0
Children and Youth in Sustainable
Development

Juan Felipe Sanchez, Senior Children and Youth Specialist
HDNCY, The World ...
Underpinning Concepts

02/21/2006

JF Sanchez - The World Bank

2
Concepts: The Intergenerational
Transmission of Poverty

Source: Moore, K, quoted in UN WYR 2003

02/21/2006

JF Sanchez -...
Why Children? Why Youth?

•Demographic urgency

•Economic efficiency
•Political imperative
•Crucial to achieve MDGs

The e...
Concepts: Children and Youth Assets
Children & Youth Assets (forms of
capital)
•Human –

e.g. health, nutrition,
hygiene/s...
Concepts: Determinants of Children and Youth Assets
Children and Youth Assets
(forms of capital)
Enabling Policies,
Instit...
Concepts: Children and Youth

Maternal/neo-natal
stage
Early childhood

0-5
years
Children

Growing up healthy

and

6-14 ...
Concepts: The Life Cycle Framework
CHILDREN AND YOUTH FACE DIFFERENT
VULNERABILITIES AT DIFFERENT AGES
The main stages in ...
Concepts: Identifying Risks and Opportunities
with a Life-Cycle Framework

Many of the
greatest
risks are
concentrated
in ...
Concepts: Risks, Determinants, and Outcomes Are
Linked
Vertically Along the Life Cycle

Ages 0-5 (Early Child Care)

Ages ...
Example of Missed Opportunities and Outcomes Along the Life Cycle
MISSED OPPORTUNITIES DURING EARLY YEARS (AGES 0-5)



...
Policies, institutions, programs need to
manage opportunities and risks around 5
related transitions
Progressing
through
s...
Policy Pillars
• Opportunities: Broaden options for young
people

• Agency: Enable capable and responsible
decision-making...
Social Risk Management Strategies

Source: World Bank HDNCY
2004

JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org
Children and Youth: Sustainable Development Cycle

Outcomes
(effects on C&Y wellbeing)

Changes in Children
and Youth Asse...
Integrating Children & Youth Into
Cross Sector Programs

02/21/2006

JF Sanchez - The World Bank

17
Integrating Children and Youth (C&Y) into Cross
Sector Program Cycles
Dialogues/participation at all stages of
strategy/po...
Building Blocks for Integrated Children and
Youth Investments Along the Life Cycle
Age

25

Livelihoods

Life-long
learnin...
Enabling policies, institutions and processes
• Policy Environment:
•

Economic growth, targeted development, policy, know...
Participation
• Inclusion, youth at the
development table
• Youth in civil society dialogues
• Youth voices and links to c...
Supportive families and communities
• Household level demand factors
• Social recognition of youth potential
• Youth-frien...
Investing in the young -and
engaging them in development
processes- will lead to
healthier and safer
communities, enabling...
Towards Age-specific Cross-sector Programs:

Children

02/21/2006

JF Sanchez - The World Bank

24
Building Blocks for Cross-sector Programs Along the Life Cycle:

Investing Early in Life…
Age

25

Livelihoods
and
employm...
Examples of Cross-sector Interdependencies to Achieve
Children Outcomes
Preventing child mortality depends on:

•Long-term...
Example: Malnutrition

Mother’s Education
(feeding practices)
•Public Health:
breastfeeding / weaning
practices; mother’s
...
Towards Age-specific Cross-sector Programs:

Youth

02/21/2006

JF Sanchez - The World Bank

28
Building Blocks for Cross-sector Programs Along the Life Cycle:

… Continue Investing in Youth
Age

25

Livelihoods
and
em...
Example: Reaching School Drop-outs

Institutional
capacity building

•Social Funds:
institutional
capacity
building,
munic...
An Example of Cross-sector Interdependencies:
Enhancing the Education – Employment Nexus
(transition to work)

Improving q...
Youth are not to be feared or
perceived just as a ‘problem’ or
an issue to be solved sometime in
the future.

The young ar...
Annexes

02/21/2006

JF Sanchez - The World Bank

33
Annex 1: MDGs on Children & Youth
Outcomes are the measure
of success:

Within the 8 broad MDGs there
are specific indica...
Annex 2
Ages 0-5—MDGs and Risks
Relevant MDG Target

Relevant Risks

•

Reduce prevalence of under-weight
children from --...
Annex 3

Ages 6-14: MDGs, Risks and Programs
Relevant MDG Target
1.

