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World Atlas - All You Need To Know


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World Atlas - All You Need To Know

World Atlas - All You Need To Know

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  • 3. WORLD ATLAS REFERENCE London • New York • Melbourne • Munich • Delhi
  • 4. LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, DELHI FOR THE NINTH EDITION Publisher Jonathan Metcalf Art Director Philip Ormerod Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler Senior Cartographic Editor Simon Mumford Cartographers Encompass Graphics Ltd, Brighton, UK Index database David Roberts Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh Production Controller Charlotte Cade Producer Rebekah Parsons-King General Geographical Consultants Physical Geography Denys Brunsden, Emeritus Professor, Department of Geography, King’s College, London Human Geography Professor J Malcolm Wagstaff, Department of Geography, University of Southampton Place Names Caroline Burgess, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, London Boundaries International Boundaries Research Unit, Mountjoy Research Centre, University of Durham Digital Mapping Consultants DK Cartopia developed by George Galfalvi and XMap Ltd, London Professor Jan-Peter Muller, Department of Photogrammetry and Surveying, University College, London Cover globes, planets and information on the Solar System provided by Philip Eales and Kevin Tildsley, Planetary Visions Ltd, London Regional Consultants North America Dr David Green, Department of Geography, King’s College, London • Jim Walsh, Head of Reference, Wessell Library, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts South America Dr David Preston, School of Geography, University of Leeds Europe Dr Edward M Yates, formerly of the Department of Geography, King’s College, London Africa Dr Philip Amis, Development Administration Group, University of Birmingham • Dr Ieuan Ll Griffiths, Department of Geography, University of Sussex Dr Tony Binns, Department of Geography, University of Sussex Central Asia Dr David Turnock, Department of Geography, University of Leicester South and East Asia Dr Jonathan Rigg, Department of Geography, University of Durham Australasia and Oceania Dr Robert Allison, Department of Geography, University of Durham Acknowledgments Digital terrain data created by Eros Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Processed by GVS Images Inc, California, USA and Planetary Visions Ltd, London, UK Cambridge International Reference on Current Affairs (CIRCA), Cambridge, UK • Digitization by Robertson Research International, Swanley, UK • Peter Clark British Isles maps generated from a dataset supplied by Map Marketing Ltd/European Map Graphics Ltd in combination with DK Cartopia copyright data DORLING KINDERSLEY CARTOGRAPHY Editor-in-Chief Andrew Heritage Managing Cartographer David Roberts Senior Cartographic Editor Roger Bullen Editorial Direction Louise Cavanagh Database Manager Simon Lewis Art Direction Chez Picthall Cartographers Pamela Alford • James Anderson • Caroline Bowie • Dale Buckton • Tony Chambers • Jan Clark • Bob Croser • Martin Darlison • Damien Demaj • Claire Ellam • Sally Gable Jeremy Hepworth • Geraldine Horner • Chris Jackson • Christine Johnston • Julia Lunn • Michael Martin • Ed Merritt • James Mills-Hicks • Simon Mumford • John Plumer John Scott • Ann Stephenson • Gail Townsley • Julie Turner • Sarah Vaughan • Jane Voss • Scott Wallace • Iorwerth Watkins • Bryony Webb • Alan Whitaker • Peter Winfield Digital Maps Created in DK Cartopia by Tom Coulson • Thomas Robertshaw Philip Rowles • Rob Stokes Managing Editor Placenames Database Team Natalie Clarkson • Ruth Duxbury • Caroline Falce • John Featherstone • Dan Gardiner Ciárán Hynes • Margaret Hynes • Helen Rudkin • Margaret Stevenson • Annie Wilson Senior Managing Art Editor Lisa Thomas Philip Lord Editors Designers Thomas Heath • Wim Jenkins • Jane Oliver Siobhan Ryan • Elizabeth Wyse Editorial Research Helen Dangerfield • Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave Additional Editorial Assistance Debra Clapson • Robert Damon • Ailsa Heritage Constance Novis • Jayne Parsons • Chris Whitwell Scott David • Carol Ann Davis • David Douglas • Rhonda Fisher Karen Gregory • Nicola Liddiard • Paul Williams Illustrations Ciárán Hughes • Advanced Illustration, Congleton, UK Picture Research Melissa Albany • James Clarke • Anna Lord Christine Rista • Sarah Moule • Louise Thomas First American edition, 1997. Previous editions of this book published as World Atlas. This revised edition, 2013. Published in the United States by DK Publishing, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 13 14 15 16 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 181749 – July 2013 Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2013 Dorling Kindersley Limited. All rights reserved Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Ltd. A Penguin company. DK Publishing books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotion, premiums, fundraising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or A catalog record for this book is avaiable from the Library of Congress ISBN 978-1-4654-0860-0 Printed and bound in Hong Kong by Hung Hing Discover more at
  • 5. Introduction EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT OUR PLANET TODAY For many, the outstanding legacy of the twentieth century was the way in which the Earth shrank. In the third millennium, it is increasingly important for us to have a clear vision of the world in which we live. The human population has increased fourfold since 1900. The last scraps of terra incognita— the polar regions and ocean depths—have been penetrated and mapped. New regions have been colonized and previously hostile realms claimed for habitation. The growth of air transportation and mass tourism allows many of us to travel further, faster, and more frequently than ever before. In doing so we are given a bird’s-eye view of the Earth’s surface denied to our forebears. At the same time, the amount of information about our world has grown enormously. Our multimedia environment hurls uninterrupted streams of data at us, on the printed page, through the airwaves and across our television, computer, and phone screens; events from all corners of the globe reach us instantaneously, and are witnessed as they unfold. Our sense of stability and certainty has been eroded; instead, we are aware that the world is in a constant state of flux and change. Natural disasters, man-made cataclysms, and conflicts between nations remind us daily of the enormity and fragility of our domain. The ongoing threat of international terrorism throws into very stark relief the difficulties that arise when trying to "know" or "understand" our planet and its many cultures. The current crisis in our "global" culture has made the need greater than ever before for everyone to possess an atlas. DK's REFERENCE WORLD ATLAS has been conceived to meet this need. At its core, like all atlases, it seeks to define where places are, to describe their main characteristics, and to locate them in relation to other places. Every attempt has been made to make the information on the maps as clear, accurate, and accessible as possible using the latest digital cartographic techniques. In addition, each page of the atlas provides a wealth of further information, bringing the maps to life. Using photographs, diagrams, at-a-glance maps, introductory texts, and captions, the atlas builds up a detailed portrait of those features—cultural, political, economic, and geomorphological—that make each region unique, and which are also the main agents of change. This ninth edition of the REFERENCE WORLD ATLAS incorporates hundreds of revisions and updates affecting every map and every page, distilling the burgeoning mass of information available through modern technology into an extraordinarily detailed and reliable view of our world.
