THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES It wasn't until after efforts by French Baron Pierre De Coubertin and the Greek DimitriosVikelas that the games were brought back to life after nearly 1500 years in the wilderness.
P. Coubertin believed that sport was a very strong power that could inspire a feeling of unity and peace among the many nations of the world.
In 1894 at an international congress, which was actually devised for the study of amateur sports, he voiced his view on the revival of the Olympic Games, and was delighted when the other countries participating in the congress agreed with him. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) was founded that year.
Held in Athens in 1896 at the Panatheniac Stadium, the games heralded a welcomed return to the original beliefs and virtues of the ancient games.
Probably the biggest cheer of the 1896 Olympics was when a Greek Sheppard, Spiridon Louis, was victorious in the most popular of all events, the marathon. The athletes from the United States were also big winners in these games, winning 9 events.
The Olympics have taken place every four years, since the first games in 1896.
The Winter Olympic Games were introduced in 1924, and also took place every four years. However, it wasn't until 1992 that it was decided that the Olympic and Winter Olympic games would not take place in the same calendar year. The Winter Games were moved forward two years to 1994, and would continue to take place at four-year intervals.
Since the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896, the games have continued to grow throughout the years and more and more nations have been taking part, as well as more events being included.
The Olympic Movement is a philosophy created and promoted by the International Olympic Committee. This philosophy advocates using sport not just as a physical activity but also as a means of educating people.
The good sportsmanship, sense of fair play, and respect for fellow athletes that is developed through participation in sports teaches men and women of different races, religions, and nationalities to work peacefully together in competition toward common goals.
The colours of the interlinked Olympic rings were chosen by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), to represent the union of the 5 continents, Australia, Africa , America , Asia and Europe and further signify the meeting of the worlds athletes at the Olympic Games.
The plain white background of the Olympic flag is symbolic of peace throughout the games .
The five colours of the rings from left to right are blue, black and red across the top with yellow and green along the bottom , these colours may be found on most flags of the world and officially hold no other particular significance , although some believe each colour represents a particular continent.
The ancient Greeks believed that fire was given to mankind byPrometheus, and considered fire to have sacred qualities. Eternal flames burned in front of Greek temples, flames lit using the rays of the sun.
The Olympic flame is lit in front of the ruins of the Temple of Hera in Olympia, emphasizing the connection between the ancient Games and the modern Games.
The first such relay took place for the 1936 BerlinGames.
There, the final torch is used to light a cauldron that remains lit until it is extinguished in the Closing Ceremony.
Flame and Torch
The Olympic Oath is taken by one athlete and one judge from the home nation during the Opening Ceremony of every Olympics, acting on behalf of all the competitors and judges. The current form is: “In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams." The oath was first taken by a referee in 1972. The current form of that oath is: "In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Olympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship." The Olympic Oath
1. Each of the five Olympic rings is a different color. Together, they represent the five inhabited continents, although no particular ring is meant to represent any specific continent. 2. As every national flag in the world contains at least one of the flag's six colors (black, blue, green, red, yellow, white), this further symbolizes the universality of the Olympics. 3. The Olympic rings and flag were designed by de Coubertin after the 1912 Gamesin Stockholm. Those Games were the first to include athletes from all five continents. Rings and Flag
Anthem The Olympic Anthem was written for the first modern Games in 1896, composed by Spyros Samaras to lyrics written by KostisPalamas. Each subsequent Olympics through 1956 had its own musical composition, played as the Olympic flag was raised during the Opening Ceremony. Immortal spirit of antiquity Father of the true, beautiful and good, Descend, appear, shed over us thy light Upon this ground and under this sky Which has first witnessed thy unperishable fame Give life and animation to those noble games! Throw wreaths of fadeless flowers to the victors In the race and in the strife! Create in our breasts, hearts of steel! In thy light, plains, mountains and seas Shine in a roseate hue and form a vast temple To which all nations throng to adore thee, Oh immortal spirit of antiquity!
Motto The Olympic motto is Citius—Altius—Fortius, which is Latin for "faster, higher, stronger." The intended meaning is that one's focus should be on bettering one's achievements, rather than on coming in first. The motto has been with the Games from the foundation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. It was proposed by the father of the modern Olympic Games, Pierre de Coubertin, who got it from a speech given by a friend of his, Henri Didon, a Dominican priest and principal of an academy that used sports as part of its educational program.
Release of Doves After the cauldron is lit, doves are released, as a symbol of peace. This was first done in the 1896 Olympics, and then in the 1920 Olympics. Since 1920, this has been an official part of the Opening Ceremony of the Summer Games. The order—first lighting the cauldron, then releasing the doves—is important. In the 1988 Seoul Games, they tried it the other way around. Unfortunately, many of the doves were in the area of the cauldron just before it burst into flames, leading to their unexpected demise.
The Olympic creed was first stated in 1896 by the founder of the modern Olympic games , Baron Pierre de Coubertin , the words of the creed are as follows: "The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well." What is the Olympic creed?
The president of the IOC pronounces the Games closed with the following statement: "I declare the Games of the________(current) Olympiad closed, and in accordance with tradition, I call upon the youth of the world to assemble four years from now at ____________(the site of the next Olympics), to celebrate with us there the Games of the_______ (next) Olympiad." Closing statement
At the Ancient Games, winners were presented with a simple olive tree branch which was cut with a gold-handled knife from a wild olive tree. The Greeks believed that the vitality of the sacred tree was transmitted to the recipient through the branch. At the Modern Games, Olympic medals are presented to the winning athletes who stand on a dais at the completion of their event. A GOLD medal is presented for first place, SILVER for second and BRONZE for third. The host city is responsible for designing the medals within the guidelines set by the IOC. The national anthem of the winner is played as each medalist’s national flag is raised. The Victory Ceremony
MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES I.1896 Athens II.1900 Paris III.1904 St. Louis IV.1908 London V.1912 Stockholm VI.1916 Berlin scheduled cancelled due to WW1 VII.1920 Antwerp VIII.1924 Paris IX.1928 Amsterdam X.1932 Los Angeles XI.1936 Berlin 1940 Tokyo (XII) scheduled, cancelled due to WW2 1944 London (XIII) scheduled, cancelled due to WW2 XIV. 1948 London XV. 1952 Helsinki XVI. 1956 Melbourne XVII. 1960 Rome XVIII. 1964 Tokyo XIX. 1968 Mexico XX. 1972 Munich XXI. 1976 Montreal XXII. 1980 Moscow XXIII. 1984 Los Angeles XXIV. 1988 Seoul XXV. 1992 Barcelona XXVI. 1996 Atlanta XXVII. 2000 Sydney XXVIII. 2004 Athens XXIX. 2008 Beijing XXX. 2012 London XXXI. 2016 Rio Janeiro