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  1. 1. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR (LA SOLANA)SPORTS INJURIESPhysical Department3º ESOEUROPEAN SECTIONS<br />Index TOC o "1-3" h z u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc282624346 h 32.LOCO MOTOR SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc282624347 h 32.1. MUSCULAR SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc282624348 h 32.2.OSTEOARTICULAR SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc282624352 h 42.3.TYPES OF JOINTS PAGEREF _Toc282624354 h 5The Joints: PAGEREF _Toc282624355 h 5Fibrous or Fixed Joints: PAGEREF _Toc282624356 h 5Cartilaginous or Slightly Joints: PAGEREF _Toc282624358 h 5Synovial Joints: PAGEREF _Toc282624359 h 53.INJURIES IN YOUR LOCO MOTOR SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc282624360 h 63.1. BONE INJURIES PAGEREF _Toc282624361 h 63.1.1. Bone Fracture PAGEREF _Toc282624362 h 63.1.2. What is termed as Dislocation of Joints PAGEREF _Toc282624363 h 73.1.3. What are shin splints? PAGEREF _Toc282624364 h 73.2.MUSCULAR INJURIES PAGEREF _Toc282624366 h 83.2.1.Muscle Strain PAGEREF _Toc282624367 h 83.2.2.Muscle Tears: PAGEREF _Toc282624368 h 93.2.3 Muscle Cramp PAGEREF _Toc282624369 h 93.3.LIGAMENTS INJURIES PAGEREF _Toc282624370 h 93.3.1.Sprains PAGEREF _Toc282624371 h 93.4.TENDON INJURIES PAGEREF _Toc282624372 h 103.4.1.Tendonitis PAGEREF _Toc282624373 h 103.4.2.Tendon Separations PAGEREF _Toc282624374 h 10<br />INTRODUCTION<br />Sports injuries are not uncommon and can be either acute (sprains, fractures, tears, etc.) or chronic (tendinitis, overuse, etc.) Learn how to recognize and treat the most common sports injuries so they heal properly. Some can be treated at home, and some require a trip to the doctor.<br />LOCO MOTOR SYSTEM<br />2.1. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Muscle is one of the major components of human body. There are more than 650 muscles in our body. In fact, muscles amounts to approximately half of the total body weight of a human.<br />Muscles are made of fibers. These fibers provide flexibility (enable muscle to lengthen and shorten) and help the body in producing movements. Muscles are connected to bones with tendons.<br />Based on the functions these muscles perform and their location in the body muscles are classified in various categories. Skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles are three main categories of muscles. Succeeding paragraphs will provide you brief description about each type of muscles.<br />OSTEOARTICULAR SYSTEM<br />The major portion of vertebrate’s skeleton is formed by calcified connective tissues called bones. Calcium is major component of the bone.  There are approximately two hundred fifty six bones in human body. Bones contain more calcium when compared to other body organs.<br />The skeleton consists of bones and cartilages. A bone is composed of several tissues, predominantly a specialized connective tissue that is, itself, called “bone.” Bones provide a framework of levers, they protect organs such as the brain and heart, their marrow forms certain blood cells, and they store and exchange calcium and phosphate ions. <br />Cartilage is a tough, resilient connective tissue composed of cells and fibers embedded in a firm, gel-like, intercellular matrix. Cartilage is an integral part of many bones, and some skeletal elements are entirely cartilaginous. <br />TYPES OF JOINTS<br />There are 3 main types of joints in the body. Fixed, Slightly movable, and Synovial Joints, are the most common types of joints in the body. The skull is an example of a fixed joint. It does not move. A slightly movable joint allows you to move in a limited way, the spine and vertebrae are an example of this. <br />The Joints:<br />Fibrous or Fixed Joints:<br />64770209550Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints. The union of the spinous processes and vertebrae are fibrous joints. <br />203962093980Cartilaginous or Slightly Joints:<br />-2561590655320Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movement, such as in the spine or HYPERLINK ""ribs.<br />Synovial Joints:<br />Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain* the synovial fluid. * to enclose within fixed limits.<br />INJURIES IN YOUR LOCO MOTOR SYSTEM<br />3.1. BONE INJURIES<br />3.1.1. Bone Fracture<br />Break in the bone is known as fracture. Fracture is one of the most common injury most of the people get at least once during their lifetime. Age factor plays great role in fractures. Severity and possibility of fractures is noticed more in the aged people. <br />Symptoms of Fracture:<br />Each individual may experience different symptoms depending on the location and impact of fracture. Following are some of the common symptoms of any fracture.<br />Swelling of the affected area <br />Inability to carry out functions of the injured area <br />Deformity of limb.<br />Bruising around the affected area.