FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT
EXCHANGER DESIGN
Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. Ramesh K. Shah and Dušan P. Sekulic
Copyright...
FUNDAMENTALS OF
HEAT EXCHANGER
DESIGN
Ramesh K. Shah
Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York
Formerly at De...
This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1*
Copyright # 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved
Published by J...
Contents
Preface xv
Nomenclature xix
1 Classification of Heat Exchangers 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Classification According t...
2.2 Interactions Among Design Considerations 93
Summary 94
References 94
Review Questions 95
Problems 95
3 Basic Thermal D...
3.11 Solution Methods for Determining Exchanger Effectiveness 212
3.11.1 Exact Analytical Methods 213
3.11.2 Approximate Me...
5.2 The "-NTUo Method 316
5.2.1 Dimensionless Groups 316
5.2.2 Influence of Core Rotation and Valve Switching Frequency 320...
6.8 Pressure Drop Dependence on Geometry and Fluid Properties 418
Summary 419
References 420
Review Questions 420
Problems...
7.8.2 Gases as Participating Media 538
Summary 542
References 544
Review Questions 548
Problems 553
8 Heat Exchanger Surfa...
9.4.3 Rating a PHE 637
9.4.4 Sizing a PHE 645
9.5 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 646
9.5.1 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop...
11.2.3 Temperature Difference Distributions for Parallelflow and
Counterflow Exchangers 748
11.2.4 Temperature Distributions ...
Review Questions 855
Problems 859
13 Fouling and Corrosion 863
13.1 Fouling and its Effect on Exchanger Heat Transfer and P...
Preface
Over the past quarter century, the importance of heat exchangers has increased immen-
sely from the viewpoint of e...
To provide comprehensive information for heat exchanger design and analysis in a
book of reasonable length, we have opted ...
develop good understanding of the intricacies of heat exchanger design after going
through this material and prior to emba...
University by Dr. Peter Jones, Southern Methodist University by Dr. Donald Price,
University of Tennessee by Professor Edw...
NOMENCLATURE
The dimensions for each symbol are represented in both the SI and English systems of
units, where applicable....
B parameter for a thin fin with end leakage allowed, he=mkf , dimensionless
Bi Biot number, Bi ¼ hð=2Þ=kf for the fin analys...
Dh;w hydraulic diameter of the window section, m, ft
Dotl diameter of the outer tube limit (see Fig. 8.9), m, ft
Dp port o...
*H1 thermal boundary condition referring to constant axial wall heat flux with
constant peripheral wall temperature
*H2 the...
‘ fin height or fin length for heat conduction from primary surface to either fin
tip or midpoint between plates for symmetri...
Nt;c number of tubes at the tube bundle centerline cross section
Nt; p number of tubes per pass
Nt;w number of tubes in th...
, m, ft
} deposition probability function, dimensionless
Pc cold-gas flow period, duration of the cold-gas stream in the ma...
p porosity of a matrix, a ratio of void volume to total volume of a matrix, rh
,
dimensionless
p* ratio of cold-fluid inlet pressure to hot-fluid inlet pressure, pc;i=ph;i, dimension-
less
pd fin pattern ...
R* total thermal resistance (wall, fouling, and convective) on the enhanced (or
plain with subscript p) ‘‘outside’’ surfac...
Ts steam temperature, 8C, 8F
Tw wall temperature, 8C, 8F
T1 ambient fluid temperature, free stream temperature beyond the e...
Xd diagonal pitch, ðX2
t þ X2
‘ Þ1=2
, m, ft
Xd* ratio of the diagonal pitch to the tube outside diameter in a circular tu...
chevron angle for a PHE chevron plate measured from the axis parallel to the
plate length (
908) (see Fig. 1.18c or 7.28), rad, deg
heat transfer surface area density: ratio of total transfer area on one fluid side
of a plate-fin heat exchanger to the volu...
* coefficient of thermal expansion, 1=T for a perfect gas, 1/K, 1/8R

 unbalance factor, ðÅc=ÃcÞ=ðÅh=ÃhÞ or Cc=Ch in Chapter...
