form </li></ul><ul><li>Reissued birth certificate </li></ul>
  21. 21. ADOPTION FILE ACCESS <ul><li>Adoptee 21 or older </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoptee, birth parent, member of birth parent’s family may petition court to appoint “confidential intermediary” to search for birth parents or adopted child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RCW 26.33.343 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediary does not disclose petitioner’s identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If located, must make discreet, confidential inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if person consents to disclosure, intermediary reports to court, which may order disclosure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If person does not consent, intermediary reports to court and inquiry must end </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>End of Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Take a break and then listen to Part 2. </li></ul>