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  1. 1. 11169651107440<br />CLIMBING<br />3º ESO SECCIONES<br />PHYSICAL EDUCACION<br />Index: TOC o "1-3" h z u 1.1.INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc293153573 h 32.1.ROPE PAGEREF _Toc293153574 h 32.2.CARABINERS PAGEREF _Toc293153575 h 32.3.QUICKDRAWS PAGEREF _Toc293153576 h 32.4.HARNESSES PAGEREF _Toc293153577 h 42.5.BELAY DEVICES PAGEREF _Toc293153578 h 42.6.RAPPEL devices (descenders) PAGEREF _Toc293153579 h 42.7.FIGURE EIGHT PAGEREF _Toc293153580 h 42.8.HELMET PAGEREF _Toc293153581 h 42.9.CLIMBING SHOES PAGEREF _Toc293153582 h 42.10.CHALK BAG PAGEREF _Toc293153583 h 43.1.STYLES OF ROCK CLIMBING PAGEREF _Toc293153584 h 4<br />CLIMBING<br />INTRODUCTION<br />393065206375Climbing is the activity of using one's hands and feet (or indeed any other part of the body) to ascend a steep object. It is done both for recreation (to reach an inaccessible place, or for its own enjoyment) and professionally, as part of activities such as maintenance of a structure, or military operations.<br />Rock, ice and tree climbing all usually use ropes for safety or aid. Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century.<br />ROCK-CLIMBING EQUIPMENT<br />126365262255ROPE<br />Ropes used for climbing can be divided into two classes: dynamic ropes and low elongation ropes. Dynamic ropes are designed to absorb the energy of a falling climber, and are usually used as Belaying ropes. When a climber falls, the rope stretches, reducing the maximum force experienced by the climber, their belayer, and equipment. Low elongation ropes stretch much less, and are usually used in anchoring systems. They are also used for abseiling (rappeling) and as fixed ropes climbed with ascenders.<br />CARABINERS<br />454596582702401263657298690Carabiners are metal loops with spring-loaded gates (openings), used as connectors. Once made primarily from steel, almost all carabiners for recreational climbing are made from a light weight aluminum alloy. Steel carabiners are harder wearing, but much heavier and often used by instructors when working with groups.<br />QUICKDRAWS<br />Quickdraws (often referred to as "draws") are used by climbers to connect ropes to bolt anchors, or to other traditional protection, allowing the rope move through the anchoring system with minimal friction. A quickdraw consists of two non-locking carabiners connected together by a short, pre-sewn loop of webbing. <br />HARNESSES<br />32639019050A harness is a system used for connecting the rope to the climber. Most harnesses used in climbing are preconstructed and are worn around the pelvis and hips, although other types are used occasionally.<br />BELAY DEVICES<br />326390509270Belay devices are mechanical friction brake devices used when belaying. They allow control of the belay rope while their main purpose is to allow locking off of the rope with minimal effort. Multiple kinds of belay devices exist, and some of which may additionally be used as descenders, for controlled descent on a rope, that is, abseiling or rappeling.<br />An example of traditional belay is the Body Belay or the Hip Belay, where the rope is wrapped around the body to provide enough friction to catch a climber. This is often used in Alpine climbing where efficiency is important.<br />RAPPEL devices (descenders)<br />These devices are friction brakes which are designed for descending ropes. Many belay devices can be used as descenders, but there are descenders that are not practical for belaying, since it is too difficult to feed rope through them, or because they do not provide sufficient friction to hold a hard fall.<br />FIGURE EIGHT<br />259715808990Sometimes just called "eight", this device is most commonly used as a descender, but may also be used as a belay device in the absence of more appropriate equipment, although it does not provide enough holding power for this to be recommended.<br />It is an aluminium (or occasionally steel) "8" shaped device, but comes in several varieties. Its main advantage is efficient heat dissipation. A square eight, used in rescue applications, is better for rappelling than the traditional 8.<br />Figure eights allow fast but controlled descent on a rope. They are easy to set up and are effective in dissipating the heat caused by friction but have a tendency to put a twist in the rope. Holding the brake hand off to the side twists the rope, whereas holding the brake hand straight down, parallel to the body, allows a controlled descent without twisting the rope. An 8 descender can wear a rope quicker than a tube style belay/rappel device because of the many bends it puts into the rope. Many sport climbers also avoid them because of the extra bulk an 8 puts on the rack. However, many ice climbers prefer to use the 8, because it is much easier to thread with stiff or frozen rope.