English grammar class 12

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Modal verbs (introduction)
Have to and must
Use to and Be used to

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English grammar class 12

  1. 1. English class 12 Elementary level http://learnenglishesol.weebly.com Juan José Simón Pérez
  2. 2. MODALS (introduction)  Los verbos modales (modals / modal verbs) se utilizan para expresar modalidad. En concreto, expresan: 1. Posibilidad 2. Probabilidad 3. Habilidad 4. Deber
  3. 3. MODALS (introduction)  Los verbos modales son: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Can Could Must May Might Will Would Shall Should
  4. 4. MODALS (introduction)  Los verbos auxiliares primarios: 1. Son to be, to have y to do. 2. Pueden funcionar como verbo principal (sin necesidad de otro verbo) o como auxiliar de otro verbo principal.  Los verbos modales son auxiliares pero siempre van acompañados del verbo principal, ya que no son primarios. He can sing / I must study / They will come
  5. 5. MODALS (introduction)  La siguiente agrupación de modales es solo una muestra. Existen muchas agrupaciones dependiendo del criterio a aplicar. 1. 2. 3. 4. Posibilidad: can, could, may, might. Probabilidad: can, could, might, would, will. Habilidad: can, could. Deber: must, should, shall.
  6. 6. MODALS (introduction)  Los verbos modales son verbos auxiliares: permiten la inversión del sujeto con el auxiliar en preguntas y la adición de NOT en negaciones. You can swim / Can you swim? / You can’t swim  Todos los verbos modales tienen un infinitivo como complemento (incluso en la 3ª persona singular). I must go / They may come / He should study
  7. 7. HAVE TO and MUST  HAVE TO = tener que (NO es un modal) 1. Expresa obligación (externa) 2. Se utiliza en pasado, presente y futuro. 3. Se conjuga como verbo regular I have to go He has to work today Does he have to go?
  8. 8. HAVE TO and MUST  DON’T HAVE TO = No tener que 1. Expresa que no es necesario hacer algo 2. Se utiliza en pasado, presente y futuro. 3. Se conjuga como verbo regular I didn’t have to go with you, it wasn’t necessary. You don’t have to stay (but you can if you want) I don’t have to be at the meeting, so I don’t know if I’ll go
  9. 9. HAVE TO and MUST  MUST = tener que (es un modal) 1. Expresa responsabilidad, necesidad (interna) 2. Solo se utiliza para presente y futuro, sin cambiar la forma. 3. Nunca se utiliza TO entre must y el verbo principal I have to go – I must go He has to work today – He must work today Does he have to go? – Must he go?
  10. 10. HAVE TO and MUST  MUSTN’T = No poder (prohibición) 1. Expresa prohibición de hacer algo 2. Nunca se utiliza TO entre mustn’t y el verbo principal 3. Significado opuesto a DON’T HAVE TO You have to keep the secret, you mustn’t tell anyone Sorry Sir, this is a private party, you mustn’t be here
  11. 11. HAVE TO and MUST  Exercise. Complete the sentences with have/has to, don’t have to, must, and mustn’t. 1. This is a hospital, you ______ smoke here! 2. I work tomorrow, so I ______ go to bed early. 3. You ______ respect the speed limits in a car. 4. Thanks for your present, next time you _____ bring anything. 5. We are going to Scotland so we _____ study English. 6. I ______ work every day since 8:00 AM. 7. She can’t see well, so she ____ wear glasses.
  12. 12. HAVE TO and MUST  Exercise. Complete the sentences with have/has to, don’t have to, must, and mustn’t. 1. This is a hospital, you MUSN’T smoke here! 2. I work tomorrow, so I MUST go to bed early. 3. You HAVE TO respect the traffic lights. 4. Thanks for your present, next time you DON’T HAVE TO bring anything. 5. We are going to Scotland so we MUST study English. 6. I HAVE TO work every day since 8:00 AM. 7. She can’t see well, so she HAS TO wear glasses.
  13. 13. USED TO…/BE USED TO…  Used to: (solía…) 1. Es un verbo regular, es el pasado de USE TO, se utiliza para expresar acciones que ocurrían frecuentemente en el pasado pero no en el presente. 2. Al ser regular, utiliza DID en preguntas y DIDN’T en negaciones I used to play football when I was younger Did you use to wake up early when you went to school?
  14. 14. USED TO…/BE USED TO…  Be used to: (estar acostumbrado a…) 1. Aquí USED es un adjetivo. 2. Se forma con el verbo TO BE + USED TO 3. El verbo to be puede ir en cualquier tiempo y forma I can wake up at 7:00, I am used to wake up early. He had hard times in New Your, he wasn’t used to so many people.
  15. 15. USED TO…/BE USED TO…  Exercise. Complete the sentences with used to or Be used to (in the correct form) 1. She ______ to cook herself, so she always bought fast food. 2. I ______ watch TV a lot, but now I don’t watch it too much. 3. They didn’t like the new neighbours, they ______ to live with noises around. 4. Did you _____ to smoke when you were sixteen? 5. I enjoy reading and I _______ to read every day, so I’m not afraid of the reading part of the exam.
  16. 16. USED TO…/BE USED TO…  Exercise. Complete the sentences with used to or Be used to (in the correct form) 1. She WASN’T USED to cook herself, so she always bought fast food. 2. I USED TO watch TV a lot, but now I don’t watch it too much. 3. They didn’t like the new neighbours, they WEREN’T USED to live with noises around. 4. Did you USED to smoke when you were sixteen? 5. I enjoy reading and I AM USED to read every day, so I’m not afraid of the reading part of the exam.
  17. 17. Thank you for your attention!

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