  • 6. CONTENTS The Caribbean .....................................................................44–45 ATLAS OF THE WORLD Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Navassa Island, Puerto Rico, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Sint Maarten, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands (US) North America South America NORTH AMERICA ................................................................... 1 SOUTH AMERICA ..................................................... 46– 47 PHYSICAL NORTH AMERICA ................................ 2–3 PHYSICAL SOUTH AMERICA ............................. 48– 49 POLITICAL NORTH AMERICA ..............................4–5 POLITICAL SOUTH AMERICA ..............................50–51 The solar system.................................................................... x–xi NORTH AMERICAN RESOURCES ......................6–7 SOUTH AMERICAN RESOURCES .................... 52–53 The physical world........................................................ xii–xiii Canada ................................................................................................. 8–9 Northern South America ...................................... 54–55 Introduction ........................................................................................ v Contents........................................................................................ vi–vii How to use this Atlas................................................. viii–ix THE WORLD Canada: Western Provinces .................................. 10–11 Structure of the Earth ............................................. xiv–xv Shaping the landscape ......................................... xvi–xvii The world’s oceans .................................................. xviii–xix The global climate ....................................................... xx–xxi Life on Earth ................................................................... xxii–xxiii Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Yukon Canada: Eastern Provinces...................................... 12–13 New Brunswick, Newfoundland & Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec, St Pierre & Miquelon Southeastern Canada .................................................. 14–15 Southern Ontario, Southern Québec United States of America ....................................... 16–17 USA: Northeastern States ...................................... 18–19 Population and settlement ......................... xxiv–xxv The economic system ..................................... xxvi–xxvii The political world ............................................. xxviii–xxix States and boundaries ....................................... xxx–xxxi Connecticut, Maine, Massachussetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont Western South America ......................................... 56–57 Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru Brazil ................................................................................................. 58–59 Eastern South America ............................................ 60–61 Southeast Brazil, Northeast Argentina, Uruguay Southern South America ...................................... 62–63 Argentina, Chile, Paraguay The Atlantic Ocean ...................................................... 64–65 Africa USA: Mid-Eastern States ......................................... 20–21 Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia USA: Southern States .................................................. 22–23 Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi International disputes.................................................... xxxii USA: Texas ..................................................................................24–25 USA: South Midwestern States....................... 26–27 Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma USA: Upper Plains States ........................................ 28–29 Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota USA: Great Lakes States ...........................................30–31 Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin USA: North Mountain States ............................ 32–33 Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming USA: California & Nevada ......................................34–35 USA: South Mountain States ............................36–37 Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah USA: Hawaii & Alaska .................................................. 38–39 Mexico ............................................................................................40–41 Central America................................................................ 42–43 Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama vi Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela AFRICA .............................................................................................. 66–67 PHYSICAL AFRICA ............................................................. 68–69 POLITICAL AFRICA ..............................................................70–71 AFRICAN RESOURCES ................................................... 72–73 North Africa ............................................................................ 74–75 Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara West Africa .............................................................................. 76–77 Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo Central Africa ........................................................................ 78–79 Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome & Principe East Africa ................................................................................. 80–81 Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda Southern Africa.................................................................. 82–83 Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • 7. Europe Asia EUROPE .............................................................................................84–85 ASIA .................................................................................................... 128–129 PHYSICAL EUROPE ........................................................... 86–87 PHYSICAL ASIA .....................................................................130–131 AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA ................................174–175 POLITICAL EUROPE ......................................................... 88–89 POLITICAL ASIA ..................................................................132–133 POLITICAL AUSTRALASIA EUROPEAN RESOURCES ............................................. 90–91 ASIAN RESOURCES ........................................................134–135 Scandinavia, Finland & Iceland ....................... 92–93 Turkey & the Caucasus ......................................... 