2.

Relevant Risks

Raise the net enrolment rate
in p...
Annex 4

Ages 15-24: MDGs and Risks
Relevant MDG Target
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

Slow the increase in
spread of HIV/AIDs by
2005 ...
Example: Risk Factors For Children and Youth in Urban Settings
Urban enclaves of poverty, high population densities, low ...
Example: Young People Affected by Violence
Risk factors

•

Poverty/inequality of wealth

•

Lack of economic options due
...
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Children and youth in sustainable development

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Children and Youth assets (social, human, and other forms of capital) can be decreased or increased by the interaction between the context they live in, the policies and programs they have access to, and the individual choices they -or their caretakers- make. The presentation then presents a model for integrating cross sector interventions to build a virtuous cycle of sustainable development for and with children and youth.

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Transcript of "Children and youth in sustainable development"

  1. 1. Children and Youth in Sustainable Development Juan Felipe Sanchez, Senior Children and Youth Specialist HDNCY, The World Bank, 2006
  2. 2. Underpinning Concepts 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 2
  3. 3. Concepts: The Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty Source: Moore, K, quoted in UN WYR 2003 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank
  4. 4. Why Children? Why Youth? •Demographic urgency •Economic efficiency •Political imperative •Crucial to achieve MDGs The earlier the investment, the longer the benefits and, usually, the lower the costs: •Investing in children: •Highest leverage point for investments to build human / social capital •Investing in youth: •Preserves benefits of earlier investments in children •Counteracts lack of earlier investments •Has added value of immediate intergenerational effects as youth become new parents Source: HDNCY 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 4
  5. 5. Concepts: Children and Youth Assets Children & Youth Assets (forms of capital) •Human – e.g. health, nutrition, hygiene/sanitation, education/life skills •Social – e.g. household relations, networks, peers, associations, NGOs/CBOs •Financial – e.g. income, employment, access to credit/cash transfers programs •Physical – e.g. shelter/housing, built environment/urban infrastructure, public space •Natural – risk-free areas e.g. quality of air/water/land, •Political – e.g. participation/involvement in national / local development/civic affairs; enabling policies /legal/protection; human/children rights •Cultural – e.g. socio-cultural norms and values; dreams/aspirations Source: J.F. Sanchez 2003, Plan International 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 5
  6. 6. Concepts: Determinants of Children and Youth Assets Children and Youth Assets (forms of capital) Enabling Policies, Institutions and programs Context •Income •Age •Policy environment (e.g. •Gender •Ethnic governance, livability, competitiveness, land use, zoning, legal/ judicial/ police) •Urban / rural settings (e.g. high population •Implementation of Rights of the Child (CRC) density, slums / at risk areas, distance, access) •Supply side (e.g. quantity/quality of programs, location, structure, targeting, service delivery, staffing, budgets) •Family/community /peers •Conflict •Demand side (e.g. •Shocks cash incentives, interaction among clients/ service providers/ policy makers) •Trends Choices (household / individual choices) •Information •Resources Children and Youth assets might decrease or increase as a result of the interaction between the context, policies / institutions / programs, and choices 02/21/2006 •Managing risks •Capabilities •Seizing opportunities Source: J.F. Sanchez, 2005, HDNCY -The World Bank JF Sanchez - The World Bank 6
  7. 7. Concepts: Children and Youth Maternal/neo-natal stage Early childhood 0-5 years Children Growing up healthy and 6-14 years At-risk Children and Youth Youth Adolescents 15-18 years Young adults 19-24 years Source: HDNCY 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 7
  8. 8. Concepts: The Life Cycle Framework CHILDREN AND YOUTH FACE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES AT DIFFERENT AGES The main stages in the lifecycle Peri-natal period Perinatal Neonatal period Pregnancy Birth Death Early neonatal period Aging 7 days Infancy 28 days 1 year Adulthood "Pre - school” years Reproductive period Adolescence 5 years 20 years 10 years Childhood "School - age" Source: HDNCY 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 8
  9. 9. Concepts: Identifying Risks and Opportunities with a Life-Cycle Framework Many of the greatest risks are concentrated in the earliest years and in adolescence Source: HDNCY 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 9