‘ laminar (viscous) sublayer thickness in a turbulent boundary layer, m, ft
otl shell-to-tube outer limit diameter clearan...
b angle between two radii intersected at the inside shell wall with the baffle cut
(see Fig. 8.9), rad unless explicitly men...
i fractional distribution of the ith shaped passage, dimensionless
ÁTm=ðTh;i À Tc;iÞ, dimensionless
removal resistance [sc...
o outlet to the exchanger when used as a subscript with the temperature
opt optimal
otl outer tube limit in a shell-and-tu...
1 Classification of Heat Exchangers
A variety of heat exchangers are used in industry and in their products. The objective ...
conduction. However, in a heat pipe heat exchanger, the heat pipe not only acts as a
separating wall, but also facilitates...
A heat exchanger consists of heat transfer elements such as a core or matrix containing
the heat transfer surface, and flui...
1.2.1.1 Direct-Transfer Type Exchangers. In this type, heat transfers continuously
from the hot fluid to the cold fluid thro...
and-tube and plate heat exchangers, although they are also considered as recuperators.
Recuperators are further subclassifi...
the thermal energy from the hot gas is stored in the matrix wall, and thus the hot gas is
being cooled during the matrix h...
initial temperature difference (Th;i À Tf ;i){
is reduced due to fluidization, the exchanger
effectiveness is lower, and henc...
exchangers is beyond the scope of this book and is not covered. These exchangers may be
further classified as follows.
1.2....
(213 ft2
/ft3
){
or a hydraulic diameter Dh 6 mm (1
4 in.) for operating in a gas stream and
400 m2
/m3
(122 ft2
/ft3
) or...
(m2
/m3
) and the hydraulic diameter Dh,{
(mm), which is the tube inside or outside
diameter D (mm) for a thin-walled circ...
(or Dh) scale, the short vertical sides of
a rectangle indicate the range of surface area density (or hydraulic diameter) ...
in this figure is either
1 or
2,
defined as follows. For plate heat exchangers, plate-fin exchangers, and regenerators,
1 ¼
Ah
Vh
or
Ac
Vc
ð1:1Þ
For tube-fin exchangers and shell-and-tube exchangers,
2 ¼
Ah
Vtotal
or
Ac
Vtotal
ð1:2Þ
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SURFACE COMPACTNESS 9
{
The unit conversion throughout the bo...
Here A is the heat transfer surface area, V the exchanger volume, and the subscripts h and
c denote hot and cold fluid side...
1 is simply designated as
and
2 is designated as :
¼
1  ¼
2 ð1:3Þ
Note that both
and  (with the definitions noted above) are used in defining the surface
area densities of a plate-fin surface; however, only...
has no meaning in this case. The following specific
values are used in preparing Fig. 1.4:
. For a shell-and-tube exchanger...
(m2
/m3
) and Dh (mm) are related as
¼ 3333=Dh.
10 CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
FIGURE 1.4 Heat transfer surface area density spectrum of exchanger surfac...
Note that some industries quote the total surface area (of hot- and cold-fluid sides) in
their exchanger specifications. How...
and  as given above.
Based on the foregoing definition of a compact surface, a tube bundle having 5 mm
(0.2 in.) diameter t...
or  varies inversely with the tube diameter, the 25.4 mm
(1 in.) diameter tubes used in a power plant condenser result in ...
on the order of 1870 m2
/m3
(570 ft2
/ft3
) on the air side, which is equivalent
to 1.8 mm (0.07 in.) diameter tubes. The ...
V ð1:4Þ
where q is the heat transfer rate, ÁTm the true mean temperature difference, and U the
overall heat transfer coeffici...
value minimizes exchanger volume V
for specified q=ÁTm. As explained in Section 7.4.1.1, compact surfaces (having small Dh)...
. Flexibility in distributing surface area on the hot and cold sides as warranted by
design considerations
. Generally, su...
are specialized, we concentrate here only on the four major construction types noted
above.
Although the -NTU and MTD meth...
The three most common types of shell-and-tube exchangers are (1) fixed tubesheet
design, (2) U-tube design, and (3) floating...
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Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
Fundamentals of heat exchanger design
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Fundamentals of heat exchanger design

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  • thank you very much
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  • I have downloaded it but not read yet, i hope i will fullfill what i was looking for thanks for uploading
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