136–137 Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Svalbard, Sweden Southern Scandinavia ................................................94–95 Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Southern Norway, Southern Sweden The British Isles...................................................................96–97 Channel Islands, Ireland, Isle of Man, United Kingdom The Low Countries ....................................................... 98–99 Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey The Near East ................................................................... 138–139 Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria The Arabian Peninsula ............................................ 140–141 Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Iran & the Gulf States ............................................. 142–143 Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Kazakhstan ............................................................................ 144–145 Central Asia ......................................................................... 146–147 Germany .................................................................................. 100–101 Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan France .......................................................................................... 102–103 Afghanistan & Pakistan .........................................148–149 France, Monaco The Iberian Peninsula ............................................ 104–105 Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal, Spain The Italian Peninsula ............................................... 106–107 Italy, San Marino, Vatican City The Alpine States ....................................................... 108–109 Austria, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Switzerland South Asia .............................................................................. 150–151 Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka Northern India & the Himalayan States ................................................ 152–153 Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia Southeast Europe .......................................................... 112–113 Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia Bulgaria & Greece ..........................................................114–115 (including European Turkey) Romania, Moldova & Ukraine ........................116–117 The Baltic States & Belarus ............................... 118–119 Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kaliningrad The Mediterranean ......................................................120–121 The Russian Federation ........................................ 122–123 & OCEANIA .................................................................. 176–177 AUSTRALASIAN & OCEANIAN RESOURCES ............................ 178–179 Australia ....................................................................................180–181 Southeast Australia................................................... 182–183 New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria New Zealand ......................................................................184–185 Melanesia ...............................................................................186–187 Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu Micronesia............................................................................ 188–189 Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Wake Island Polynesia...................................................................................190–191 Cook Islands, Easter Island, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Wallis & Futuna The Pacific Ocean ........................................................192–193 Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Northern India Southern India & Sri Lanka ............................. 154–155 Mainland East Asia ..................................................... 156–157 Central Europe ....................................................................110–111 Australasia & Oceania Antarctica .............................................................................. 194–195 The Arctic ..............................................................................196–197 China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan Western China ................................................................. 158–159 Eastern China ..................................................................... 160–161 INDEX–GAZETTEER Eastern China, Taiwan Northeastern China, Mongolia & Korea ..............................................162–163 Mongolia, Northeastern China, North Korea, South Korea Japan ........................................................................................... 164–165 Geographical comparisons ............................ 198–199 Countries of the world including The time zones .................... 200–207 Geographical glossary ......................................... 208–210 Mainland Southeast Asia ...................................166–167 Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Paracel Islands, Thailand, Vietnam West Maritime Southeast Asia ................ 168–169 Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore Northern European Russia ............................... 124–125 Index .............................................................................................212–349 Acknowledgements ............................................................. 350 East Maritime Southeast Asia ...................... 170–171 Southern European Russia................................126–127 Geographical names ............................................................. 211 The Indian Ocean ......................................................... 172–173 East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines vii
  • 8. INTRODUCTION Key to maps Regional Typographic key motorway / highway 6000m / 19,686ft motorway / highway (under construction) 4000m / 13,124ft major road 3000m / 9843ft minor road 2000m / 6562ft tunnel (road) Physical features Mount Meru 4556 m drainage features Lake Geneva rivers / canals spring / well / waterhole / oasis / waterfall / rapids / dam Mekong ice features Vatnajökull sea features Golfe de Lion THE WOR LD 2 C li pper nF M ne re Zo rac tu ra c t t on F id dl e A m eric a T r MINAS GERAIS 2nd order internal administrative border other 1st order internal administrative region Barracud SOUTH AMERICA 2nd order internal administrative region Vaucluse cultural region Arctic Circle ᭡ A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean. Chimney Plume of hot mineral laden water Tropic of Capricorn Water heated by hot basalt 14 Deep sea temperature and current s Arctic Circle Earth 15 Sun Tropic of Cancer Moon Tropic of Cancer Equator Supporting maps Tropic of Capricorn 16 Cretaceous 145 Jurassic 145 65 Antarctic Circle Tidal bulge created by gravitational pull Tidal range and wave environments Cretaceous 23 23 0 Tertiary (Neogene) 65 less than 2m / 7ft 2–4m / 7–13ft greater than 4m / 13ft Age uncertain Continental shelf and island arcs 208 million years old tropical cyclone storm wave east coast swell west coast swell