  10. 10. Concepts: Risks, Determinants, and Outcomes Are Linked Vertically Along the Life Cycle Ages 0-5 (Early Child Care) Ages 6-14 (School Years) Ages 15-24 (Youth Years) Survival; care and protection of new born Nutrition adequacy Immunization Cognitive stimulation Readiness for school Adjustment to formal school Completion of primary school Readiness for reading, counting, and social interaction Maintaining good health Adjustment to adolescent years Completion of higher education Entering marriage age Adjusting to reproductive roles and behaviors Readiness for job markets Malnutrition in mothers aggravates risks for child mortality and malnutrition. Child malnutrition raises risks of child mortality and school performance in later years. Poor health outcomes and lack of pre-school affect school attendance and performance, and are aggravated by illiterate parents, especially mothers. Poor school performance and participation, and continuous poor health outcomes further affect reproductive health for women, employability, and income-earning opportunities later in life. Source: HDNCY 2005 and MNA 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 10
  11. 11. Example of Missed Opportunities and Outcomes Along the Life Cycle MISSED OPPORTUNITIES DURING EARLY YEARS (AGES 0-5)    Children who survive are at risk of poor health due to inadequate nutrition and poor health. Children growing up in country *** and in particular in rural areas have few chances of preschool education. Lack of prenatal care, early marriage and hence early pregnancy, and high rates of teenage fertility have contributed to maternal mortality CONSEQUENCES FOR SCHOOL YEARS (AGES 6-14)        Early school drop out (15.65%) Poor school performance (51% completion rates) Child labor prevalence (between 12-20%) Idleness – no work, no study (37%) Adapting to street life / falling in conflict with law (data not reliable – distorted estimates suggest between 5-10%;) Disability (prevalence rates to be verified) Reduced chances of equal opportunity in the long run, especially for girls MISSED OPPORTUNITIES IN SCHOOL YEARS (AGES 6-14) • • • • • Dropping from school in early years Not reaching the school dropouts and disadvantaged (child labor, exploitation, idleness, street life) Insufficient attention to parents literacy and awareness Lack of school health and nutrition Juvenile justice CONSEQUENCES FOR YOUTH YEARS (15-24) • • • • Unemployment / Inactivity Lack of Access and Retention in Secondary Education Risky Behaviors (early pregnancy, HIV/AIDs, violence and crime, substance abuse Lack of Participation in Development Policies and Process Source: MNA 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 11
  12. 12. Policies, institutions, programs need to manage opportunities and risks around 5 related transitions Progressing through school Policies and Institutions Staying healthy Going to work Exercising citizenship Growth and Poverty Reduction Forming families Source: WDR 2007, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 12
  13. 13. Policy Pillars • Opportunities: Broaden options for young people • Agency: Enable capable and responsible decision-making by them (or by care-givers in the case of younger children) • Second Chances: Mitigate the consequences of poor decisions (made for and by the young) and bad luck Source: WDR 2007, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 14
  14. 14. Social Risk Management Strategies Source: World Bank HDNCY 2004 JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org
  15. 15. Children and Youth: Sustainable Development Cycle Outcomes (effects on C&Y wellbeing) Changes in Children and Youth Assets (forms of capital) Policy Pillars •Opportunities •Agency •Second Chances Context (income, age, gender, ethnic, type of urban setting, community) Natural Enabling policies, institutions and programs Risk Management Strategies • Prevention • Mitigation • •Growing up healthy •Learning •Working •Forming families • Exercising citizenship Coping •Survival •Development •Protection Choices •Participation (household / individual) (Outcomes as per the Convention on the Rights of the Child) Source: J.F. Sanchez 2006, based on HDNCY 2005 and WDR2007, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 16
  16. 16. Integrating Children & Youth Into Cross Sector Programs 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 17
  17. 17. Integrating Children and Youth (C&Y) into Cross Sector Program Cycles Dialogues/participation at all stages of strategy/policy development and implementation e.g. including children and youth -and institutions that affect them Age-specific cross-sector analyses C & Y monitoring / evaluation (M&E) 1- Identification and mobilization of key stakeholders 1.Identificaci óny mobilizacilos ónde actores principales e.g. age-specific indicators, annual state of C&Y progress report; participatory monitoring / social accountability 5 – Monitoring, evaluation and learning 5.Monitoreo ón , Evaluaci yAprendizaje Set-up adequate crosssector coordination e.g. Children and Youth focal point, coordination platforms, mandates, capacity building 4 – Implementingde 4.Implementaci ón los action plans planesacci deón e.g. poverty analysis/mapping, vulnerability assessments, public expenditure reviews, social assessments 2.Evaluaci la ónde situaci ón 2- Assessing the situation 3 Setting direction,:objectives 3.-Direccionamientonde definici ó and visi ,targets / preparing; formulaci ón objetivos action ón ymetas plans deestrategias y planes den acci ó Linking children and youth outcomes with cross sector program goals e.g. growth, investments in human development, etc. Focusing budgets / sector actions on long-term results for children and youth included in crosssector program e.g. within poverty reduction mechanisms, MDG action plans, sector programs Source: J.F. Sanchez 2005 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 18