<br />HELMET<br />2031365431165The climbing helmet is an often-disregarded piece of safety equipment that primarily protects the skull against impact forces and/or falling debris. The primary concern for a helmet is, "whipping." If a lead climber allows the rope to wrap behind his/her ankle, a fall will flip the climber over and consequently, impact the back of the head. Furthermore, any effects of pendulum from a fall that has not been taken account by the belayer may also result in head injury. Helmets have saved many climbers from serious injury or death.<br />Based on a number of factors, climbers may or may not decide to wear a helmet: the type of climb being attempted, concerns about weight, reductions in agility, added encumbrances, or simple vanity. Additionally, there is less incentive to wear a helmet in artificial climbing environments like indoor climbing walls (where routes and holds are regularly maintained) than on natural multi-pitch routes or ice climbing routes (where falling rocks and/or ice are likely).<br />CLIMBING SHOES<br />440690511810Specifically designed foot wear is usually worn for climbing. To increase the grip of the foot on a climbing wall or rock face due to friction, the shoe is covered with a vulcanized rubber layer. Usually, shoes are only a few millimetres thick and fit very snuggly around the foot. Stiffer shoes are used for "edging", more compliant ones for "smearing". Some have foam padding on the heel to make descents and rappels more comfortable. Climbing shoes can be re-soled which decreases the cost and environmental impact of purchasing new shoes.<br />CHALK BAG<br />4269740257175These are hand-sized fabric bags for holding climbers' chalk. Chalk bags are usually cylinder- or pouch-shaped and have openings that are controlled by drawstrings. The inner fabric is usually fleece, which traps chalk powder. The outer fabric may be brightly coloured or patterned. Chalk bags are usually attached to the back of a waist belt for easy access by either hand during a climb.<br />ROCK CLIMBING<br />Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling. Rock climbing competitions have objectives of completing the route in the quickest possible time or the farthest along an ever increasingly harder route. Rock climbing is similar to scrambling (another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations), but climbing is generally differentiated because of the use of hands to support the climber's weight as well as to provide balance.<br />STYLES OF ROCK CLIMBING<br />250190947420Most of the climbing done in modern times is considered free climbing -- climbing using one's own physical strength, with equipment used solely as protection and not as support—as opposed to aid climbing, the gear-dependent form of climbing that was dominant in the sport's earlier days. Free climbing is typically divided into several styles that differ from one another depending on the equipment used and the configurations of their belay, rope and anchor systems (or the lack thereof).<br />Aid Climbing - Still the most popular method of climbing big walls. Progress is accomplished by repeatedly placing and weighting gear which is used directly to aid ascent and enhance safety.<br />Free climbing - The most commonly used method to ascend climbs refers to climbs where the climber's own physical strength and skill are relied on to accomplish the climb. <br />Traditional climbing - Traditional or Trad Climbing involves rock climbing routes in which protection against falls is placed by the climber while ascending. Gear is used to protect against falls but not to aid the ascent directly.<br />250190144780Sport Climbing - Unlike Traditional Rock Climbing, Sport Climbing involves the use of protection (bolts) or permanent anchors which are attached to the rock walls.<br />Bouldering - Climbing on short, low routes without the use of the safety rope that is typical of most other styles. <br />Free soloing (not to be confused with free climbing) is single-person climbing without the use of any rope or protection system whatsoever. If a fall occurs and the climber is not over water (as in the case of deep water soloing), the climber is likely to be killed or seriously injured. <br />Indoor Climbing<br />Indoor climbing - With indoor rock climbing you can train year round and improve your climbing skills and techniques.<br />755015100330Deep Water Soloing - Similar to free soloing in that the climber is unprotected and without a rope, but different in that if the climber falls, it is into deep water instead of on to the ground. Deep water soloing over salt water reduces the life of climbing shoes.<br />Rope soloing - Solo climbing with a rope secured at the beginning of the climb allowing a climber to self-belay as they advance. Once the pitch is completed the soloist must descend their rope to clean their gear and reclimb the pitch. This form of climbing can be conducted free or as a form of aid climbing.<br />Simul climbing - When two climbers move at the same time. <br />