Deep sea temperature and currents ice-shelf B C D E F G H I J K L N M O P Q Primary currents Secondary currents Ice-shelf (below 0˚C / 32˚F) Sea-water -2–0˚C / 28–32˚F (below 5000m / 16,400ft) Sea-water 0–5˚C / 32–41˚F (below 4000m / 13,120ft) R S T U V W X Y 17 Z xix The political continent The political portrait of the continent is a vital reference point for every continental section, showing the position of countries relative to one another, and the relationship between human settlement and geographic location. The complex mosaic of languages spoken in each continent is mapped, as is the effect of communications networks on the pattern of settlement. POLITICAL EUROPE L N M O P Q R Y London a Milan Genoa N A Lyon E a ni th Bo z K a P R S S T S I M O K A E H G I U SH OMAN I 15 ADYGHE KARACHAY BOSNIAN R SE BULGARIAN ALBANIAN MACEDONIAN TURKISH SARDINIAN LI Q T A R A R BASHKIR IN DV KA LM YK KABARDIAN N ENG ES GU P OR TU HUNGARIAN SLOVENE CROATIAN R A GA E SH er IRI LI an W e a N S c NI ne Rhô ie p S LIS H of E O Gulf E C O C I T N L A T AL UG S O SWE DIS H W R D N A N T MOR U K R A I N I A N O VA K G E R M A N ITALIAN CHUVASH N C H ZE CH SL IT Crete I MARI BELORUSSIAN A H N CATALA 14 UDMURT U I G BASQUE TALAN CA VEPS POLISH GERMAN C N 13 R LITHUANIAN RUSSIAN LI PO S F S PA N I S H N S E GA LIC IAN E ᭤ The architecture of the Grand Place lies at the heart of Brussels – home city to one of the EU headquarters. I L AT VI A N IS N D y Irákleio S e a C e ATHENS Piraeus SIAN R E Ionian Sea F ISH SWED ESTONI A N KARELIAN DA N RI A B k VALLETTA projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area A BRETON r G T DU FRENCH I 17 Messina MALTA n EN L a u Aegean G REEC E S ea Lárisa Catania e 700 FAEROESE C LI A 600 500 ALBANIA Cosenza a Sicily n 700 400 Turkic Albanian Finno-Ugric/Samoyed Germanic Slavic Romance Basque H Baltic Celtic Greek Caucasian WELSH Iranian Mongol j N E N 600 a ai E I) M ELIA 500 300 N Language groups e Azerb I T 400 Se Groznyy Caucasus G e org i a e a F 200 n S c k l a B Varna Burgas Istanbul T H 300 Constan√a Ruse BULGARIA SOFIA Stara Zagora Salonica L I S H N G 100 Miles Novorossiysk Simferopol’ Bra§ov BUCHAREST Da nube PRISTINA SKOPJE MACEDONIA E 200 100 0 ia Palermo a Km 0 en Odesa ROMANIA KOSOVO (disputed) TIRANA (SA LAPPISH BELGRADE SER B IA PODGORICA Y Scale 1:15,500,000 Naples h 16 A RY MONTENEGRO Bari rr d i t e r r a L Ty M e Se A Languages map Melilla c i T Cagliari Ceuta (to Spain) at VATICAN CITY ROME Sardinia nds 11 12 T ICELANDIC H I S HUNG Milan A LJUBLJANA SLOVE Verona Po Venice Trieste ZAGREB Genoa Bologna C ROAT IA BOS. Florence SAN Pisa & HERZ. MARINO SARAJEVO Mostar ri Corsica Isla Stavropol’ KAR Turin MONACO I RT A Nice Marseille Mallorca Menorca Sea of Azov Dn N es Palma Balearic Vol ga Astrakhan’ Rostov-na-Donu Donets’k O N Toulouse ne Barcelona Ibiza Murcia LD S re ANDORRA LA VELLA ANDORRA Zaragoza Valencia Málaga (to UK) Volgograd Dnipropetrovs’k Dn iester MO Cluj-Napoca CHIflINÂU C a s p i a n Py Valladolid ro Córdoba Cádiz Gibraltar There are three main European language groups: Germanic languages predominate in central and northern Europe; Romance languages in western and Mediterranean Europe and Romania; while Slavic languages are spoken in eastern Europe and the Russian Federation. Isolated pockets of local languages, such as Basque and Gaelic, persist and frequently provide a focus for national identity. Voronezh Kharkiv KIEV U K R A I N E Chernivtsi Miskolc VA D ue MADRID S P A I N Seville Country capital Languages Homyel’ Brest L’viv 2nd order internal administrative center Miscellaneous features reservoir ancient wall salt flat / salt pan site of interest 16 KUMYK CHECHEN AVAR LEZGHIAN OSSETIAN BALKAR 17 GREEK A MALTESE Y Z 89 88 autonomous / federal region / other 1st order internal administrative center 9 10 h s t a n a k Saratov B E L A RU S WARSAW Kraków BUDAPEST Ad Tagus Setúbal 10,000 to 50,000 ine Rh LISBON 100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 ro above 5 million 1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million Borders ul a Îód¶ S L O VA K I A BRATISLAVA Györ Innsbruck s AU l p LIECHTENSTEINS T R I A Orenburg Samara MINSK Wrocîaw Da n Salzburg ube VIENNA Munich Tol’yatti Tula Vitsyebsk Babruysk CZECH REPUBLIC Stuttgart Zürich BERN SWITZERLAND Ul’yanovsk MOSCOW na Kaunas VILNIUS PRAGUE Nuremberg Strasbourg Geneva Lyon We stern D LIT HUA NIA P OL A N D Dresden Frankfurt am Main LUXEMBOURG Orléans Limoges Poznaú GERMANY Leipzig Bonn Liège LUXEMBOURG PARIS FR A NC E Porto Population IUM BRUSSELS Se e in Map key 15 le Havre Rennes Nantes Loir e Bordeaux O de r A a (to UK) Bilbao Vi st 8 Despite its fragmented geography and many natural frontiers, communications in Europe are well developed. Extensive motorway links allow rapid road transport, while high-speed rail connections like France’s TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse), and the Channel Tunnel have improved rail travel. Outdated communication infrastructures in parts of eastern Europe, and insufficient transport links across the Alps, however, remain weak parts of the network. Kazan’ Nizhniy Novgorod L AT V I A RÍGA Liepája RUSS. FED. (Kaliningrad) Kaliningrad Gdaúsk Bydgoszcz Yaroslavl’ ESTONIA Ventspils i lt a B Hamburg El b e Hannover BERLIN vi Groningen AMSTERDAM NETH. THE HAGUE Bremen Rotterdam Nijmegen Antwerp Düsseldorf BELG Channel English Channel Islands St-Nazaire Gotland Malmö Odense Birmingham E N G L A N D Bay of Biscay A Coruña 13 Vättern Jönköping Helsingborg COPENHAGEN Sheffield K I NG D OM 12 ᭡ Traditional lifestyles still persist in many remote and rural parts of Europe, especially in the south, east, and in the far north. Gothenburg Aalborg DE NMA RK Leeds Liverpool Manchester Th 11 Kristiansand UNI TED (to UK) WA L E S m es LONDON Southampton 7 Athens Valletta Transport Ufa s DUBLIN Cardiff 14 Nor th S ea Edinburgh Newcastle upon Tyne I R E L A N D ofIsle Man Kirov Vologda St Petersburg n NORTHERN IRELAND Belfast below 49 50–99 100–149 150–199 200–299 above 300 Lake Ladoga HELSINKI TALLINN i (people per sq km) 10 Istanbul Perm’ F E D E R AT I O N Tampere Turku STOCKHOLM Varna Salonica Piraeus Lake Onega FINLAND Åland Uppsala Örebro Vänern a Glasgow Population density 9 Political map All the countries in each continent are shown, with their political capitals and most populous cities. a t OSLO 5 6 Bucharest Constanπa Sofia Rome Naples Astrakhan’ Novorossiysk n Bergen Stavanger Rostov-na-Donu Odesa Barcelona Valencia Cádiz Volgograd Kharkiv Kiev Gibraltar Dvin Samara Minsk Brest Bratislava Budapest Innsbruck Trieste Ljubljana Zagreb Verona Bologna Belgrade u Shetland Islands Orkney Islands Nuremberg Vienna Munich o Trondheim ther n Marseille Madrid M or Aberdeen Dundee Lisbon R U S S I A N Arkhangel’sk Kirov Moscow Kaliningrad Vilnius Gdaúsk Berlin Warsaw Poznaú Prague Bern Bordeaux Bilbao l White Sea Rotterdam Antwerp Brussels Frankfurt am Main Strasbourg Vologda Nizhniy Novgorod Ríga Helsingborg Hamburg Amsterdam le Havre Paris St Petersburg Stockholm Tallinn Gothenburg Newcastle upon Tyne Middlesbrough Copenhagen Liverpool Birmingham