<br />Causes of fracture:<br />It is known that fracture means breaking of bone.  Such break can occur due to reasons like fall, accident etc. In short, fracture is caused due to inability of bone to withstand the force exerted on it.<br />Different forms of Fractures:<br />left237490Fractures can be classified in different categories based on the impact of the fracture.  Some of the types of fractures include simple facture, comminuted facture, impacted fracture, compound fracture, complete fracture and incomplete fracture.<br />Simple Fracture: In this type of fracture bone breaks into two pieces. <br />Stress: It is a peculiar form of fracture. In this type of fracture, hairline break occurs which is usually invisible (even on X-ray) during first few weeks from the time of pain <br />Comminuted Fracture : In this form the bone is crushed into number of pieces <br />Impacted Fracture: In this type of fracture embedding of one bone fragment into another bone fragment is apparent.<br />Compound fracture: It is also known by common name open fracture. In this type the bone protrudes through skin <br />Complete Fracture: Bone snaps totally in two or more pieces <br />Incomplete Fracture: Though the bone develops crack it is not separated.<br />Treatments for Fracture:<br />Use of splint or cast for ensuring immobilization <br />Realigning the bone with the help of surgery known as open reduction. <br />Rehabilitation is conducted as preventive measure against stiffness.<br />3.1.2. What is termed as Dislocation of Joints<br />1841548895<br />The joint which loses its original place or slips out from its natural place is termed in medical terminology as ‘dislocated joint’. <br />Following are some of the common signs and symptoms of dislocated joint. <br />Swelling around the joint area <br />Severe pain.<br />Difficulty in moving (immobility) the affected joint <br />Treatment of Dislocated Joint<br />Medication, the main aim of medication is to relieve the pain and reduce swelling <br />In certain severe cases of joint dislocation a surgery may be recommended. Such surgery is conducted to repair or tighten ligaments that have been stretched as a result of joint dislocation<br />3.1.3. What are shin splints?<br />18415591185The term shin splints is a name often given to any pain at the front of the lower leg. However, true shin splints symptoms occur at the front inside of the shin bone and can arise from a number of causes.<br />This has lead to the use of terms such as Medial Tibial Traction Periostitis.<br />Symptoms of shin splints:<br />Pain over the inside lower half of the shin. <br />Pain at the start of exercise which often eases as the session continues <br />Pain often returns after activity and may be at its worse the next morning. <br />Sometimes some swelling. <br />Lumps and bumps may be felt when feeling the inside of the shin bone. <br />A redness over the inside of the shin (not always present). <br />What can the athlete do about shin splints?<br />Rest to allow the injury to heal. <br />Apply HYPERLINK ""ice or cold therapy in the early stages.<br />Stretch the muscles of the lower leg. Wear HYPERLINK ""shock absorbing insoles in shoes. Maintain fitness with other non weight bearing exercises such as swimming, cycling or running in water. <br />Apply heat and use a heat retainer or shin and calf support after the initial acute stage and particularly before training. <br /> MUSCULAR INJURIES<br />Strains, Tears and cramps and repetitive stress injury are some of the most common forms of muscle injuries.<br />Muscles are important component of human body.  Almost all actions of the body are regulated and controlled by muscles.  Muscles provide shape and strength to our body.  Important functions like breathing, blood circulation, digestion is performed by various organs only with the help of muscles.<br />Muscle Strain<br />Muscle strain or muscle pull or even a muscle tear implies damage to a muscle or its attaching tendons. You can put undue pressure on muscles during the course of normal daily activities, with sudden, quick heavy lifting, during sports, or while performing work tasks.lefttop<br />Muscle damage can be in the form of tearing (part or all) of the muscle fibers and the tendons attached to the muscle. The tearing of the muscle can also damage small blood vessels, causing local bleeding (bruising) and pain (caused by irritation of the nerve endings in the area).<br />Muscle Strain Symptoms:<br />Swelling, bruising or redness, or open cuts as a consequence of the injury <br />Pain at rest <br />Pain when the specific muscle or the joint in relation to that muscle is used <br />Weakness of the muscle or tendons (A HYPERLINK ""sprain, in contrast, is an injury to a joint and its ligaments.) <br />Inability to use the muscle at all<br />Treatment:<br />Note: Ice or heat should not be applied to bare skin. Always use a protective covering such as a towel between the ice or heat and the skin.