  18. 18. Building Blocks for Integrated Children and Youth Investments Along the Life Cycle Age 25 Livelihoods Life-long learning 14 Secondary + tertiary education Primary education 6 0 Safe, healthy habitat Healthy behaviors Primary health, care and nutrition ECD Protection Enabling policies, institutions and processes Source: Lund, N. and Sanchez, J.F., 2004 JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org
  19. 19. Enabling policies, institutions and processes • Policy Environment: • Economic growth, targeted development, policy, knowledge, expenditure priorities • Supply Side Bottlenecks: • Service delivery (public, private, NGO), human capacity, governance • Demand Side Bottlenecks: • • • • • • • • Tackling incentive problems to increase effective demand for needed services, legal reform + protection (including application of Convention on the Rights of the Child), removing barriers to access and participation Linking C&Y priorities with long term development goals, including the MDGs goals Integrated interventions along the life cycle, with emphasis on preventions and cotargeting National children and youth assessments and strategies. Improving client, service provider and public policy interface National monitoring and evaluation systems Partnerships and collaborations Donor aid harmonization Enabling policies, institutions and processes Source: Lund, N. and Sanchez, J.F., 2004 JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org
  20. 20. Participation • Inclusion, youth at the development table • Youth in civil society dialogues • Youth voices and links to country / local development • PRSPs / CAS / national / urban development planning • Participation in preparation and implementation of policy instruments and reforms • Youth-led initiatives and projects • Monitoring of development results; social audits • Enhancing capacity of youth organizations and their local and global networks Source: Lund, N. and Sanchez, J.F., 2004 JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org
  21. 21. Supportive families and communities • Household level demand factors • Social recognition of youth potential • Youth-friendly cultural norms and institutions concerning: • • • • • • • • • Entitlements Inheritance Property rights Marriage institutions Age Gender Ethnic Religion Elimination of stigma (HIV-AIDS, youth gangs, etc.) • Youth participation in community-driven development • Civil society engagement JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org Source: Lund, N. and Sanchez, J.F., 2004
  22. 22. Investing in the young -and engaging them in development processes- will lead to healthier and safer communities, enabling their contribution to growth and wellbeing! Source: J.F. Sanchez 2006, HDNCY – The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 23
  23. 23. Towards Age-specific Cross-sector Programs: Children 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 24
  24. 24. Building Blocks for Cross-sector Programs Along the Life Cycle: Investing Early in Life… Age 25 Livelihoods and employment Life-long learning 14 6 0 Secondary + tertiary education Primary education Safe, healthy habitat Healthy behaviors Protection of the most vulnerable (OVC) Early Childhood Development Child health + nutrition Supportive families and communities Source: HDNCY 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 25
  25. 25. Examples of Cross-sector Interdependencies to Achieve Children Outcomes Preventing child mortality depends on: •Long-term improvements in environmental factors at the community / local levels (Land Use Planning, Environment, Infrastructure, Disaster Prevention Sectors) •Provision of safe water and sanitation (Water/Environment Sectors) •Adequate shelter (Housing Sector) •Mother’s education (Education Sector) •Adequate income support to buy adequate food supply (Social Affairs/Social Protection Sectors) •Nutrition and facilitating access to health services (Health Sector) Achieving “education for all” is a function of both supply and demand side measures: •Demand side measures •conditional income support to families of out of school children (Conditional Cash Transfers Programs) •counseling and rehabilitation programs for children with special needs (NGO’s and Communitybased organizations) •Supply side measures •location of additional educational facilities (Land Use Planning, Zoning) •skilled human resources and quality education content and systems (Education, Finance and/or Planning Sectors) Source: HDNCY 2005 and MNA 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 26