N O R W n De le Circ Southampton (to Denmark) SCOTLAND Helsinki Oslo tic A Coruña N o r w e g i a n S e a 3 Bergen Aberdeen Grangemouth Dublin Arc St-Nazaire Murmansk 6 Outer Hebrides 1 2 Perm’ B are nts S ea Faeroe Islands Z Vorkuta Murmansk Archangel Circ le ICELAND 7 W Trondheim ᭡ The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin is a potent symbol of German reunification. From 1961, the road beneath it ended in a wall, built to stop the flow of refugees to the West. It was opened again in 1989 when the wall was destroyed and East and West Germany were reunited. tic V major roads and motorways major railways international borders transport intersections major international airports major ports Kara Sea Vorkuta Arc U Transport Reykjavík Novaya Zemlya trait k S ar m T S ᭣ Overcoming natural barriers, the Brenner Autobahn, one of the main routes across the Alps, links Innsbruck in Austria with Verona in Italy. ᭡ Demand for space in densely populated European cities like London has led to the development of high-rise offices and urban sprawl. Farnham country/dependent territory capital city K REYKJAVÍK Eb Yonezawa J r Europe is a densely populated, urbanized continent; in Belgium over 90% of people live in urban areas. The highest population densities are found in an area stretching east from southern Britain and northern France, into Germany. The northern fringes are only sparsely populated. 5 Population map Tizi Ozou I S W E D Population Adana H BI AN G AN 3 BEIJING F F E H D C C The political boundaries of Europe have changed many times, especially during the 20th century in the aftermath of two world wars, the break-up of the empires of AustriaHungary, Nazi Germany and, towards the end of the century, the collapse of communism in eastern Europe. The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has again altered the political map of Europe, highlighting a trend towards nationalism and devolution. In contrast, economic federalism is growing. In 1958, the formation of the European Economic Community (now the European Union or EU) started a move towards economic and political union and increasing internal migration. 4 capital city B Political Europe N 500,000 to 1 million perennial salt lake Miscellaneous sites of interest / miscellaneous Valley of the Kings Tropics / Polar circles Antarctic Circle Continental resources The Earth’s rich natural resources, including oil, gas, minerals, and fertile land, have played a key role in the development of society. These pages show the location of minerals and agricultural resources on each continent, and how they have been instrumental in dictating industrial growth and the varieties of economic activity across the continent. scientific station SOUTH AMERICA en Gulf of Panama Medellín a Magdal A L n la o s Or i Gu Ta p s nd la gh Hi an ili az Br o ac Ch s n ra e d n N A A N 10 Fortaleza Land use map ua i Arag Recife co ds nc i s an ão H ig Brasília S s Salvador hl F ra Planalto de Mato Grosso e ili an 12 az Br ná Par a Rio de Janeiro ra A y Ur u g Paraná e ua C d Porto Alegre E s I 14 C T 15 Using the land and sea N Pa m pa n Montevideo Buenos Aires A C ol or ado Rí oN eg r o L barren land cropland desert forest mountain region pasture T i co A Ch major conurbations Gulf of San Jorge B C D E H I J K L M N O P Q R cattle pigs sheep bananas corn (maize) citrus fruits Bahía Grande S T W Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn X Industry map N O Rosario A ᭣ High in the Andes, hardy alpacas graze on the barren land. Alpacas are thought to have been domesticated by the Incas, whose nobility wore robes made from their wool. Today, they are still reared and prized for their soft, warm fleeces. 13 São Paulo Curitiba G Córdoba Santiago ᭣ The Pampas region of southeast South America is characterized by extensive, flat plains, and populated by cattle and ranchers (gauchos). Argentina is a major world producer of beef, much of which is exported to the USA for use in hamburgers. Belo Horizonte n s Ch ay o o m ac I T E Tocantin s á Jur u a E C O C E L I ós uay H C Ilha de Marajó Belém on Amaz aj r ag Par C ei cocoa cotton coffee fishing oil palms peanuts rubber shellfish soya beans sugar cane vineyards wheat 16 17 Cape Horn A 52 Environmental issues map 9 d co ra it of M 7 C O s Manaus ad M us Pi l lan agel St I u (to UK) T Lima E A N O C Punta Arenas Falkland Islands N C Bahía Grande and A I N Comodoro Rivadavia Gulf of San Jorge 6 a ᭣ South America, and Brazil in particular, now leads the world in coffee production, mainly growing Coffea Arabica in large plantations. Coffee beans are harvested, roasted and brewed to produce the world’s second most popular drink, after tea. Argentina and Brazil are South America’s most industrialized countries and São Paulo is the continent’s leading industrial centre. Long-term government investment in Brazilian industry has encouraged a diverse industrial base; engineering, steel production, food processing, textile manufacture and chemicals predominate. The illegal production of cocaine is economically significant in the Andean countries of Colombia and Bolivia. In Venezuela, the oil-dominated economy has left the country vulnerable to world oil price fluctuations. Food processing and mineral exploitation are common throughout the less industrially developed parts of the continent, including Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. 5 8 L F A below 999 1000–1999 2000–2999 3000–3999 4000–4999 above 5000 Industry high Pur I L ghl A GNI per capita (US$) Bahía Blanca Neuquén 16 ᭤ Both Argentina and Chile are now exploring the southernmost tip of the continent in search of oil. Here in Punta Arenas, a drilling rig is being prepared for exploratory drilling in the Strait of Magellan. T Hi B a s i n C A na A mazona z o n m Marañón A E Montevideo ia Rio Neg ro Putumayo Amazon Gulf of Guayaquil P C URUGUAY Buenos Aires A RG E N T INA A A T no co Bogotá n O Santiago Talca Valdivia low Mineral resources map N bauxite copper diamonds gold iron lead silver tin Cali A C Mendoza Valparaíso Concepción Standard of living (UN human development index) 15 A Caracas poor urban air quality N A E ng Xi I Porto Alegre Rio Grande I C C L s nd la gh Hi an az L N Maracaibo Gulf of Darien P a t a g o n i a F Curitiba Santa Fe Rosario T N T A Mineral resources A E C O C I T A E oil field gas field coal field Barranquilla Many foods now common worldwide originated in South America. These include the potato, tomato, squash, and cassava. Today, large herds of beef cattle roam the temperate grasslands of the Pampas, supporting an extensive meat-packing trade in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Corn (maize) is grown as a staple crop across the continent and coffee is grown as a cash crop in Brazil and Colombia. Coca plants grown in Bolivia, Peru and Colombia provide most of the world’s cocaine. Fish and shellfish are caught off the western coast, especially anchovies off Peru, shrimps off Ecuador and pilchards off Chile. 