<br />Take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as HYPERLINK ""aspirin and HYPERLINK ""ibuprofen to reduce the pain and to improve your ability to move around. <br />Protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as the PRICE formula) can help the affected muscle. Here's how: First, remove all constrictive clothing, including jewelry, in the area of muscle strain.<br />Muscle Tears:<br />-29210493395The most common cause for muscle tears occur from strenuous activity, particularly when the ligaments and muscles are pulled or strained. This can include everything from landing badly on an ankle or walking or HYPERLINK ""exercising on uneven surfaces. This type of injury generally causes sprains in knees or ankles. Strains, or tears to the muscles or tendons, occur from traumatic injuries, such as a slip or fall. Strenuous activity, such as lifting heavy weight without even distribution in the body or any kind of repetitive activity, can also cause strains, particularly in the back, neck, or shoulders.<br />3.2.3 Muscle Cramp<br />A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax.<br />Several vitamin deficiency states may directly or indirectly lead to muscle cramps. These include deficiencies of HYPERLINK ""thiamine (B1), HYPERLINK ""pantothenic acid (B5), and HYPERLINK ""pyridoxine (B6). The role of deficiency of these vitamins in causing cramps is unknown.<br />LIGAMENTS INJURIES<br />94615372745Your ligaments are tough, elastic-like bands that connect bone to bone and hold your joints in place. A sprain is an injury to a ligament caused by excessive stretching. The ligament can have a partial tear, or it can be completely torn apart.<br />Sprains<br />1352550558165Of all sprains, ankle and knee sprains occur most often. Sprained ligaments swell rapidly and are painful. Generally, the greater the pain, the more severe the injury is. For most minor sprains, you probably can treat the injury yourself.<br />Treatment:<br />Protect the injured limb from further injury by not using the joint. You can do this using anything from splints to crutches.<br />Rest the injured limb. But don't avoid all activity. Even with an ankle sprain, you can usually still exercise other muscles to minimize deconditioning.<br />Ice the area. Use a cold pack, a slush bath or a compression sleeve filled with cold water to help limit swelling after an injury. Try to ice the area as soon as possible after the injury and continue to ice it for 10 to 15 minutes four times a day for 48 hours. If you use ice, be careful not to use it too long, as this could cause tissue damage.<br />Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Compressive wraps or sleeves made from elastic or neoprene are best.<br />Elevate the injured limb above your heart whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling.<br />TENDON INJURIES<br />Tendonitis<br />332740302260Tendonitis is the inflammation of a tendon caused by irritation due to prolonged or abnormal use. The Achilles tendon is a common site where tendonitis occurs.<br />Most tendonitis can be avoid with proper warm-up exercises, rest, and gradual increase in physical activity:<br />Symptoms of tendonitis:<br />Pain or tenderness on the tendon near or around a joint.<br />Stiffness and pain on the tendon, which restricts movement.<br />Occasionally, mild swelling, numbness, or a tingling sensation at the joint.<br />Tendonitis is usually named after the affected tendon or joint. For example, tendonitis of the Achilles tendon is known as “Achilles tendonitis”. Similarly, tendonitis resulting from exercises strain in the forearm and elbow is often referred to as “tennis elbow”.<br />Treatment of tendonitis:<br />Rest.<br />Cold and heat therapy<br />Casts and splints.<br />A doctor may also prescribe oral medication for inflammation and pain.<br />Tendon Separations<br />Tendons are the fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bone in the human body. A key feature of all tendons is their capacity to withstand significant forces.<br />When a rupture of the tendon occurs, the athlete will not be able to move very efficiently, as the structures are now disconnected and unstable.<br />Rehabilitation should be undertaken with the following considerations:<br />46990605155Assess the quality and construction of the athletic shoes to be worn. To reduce the risk of a recurrence of the tendon rupture, the shoe should be well cushioned in the heel to lessen the forces of the heel strike on impact. Where the alignment of the lower leg is believed to be a factor in the cause of the rupture, an orthotic should be considered.<br />A thorough warm up, with attention paid to the stretching of the entire lower leg structure, is of critical importance.<br />There should be a very gradual increase in both training intensity and duration in the rehabilitative process; such increases should not exceed 5% to 7% per week.<br />Hard running, such as hill running or sprinting, should be avoided in this phase.<br />