  26. 26. Example: Malnutrition Mother’s Education (feeding practices) •Public Health: breastfeeding / weaning practices; mother’s nutrition •Education: Literacy for mothers Food Availability (associated with poverty) •Social Funds: cash transfers •Food/Agriculture: prices; food availability/imports; household agricultural initiatives Health Environment (water/sanitation) •Water/Sanitation: access to safe drinking water; healthy habitat; hygiene practices •Planning: growth, land use, zoning; peri-urban areas improvement •Transport: market access; transportation; storage; distribution Source: HDNCY 2005 and MNA 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 27
  27. 27. Towards Age-specific Cross-sector Programs: Youth 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 28
  28. 28. Building Blocks for Cross-sector Programs Along the Life Cycle: … Continue Investing in Youth Age 25 Livelihoods and employment 14 6 0 Life-long learning Secondary + tertiary education Healthy behaviors Investing earlier in life Supportive families and communities Source: HDNCY 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 29
  29. 29. Example: Reaching School Drop-outs Institutional capacity building •Social Funds: institutional capacity building, municipalities, universities; youth organizations) Mentoring programs •Education: School counseling & mentoring (volunteers, university students; youth organizations) Second Chances •Education: restoration to education; literacy; vocational direction Participatory Ed. Methodology Cash / in-kind incentives •Education: Specialized teacher training; class-based reforms •Social Funds: food; cash transfers •Social welfare: Integration into family and community Source: HDNCY 2005 and MNA 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 30
  30. 30. An Example of Cross-sector Interdependencies: Enhancing the Education – Employment Nexus (transition to work) Improving quantity and quality of post-primary education •Education: financing and expansion of secondary / tertiary education (public – private – informal) •Planning/transport: Land use/supply; infrastructure; location of education facilities •Education: Improving curricula, teachers and accountability of secondary / tertiary education • Vocational Training: linking VET to labor market demands Enhancing Choices (information, capacity, resources) •Labor / Education / Social Affairs / Youth: information dissemination of market-based skill demands and learning opportunities •Social Affairs / youth / Education: counseling / mentoring / vocation orientation •Vocational Training: marketbased training and programs •Vocational Training: enterprise-based training •Social Funds: credit for youth livelihood activities / enterprise creation Second Chances •Social Funds / Social Welfare: incentives / credit / student loans for post-primary school attendance •Education: equivalence programs •Social Affairs / Education / Youth / NGOs: remediation / youth literacy /skillsbased programs •Social Affairs / Youth: youth-led income generation projects Source: HDNCY 2005 and MNA 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 31
  31. 31. Youth are not to be feared or perceived just as a ‘problem’ or an issue to be solved sometime in the future. The young are a dynamic piece of the development puzzle –a positive part of the solution…today! Source: J.F. Sanchez 2006, HDNCY – The World Bank JF Sanchez --- childrenandyouth@worldbank.org
  32. 32. Annexes 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 33
  33. 33. Annex 1: MDGs on Children & Youth Outcomes are the measure of success: Within the 8 broad MDGs there are specific indicators targeted for children (0-14) and for youth (15-24) Progress on meeting these has been the weakest, with most countries likely to fail If we do not scale up actions rapidly and focus more intensively on the next generation, these outcomes will not be met. MDG Indicators Targeting Children and Youth Children (0-14) Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (4) Prevalence of underweight children (< 5 yrs) Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education (6) Net enrollment ratio in primary education (7a) % of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (7b)* Primary completion rate Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women (9) Ratio of girls to boys in primary education Goal 4: Reduce child mortality (13) Under -5 mortality rate (14) Infant mortality rate (15) Proportion of 1 yr-olds immunized against measles Goal 5: Improve maternal health (16) Maternal mortality ratio (17) Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel Youth (15-24) Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education (8) Literacy rates among 15-24 Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women (9) Ratio of girls to boys in sec. & tertiary ed (10) Ratio of literate females to males 15-24 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases (18) HIV Prevalence among pregnant women (15-24) (19*) % of pop. 15-24 with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development (45) Unemployment rate among 15-24 * Proposed as additional MDG indicators, but not yet adopted Source: United Nations MDGs Source: HDNCY, 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 34