12 Córdoba O Car ibb ean S ea N do C G Br o Colora IC s ac Ch n ra ay l at a T O á Par ag u de la P N T u Ca A N I Ciudad del Este LA nds e A N O C E C Rio de Janeiro San Miguel de Tucumán Corrientes ghla Rio de Janeiro Using the land and sea Belo Horizonte São Paulo 1 a Hi d ᭣ Copper is Chile’s largest export, most of which is mined at Chuquicamata. Along the length of the Andes, metallic minerals like copper and tin are found in abundance, formed by the excessive pressures and heat involved in mountain-building. N heavy marine pollution Brasília Santa Cruz Sucre PARAGUAY ian B a s i n I C A desertification Salvador BOLIVIA Z AT Gu A m a z o n F Río forest destroyed La Paz Antofagasta Y n Sea s n o l a L n o desert Chuquicamata Asunción 17 E polluted rivers Arica 13 C marine pollution Iquique X Caribbea I tropical forest Recife Maceió Arequipa W São Paulo Pa r a d B R A Z I L PE RU Lima 14 O Santa Fe Mendoza S al a A 11 Santiago national parks Cusco Wealth disparities throughout the continent create a wide gulf between affluent landowners and those afflicted by chronic poverty in inner-city slums. The illicit production of cocaine, and the hugely influential drug barons who control its distribution, contribute to the violent disorder and corruption which affect northwestern South America, de-stabilizing local governments and economies. 10 IC ad P degrees of longitude / latitude T o Environmental issues Natal Chiclayo Chimbote N rancisco oF Sã G S al Standard of living LA an d s s A N C E 9 V on e Fortaleza B a s i n 8 ig hl Ne g ro Amaz d E A N Manaus Iquitos Tropics / Polar circles aH Ri 7 ᭡ The cold Peru Current flows north from the Antarctic along the Pacific coast of Peru, providing rich nutrients for one of the world’s largest fishing grounds. However, overexploitation has severely reduced Peru’s anchovy catch. AT i an O C n Sea Caracas o s Gu C O n B a s i n I I C l a A m a z o n F T L Bogotá Quito I N Belém A m a z o n U C A (to France) Quito ECUADOR Caribbea ca Medellín ᭡ Clouds of smoke billow from the burning Amazon rainforest. Over 11,500 sq miles (30,000 sq km) of virgin rainforest are being cleared annually, destroying an ancient, irreplaceable, natural resource and biodiverse habitat. n French Guiana SURINAM COLOMBIA 6 Guayaquil pharmaceuticals printing & publishing shipbuilding sugar processing textiles timber processing tobacco processing wine oil gas industrial cities major industrial areas A GUYANA Bogotá L T Mineral resources A T S P Paramaribo R Over a quarter of the world’s known copper reserves are found at the Chuquicamata mine in northern Chile, and other metallic minerals such as tin are found along the length of the Andes. The discovery of oil and gas at Venezuela’s Lake Maracaibo in 1917 turned the country into one of the world’s leading oil producers. In contrast, South America is virtually devoid of coal, the only significant deposit being on the peninsula of Guajira in Colombia. C P A A Georgetown Q P o Ciudad Guayana Cali aerospace brewing car/vehicle manufacture chemicals electronics engineering finance fish processing food processing hi-tech industry iron & steel meat processing metal refining narcotics S e a Valencia VENEZUELA Medellín O Environmental issues The Amazon Basin is one of the last great wilderness areas left on Earth. The tropical rainforests which grow there are a valuable genetic resource, containing innumerable unique plants and animals. The forests are increasingly under threat from new and expanding settlements and ‘slash and burn’ farming techniques, which clear land for the raising of beef cattle, causing land degradation and soil erosion. Industry Caracas Maracaibo Barquisimeto Cartagena Gulf of Panama N n C a r i b b e a n Barranquilla PANAMA 5 M A L ᭣ Ciudad Guayana is a planned industrial complex in eastern Venezuela, built as an iron and steel centre to exploit the nearby iron ore reserves. ili K d al e n a J A 3 4 lines of latitude and longitude / Equator I M ag H li G Uc ay a F s E e D d C n mangrove Graticule features SOUTH AMERICAN RESOURCES B Agriculture still provides the largest single form of employment in South America, although rural unemployment and poverty continue to drive people towards the huge coastal cities in search of jobs and opportunities. Mineral and fuel resources, although substantial, are distributed unevenly; few countries have both fossil fuels and minerals. To break industrial dependence on raw materials, boost manufacturing, and improve infrastructure, governments borrowed heavily from the World Bank in the 1960s and 1970s. This led to the accumulation of massive debts which are unlikely ever to be repaid. Today, Brazil dominates the continent’s economic output, followed by Argentina. Recently, the less-developed western side of South America has benefited due to its geographical position; for example Chile is increasingly exporting raw materials to Japan. A A South American resources 1 viii warm current cold current 0–10˚C / 32–50˚F 10–20˚C / 50–68˚F 20–30˚C / 68–86˚F U 1 million to 5 million seasonal lake winter pack ice limit Ice-shelf (below 0˚C / 32˚F) Sea-ice* (average) below -2˚C / 28˚F Sea-water -2–0˚C / 28–32˚F * Sea-water freezes at -1.9˚C / 28.4˚F Lowest high tides Highest high tides (to Spain) summer pack ice limit ge c ti n ich 13 Surface temperature and currents Antarctic Circle Tertiary (Paleogene) Quaternary Jurassic 208 million years old full international border glacier / snowfield 12 Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle Mid-ocean ridges are formed by lava which erupts beneath the sea and cools to form solid rock. This process mirrors the creation of volcanoes from cooled lava on the land. The ages of sea floor rocks increase in parallel bands outwards from central ocean ridges. Ocean floor Communications map fewer than 10,000 ice shelf Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator Ocean floors Water percolates into the sea floor Settlements secondary seasonal river ice cap / sheet 11 Tropic of Capricorn High and low tides The highest tides occur when the Earth, the Moon and the Sun are aligned (below left). The lowest tides are experienced when the Sun and Moon align at right angles to one another (below right). Equator PO more than 5 million 10,000 to 50,000 Ice features Sur face temperature and current s dw San h South Trenc Antarctic Circle Weddell Sea Tidal range and wave environment s Tropic of Cancer ᭡ Surtsey, near Iceland, is a volcanic island lying directly over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was formed in the 1960s following intense volcanic activity nearby. A 50,000 to 100,000 spring / well / waterhole / oasis t EUROPE main seasonal river wadi id Ri se ci fi c a P st a Scotia Sea S o u t h e a s t Pa c i f i c Basin Bellingshausen Sea Amundsen Sea Tides and waves Locator map Introductory text minor river marsh / salt marsh -A id M ge Rid OCEAN Global mapping Global information is shown in a variety of projections to give the reader a clear overview of each topic. 