IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points
against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m) high hoop (the goal) under
organized rules. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.
Points are scored by shooting the ball
through the basket above; the team
with more points at the end of the
game wins. The ball can be advanced
on the court by bouncing it (dribbling)
or passing it between teammates.
Disruptive physical contact (foul) is not
permitted and there are restrictions on
how the ball can be handled
Through time, basketball has developed to involve common techniques of shooting, passing
and dribbling, as well as players' positions, and offensive and defensive structures. Typically,
the tallest members of a team will play center or one of two forward positions, while shorter
players or those who possess the best ball handling skills and speed, play the guard positions.
While competitive basketball is carefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have
developed for casual play. In some countries, basketball is also a popular spectator sport.
While competitive basketball is primarily an indoor sport, played on a basketball court, less
regulated variations have become exceedingly popular as an outdoor sport among both inner
city and rural groups.
Positions and structures:
Basketball positions in the offensive zone
Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of
basketball. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution, one guard, two forwards,
and two centers or two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s,
more specific positions have evolved, namely:
1. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's offense by
controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time
2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponent's best
perimeter player on defense
3. small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and
dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more
4. power forward: plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense, plays
under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-
5. center: uses size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to
The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will choose to use a three guard
offense, replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. The most commonly
interchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players have
good leadership and ball handling skills.
There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and man-to-man defense. Zone defense
involves players in defensive positions guarding whichever opponent is in their zone. In man-
to-man defense, each defensive player guards a specific opponent and tries to prevent him
from taking action.
Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a team
sport in which two teams of seven players each (six players and a goalkeeper) pass and bounce
a ball to throw it into the goal of the opposing
team. The team with the most goals after two
periods of 30 minutes wins.
Handball which is played indoors has two variants.
One is field handball which was more common in
the past. The other is beach handball. American
handball is a completely different sport.
The modern game is most popular in Europe,
where it is the second most played sport after
football (soccer). The only country in Europe
where it is not professionally played is the United
Kingdom. Handball is not recognised as a national
sport in the United Kingdom.
The game is quite fast and includes body contact
as the defenders try to stop the attackers from
approaching the goal. Contact is only allowed
when the defensive player is completely in front
of the offensive player, i.e. between the offensive
player and the goal, there is referred as a player
sandwich. Any contact from the side or especially
from behind is considered dangerous and is
usually met with penalties. When a defender
successfully stops an attacking player, the play is stopped and restarted by the attacking team
from the spot of the infraction or on the nine meter line. Unlike in basketball where players
are allowed to commit only 5 fouls in a game (6 in the NBA), handball players are allowed an
unlimited number of "faults," which are considered good defense and disruptive to the
attacking team's rhythm.
Goals are quite common in handball; usually both teams score at least 20 goals each, and it is
not uncommon to have a match end 33-31. This was not true in the earliest history of the
game, when the scores were more akin to that of ice hockey. But, as offensive play has
improved, particularly the use of counterattacks (fast breaks) after a failed attack from the
other team, goal scoring has increased.
Players are typically referred to by the position they are playing. The positions are always
denoted from the view of the respective goalkeeper, so that a defender on the right opposes
an attacker on the left. However, not all of the following positions may be occupied depending
on the formation or potential suspensions.
• Left and right wingman. These typically excel at ball control and wide jumps from the
outside of the goal perimeter to get into a better shooting angle at the goal. Teams
usually try to occupy the left position with a right-handed player and vice versa.
• Left and right backcourt. Goal attempts by these players are typically made by jumping
high and shooting over the defenders. Thus, it is usually advantageous to have tall
players for these positions.
• Center backcourt. A player with experience is preferred on this position who acts as
playmaker and the handball equivalent of a basketball point guard.
• Pivot (left and right, if applicable). This player tends to intermingle with the defense,
setting picks and attempting to disrupt the defense formation. This positions requires
the least jumping skills but ball control and physical strength are an advantage.
• Far left and far right. The opponents of the wingmen.
• Half left and half right. The opponents of the left and right backcourts.
• Back center (left and right). Opponent of the pivot.
• Front center. Oppenent of the center backcourt, may also be set against another
specific backcourt player.
Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players are separated by a
net. Each team tries to score points against one another by grounding a ball on the other
team's court under organized rules.
The complete rules of volleyball are extensive, and points are awarded as follows: If the ball
touches the ground outside the court area, the team which made contact with it last loses the
point. If the ball touches the ground on team A's side of the net, team B is awarded a point,
and vice-versa. The ball must be hit over the net to get a point. The team who wins the point
then serves. The first team to reach 25 points wins the set and the first team to win three sets
wins the match.] Teams can contact the ball only three times before the ball crosses the net,
and consecutive contacts must be made by different players. The ball is usually played with the
hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part of
Through time, volleyball has developed to involve common techniques of spiking, passing,
blocking, and setting, as well as specialized player positions and offensive and defensive
structures. Because many plays are made above the top of the net, vertical jumping is an
athletic skill emphasised in volleyball. This article focuses on competitive indoor volleyball,
which is carefully regulated and played indoors. Numerous variations of volleyball have
developed for casual play, including the Olympic spin-off sport beach volleyball.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played
between two teams of eleven players, and is widely considered to be the most popular sport in
the world. It is a football variant played on a rectangular grass or artificial turf field, with a
goal at each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by manoeuvring the ball into
the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeepers are the only players allowed to use their
hands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to kick the ball into
position, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in midair. The team that
scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game,
either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout,
depending on the format of the competition.
• 1 Goalkeeper (GK)
• 2 Defenders
o 2.1 Centre-back (CB)
o 2.2 Sweeper/Libero (SW)
o 2.3 Full-back (FB/RB/LB)
o 2.4 Wingback (WB/RWB/LWB)
• 3 Midfielders
o 3.1 Centre midfielder (CM)
o 3.2 Defensive midfielder (DM)
o 3.3 Attacking midfielder (AM)
o 3.4 Winger (RW/LW) or wide midfielder (LM/RM)
• 4 Forward
o 4.1 Centre forward (CF)
o 4.2 Striker (S)
o 4.3 Deep-lying forward (SS