  34. 34. Annex 2 Ages 0-5—MDGs and Risks Relevant MDG Target Relevant Risks • Reduce prevalence of under-weight children from --% in -- to --% by -- • Malnutrition: Stunting: --%; Underweight: --%; Wasting: --% • Reduce the infant mortality rate to -and under-5 mortality to -- per 1,000 live births by 2015 • Infant/Child Mortality Rate: IMR: -per 1,000 live births: CMR: -- • Maternal Mortality and Morbidity: MMR: -- per 100,000 live births • Childhood Illness: Incidence of diarrhea (--%); Incidence of ARI (-%); Incidence of fever (--%) • • Reduce maternal mortality and morbidity rate to -- per 100,000 live births by 2015 from about -- per 100,000 Increase routine measles vaccines to at least --% combined with a second • opportunity for a measles vaccination Lack of Early Child Care and Education: ECD enrollment Source: MNA, 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 35
  35. 35. Annex 3 Ages 6-14: MDGs, Risks and Programs Relevant MDG Target 1. 2. Relevant Risks Raise the net enrolment rate in primary education and increase the 6th grade completion rate to 100% Eliminate the gender gap in primary education by 2015 1. 2. School dropouts  Out of school: --%  Dropout rate: --%  Primary school completion rate: --%  Idle children: --% Disadvantaged Children  Child laborers: --%  Street children: --% (5-9 years); --% (10-18 years)  Disabled children --% Source: MNA, 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 36
  36. 36. Annex 4 Ages 15-24: MDGs and Risks Relevant MDG Target 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Slow the increase in spread of HIV/AIDs by 2005 and halve the rate of increase by 2010 Reduce HIV prevalence Increase literacy rates Increase ratio of girls to boys in secondary and tertiary education. Reduce unemployment rate Relevant Risks Unemployment / Idleness Unemployment rate: --% Inactivity rate: teenage girls (15-19) = --%; teenage boys (15-19) = --%; young adult females (20-24) = --%; young adult males (20-24) = --% Lack of Access and Retention in Secondary Education Secondary school enrollment and completion rates: Gross secondary enrolment rates = --% for boys, --% for girls (2000/01); Gross tertiary enrolment rates = --% for young men, --% for young women (2000/01); data on completion rates Literacy rate males: --%; females: --% Risky Behaviors Early pregnancy: % of early pregnancy (1999) = --% (teenagers), --% (young adults): impacts maternal mortality and morbidity and infant/child mortality HIV/AIDS: Incidence --% of population aged 10-49 Violence and Crime Substance Abuse Lack of Participation in Development Policies and Process Source: MNA, 2005, The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 37
  37. 37. Example: Risk Factors For Children and Youth in Urban Settings Urban enclaves of poverty, high population densities, low levels of infrastructure, and lack of leisure facilities/public space Living in disaster-prone/high risk areas, exposure to contaminants /pollutants High percentage of young people in the settlement Low levels of education Disproportionate high levels of youth unemployment and/or youth idleness Weak or non-existent family and community support Restricted avenues for youth participation and contribution Limited or differentiated state presence, corrupt and/or violent state apparatus Relatively easy access to illicit activities and/or weapons Source: J. F. Sanchez and A. Semlali, 2006 , HDNCY -The World Bank 02/21/2006 JF Sanchez - The World Bank 38
  38. 38. Example: Young People Affected by Violence Risk factors • Poverty/inequality of wealth • Lack of economic options due to low levels of education and high unemployment • Violence from state forces or armed groups Society •Access to money and consumer goods A job/remunerated services, access to guns as economic tool Community Social recognition: clear and strong identity, status and power, more attractive to girls, access to guns as a status symbol Peer group •Protection, revenge, belonging to a strong group, access to guns for protection Social marginalization of poor or minority ethnic groups prejudice/racism/low self esteem • Responses made possible by joining an armed group •Group culture, parties, drugs, adrenaline • • 02/21/2006 Lack of leisure facilities, nothing to do, unemployment Family problems Poverty Family Child/ Youth •Friendship, surrogate family, belonging to a mutually supportive group Adapted from: Dowdney, L. 2005, Neither War nor Peace: International Comparisons of Children and Youth in Organized Violence, COAV JF Sanchez - The World Bank 39
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