9 10 New England Chicago seasonal salt lake Idealized globe showing the movement of water around a landless Earth. Ocean currents Surface currents are driven by the prevailing winds and by the spinning motion of the Earth, which drives the currents into circulating whirlpools, or gyres. Deep sea currents, over 330 ft (100 m) below the surface, are driven by differences in water temperature and salinity, which have an impact on the density of deep water and on its movement. Tropic of Capricorn Argentine Basin Tides are created by the pull of the Sun and Moon’s gravity on the surface of the oceans. The levels of high and low tides are influenced by the position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and Sun. Waves are formed by wind blowing over the surface of the water. FORT-DE-FRANCE perennial lake Brazil Basin O C E A N Rio Grande Rise I built up area MINSKAYA VOBLASTS’ other settlements dam 8 is e ca Ri dg e az N Chile Basin R Tren ch ap an R Ea st Pa ci fi c Ton ga Trench Per u Basin E tic tarc c-An Pacifi Ross Sea Ages of the ocean floor 16 A 100,000 to 500,000 rapids Explanatory captions 7 one ch xviii dependent territory capital city waterfall a Fracture Z 6 Antarctic Circle Black smokers These vents in the ocean floor disgorge hot, sulphurrich water from deep in the Earth’s crust. Despite the great depths, a variety of lifeforms have adapted to the chemical-rich environment which surrounds black smokers. 1 canal Tropic of Cancer Basin Caribbean Sea en Guate mala B a sin Photographs 5 Surface water Sargasso Sea Sala y Gomez Ridge SOUTHERN 3 Equator O C E A N ANTA RC TIC A Diagrams How sediment is deposited on the ocean floor Ocean currents move warm water away from the Equator towards the poles, while cold water is, in turn, moved towards the Equator. This is the main way in which the Earth distributes surface heat and is a major climatic control. Approximately 4000 million years ago, the Earth was dominated by oceans and there was no land to interrupt the flow of the currents, which would have flowed as straight lines, simply influenced by the Earth’s rotation. Yucatan Basin one ure Z 1 2 Deep sea turbidity flow ᭤ Satellite image of the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Delta, in which the land appears red. The river deposits immense quantities of silt into the East China Sea, much of which will eventually reach the deep ocean floor. t A T L A N T I C Canary Gulf of Mexico one ure Z Southwest Pacific Basin n South Indian Basi u act ai F r Z Rocks and Other debris, flow from shelf to ocean floor la h Ta iwa nS tra it ea -A l e Tr e n c h lat id North American Basin Zone c t ure M olok ll be mp u Ca tea Pla n Ridge e yF ra e Y Continental shelf hi t ic Circl i dg South Fiji Basin Tasman Sea Bass Strait Enderby Plain Ant a rc nR X Sediment accumulates at head of underwater canyon Recentlydeposited sediments overlay older rocks 4 M Newfoundland Basin ic Ridge nP st In dia Arctic Circle Labrador Sea nt ele thea W -C rgu S Sea level 200m / 656ft 1000m / 3281ft 2000m / 6562ft 3000m / 9843ft 4000m / 13,124ft 5000m / 16,400ft 6000m / 19,686ft Dav is S tra i Hudson Strai t t Hudson Bay C lar io ef Re Ocean depth Sou Se a Baffin Bay Solomon Sea Arafura Sea an d NORTH AMERICA c t ure Zon e c ino Fra Central Pacific Basin Melanesian Basin AUSTRALIA South Australian Basin enl Gulf of n c h Alaska P A C I F I C a Marian Coral Sea Ke V la Timor Sea ai i a untains ier Continental shelf Typical sea-floor features Haw fic M o Perth Basin O C E A N Tr e ian Me n d o arr Agulhas Basin nc Mur ra Bismarck Sea ge Volcanic island re Celebes Sea Rid Madagascar Basin eT Mi d-P ac i Philippine Sea South China Sunda Sea Shelf ril tB ea Gr idge other 1st order internal administrative border U Storms, earthquakes, and volcanic activity trigger underwater currents known as turbidity currents which scour sand and gravel from the continental shelf, creating underwater canyons. These strong currents pick up material deposited at river mouths and deltas, and carry it across the continental shelf and through the underwater canyons, where it is eventually laid down on the ocean floor in the form of fans. ᭡ The Atlantic Ocean was formed when the landmasses of the eastern and western hemispheres began to drift apart 180 million years ago. Pe r u Mid-Indian Basin J east Cape Basin Ku Northwest Pacific Basin nts a Tropic of Capricorn 12 settlement population symbols tertiary river T ANGOLA autonomous / federal region seamount / guyot symbol secondary river S ᭡ The Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest and deepest ocean, covering over one-third of the surface of the Earth. Beaufort Sea Bering Sea Emperor Seamou Bay of Bengal Yellow Sea East China Sea ca lac scarene M al a t e a u P ndian R NIUE (to NZ) region outside feature area Settlements main river R Arctic Circle autonomous / federal region border -3000m / -9843ft Drainage features Q OC EAN Chukchi Sea Aleut Ninety Oceanic ridge Abyssal plain Mid-I Seamount ARCTI C Laptev Sea A M e Trench Sea I Sea of Japan (East Sea) of The continental shelf is a shallow, flat sea-bed surrounding the Earth’s continents. It extends to the continental slope, which falls to the ocean floor. Here, the flat abyssal plains are interrupted by vast, underwater mountain ranges, the midocean ridges, and ocean trenches which plunge to depths of 35,828 ft (10,920 m). Flat-topped guyot Kara S I N D I A N Somali Basin Angola Basin Ocean structure Formation of black smokers -2000m / -6562ft undersea spot depth g Rid erg -1000m / -3281ft P ᭡ Currents in the Southern Ocean are driven by some of the world’s fiercest winds, including the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Shrieking Sixties. Sea of Okhotsk A f of Gul iland Tha AFRICA Equator 17 -250m / -820ft -500m / -1640ft O Se a Arabian Sea u tea Pla sea level Baltic ia lf n ue biq zam Mo sea depth dependent territory with parent state ᭡ The Indian Ocean accounts for approximately 20% of the total area of the world’s oceans. C Gulf of Guinea 8 idge demarcation/ cease fire line N Deposition of sediment ea vis R atoll Se a Black Sea A ea nS Tropic of Cancer 11 ARMENIA M East Siberian Sea Med ite How surface waters reflect the relief of the ocean floor 6 9 Regions L E U R O P E Base level of the sea surface at 0 ft (0 m) Actual relief of ocean floor Baren Sea ts Arctic Circle rth No Depressed sea level over trough in ocean floor Elevated sea level over ridge in ocean floor 5 ᭡ The low relief of many small Pacific islands such as these atolls at Huahine in French Polynesia makes them vulnerable to changes in sea level. country K Tr ench 4 ait Str Barracuda Fracture Zone J Gre Wal reef I Sea level If the influence of tides, winds, currents and variations in gravity were ignored, the surface of the Earth’s oceans would closely follow the topography of the ocean floor, with an underwater ridge 3000 ft (915 m) high producing a rise of up to 3 ft (1 m) in the level of the surface water. lsb Car indication of country extent (Pacific only) indication of dependent territory extent (Pacific only) H The great oceans There are five oceans on Earth: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern oceans, and the much smaller Arctic Ocean. These five ocean basins are relatively young, having evolved within the last 80 million years. One of the most recent plate collisions, between the Eurasian and African plates, created the present-day arrangement of continents and oceans. 3 10 coastline G 7 undersea features lava flow F s Per G u disputed territorial claim border E n INDIAN OCEAN D rra sand desert disputed de facto border C Se a elevation below sea level (depression depth) THE WOR LD’S OCE ANS B Two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by the oceans. The landscape of the ocean floor, like the surface of the land, has been shaped by movements of the Earth’s crust over millions of years to form volcanic mountain ranges, deep trenches, basins and plateaux. Ocean currents constantly redistribute warm and cold water around the world. A major warm current, such as El Niño in the Pacific Ocean, can increase surface temperature by up to 10°F (8°C), causing changes in weather patterns which can lead to both droughts and flooding. Se a Andaman Sea A The world’s oceans 1 iati c pass dr undefined international border ian volcano a sp full international border ve Plateau elevation above sea level (mountain height) The introductory section of the Atlas deals with every aspect of the planet, from physical structure to human geography, providing an overall picture of the world we live in. Complex topics such as the landscape of the Earth, climate, oceans, population, and economic patterns are clearly explained with the aid of maps and diagrams drawn from the latest information. -Laccadi Borders The world Red Sea international airport sea level below sea level elevation / volcano / pass tunnel (railroad) Chagos minor railroad Mozambique Channel 100m / 328ft Nordkapp main railroad ge 250m / 820ft ANDES headland Rid 500m / 1640ft Namib Desert Massif Central est In dian 1000m / 3281ft landscape features The atlas is organized by continent, moving eastward from the International Date Line. The opening section describes the world’s structure, systems, and its main features. The Atlas of the World which follows, is a continent-by-continent guide to today’s world, starting with a comprehensive insight into the physical, political, and economic structure of each continent, followed by integrated mapping and descriptions of each region or country. thw elevation Communications ou Physical features How to use this Atlas Y Z 53 Comparative wealth map
  • 9. INTRODUCTION Temperature Rainfall Algiers Sirocco Sirocco Casablanca Marrakech Km 0 600 400 200 0 g rë LA AT White Nile Gre umb a R ang e M W hit e V o lt a t U Mi t Mo M N O tan at m b oo b oo July Wi nd s Landform diagrams The complex formation of many typical landforms is summarized in these easy-to-understand illustrations. 15 Wind erosion 4 Dunes like this in the Namib Desert (left) are wind-blown accumulations of sand, which slowly migrate. Wind action moves sand up the shallow back slope; when the sand reaches the crest of the dune it is deposited on the slip face. I D g er sb en July Wi nd s b July Wi nd s 2 4 Heavy rainfall runs off mountains o at Rift pop Gre m Li rt P Q R S Coastal processes Wave energy 3 Houtbaai (above), in southern Africa, is constantly being modified by wave action. As waves approach the indented coastline, they reach the shallow water of the headland, slowing down and reducing in length. This causes them to bend or refract, concentrating their erosive force at the headlands. Waves dispersed in the bay refracting Force of waves concentrates on the headland 3 The sea bed is deeper opposite the bay than at the headland Coastal processes: Erosion of a bay T U V W X Y 16 17 Z 69 Landscape evolution map The physical shape of each continent is affected by a variety of forces which continually sculpt and modify the landscape. This map shows the major processes which affect different parts of the continent. Photographs A wide range of beautiful photographs bring the world’s regions to life. Transportation network The differing extent of the transportation network for each region is shown here, along with key facts about the transportation system. World locator This locates the continent in which the region is found on a small world map. CA A P r e Cre ing om Ga wa re Wa ter an n a Riv eh Su s q u u ou nt ai p ha h e Ri v ca ive r RE D E L AWA D G i r ice Mau ver Ri Massachusetts Bay en s e aR M A R Y L A N D 18 Milford Newburyport Haverhill Jaffrey Methuen Plum Island Nashua Winchester i Cape Ann Winchendon Lowell v e r Lawrence Gloucester Athol Danvers Fitchburg Beverly Leominster Salem Quabbin Woburn Lynn Reservoir Medford Clinton Malden Logan International Barre Hudson Cambridge A JERSEY nn 20 N M a or l A ar ue sc il H r re L au Philadelphia sq 17 I RGIN A WEST VI T NEW Su l Al l e g h e n y hela Rive gh Yo u R Mononga land New York L o n g I s PENNSYLVANIA y p M o a n l a Ly c k h c S h nc I g Boston N New York A Pittsburgh Lead Mountain 466m M ar yl an Harrisburg AT Delaware urban 83% rural 17% Calais Bay Eastport Lake Lubec a s Gardner Rive r Machias l of ne Fundy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LA N C TI O 3 an d New Jerse y Delaware A A TL N TI C O C Land use map This shows the different types of land use which characterize the region, as well as indicating the principal agricultural activities. 4 Land use and agricultural distribution cattle poultry cranberries fishing fodder fruit maple syrup timber Population density Total land area 162,258 sq miles (420,232 sq km) 5 pasture cropland forest Map keys Each supporting map has its own key. major towns 335 people per sq mile (120 people per sq km) 6 7 en obs Kennebec yl 8 e Scale 1:2,750,000 Grid reference The framing grid provides a location reference for each place listed in the Index. f in ar C c ot B ay River n E River cut w a M A d New Jerse y The urban/rural population divide r R ho de Island E Ohio Pennsy lvania N We s t Virg i nia 12 New Hamp shi re Massachusetts Albany Rochester Buffalo E Ohio ve r Ri Ar d n a l n ut a tic s ke Boston R ho de Island New York Harrisburg Philadelphia A Ver mont New York o 9 G u l f e CONNECT ICUT A T L yR e Al l e g h ek re I i i aR H a nn a e ek Cr C s Joh nR i Allag a sh Ri ve r Sa int A D Springfield Canaan Windsor Locks Winsted M A Mount Frissell 725m Milford Brewer Hampden M NEW HAMPSHIRE N n e e r e North Amherst Amherst ec t i n u o an al in C p la am Ch c R an g Riv e Amenia Torrington Hartford Hyde Park West Hartford East Bristol Red Oaks Mill Hartford New Britain Wappingers Falls Lake Waterbury Meriden Candlewood Neversink River ne a in iv e r a Liberty a Old Town Bangor Massachusetts C on ne c t ic ut Pennsy lvania Pittsburgh Pittsfield Skowhegan Graham Lake Cross Island Bucksport Milbridge Jonesport Old Speck Mountain Groveton Wilton Oakland 1274m Ellsworth Winslow Great Wass Island r Rumford Searsport ᭤ Foreign competition and Guildhall Lancaster Blue Hill Rive Livermore Petit Manan Point China Lake g in Lyndonville depletion of stocks in the Falls Bar Harbor Belfast Berlin An dros cog Bethel Moore Augusta Mount Desert Atlantic fishing grounds caused a Reservoir Littleton Island Mount Washington decline in fishing in the seaboard Deer Isle Camden South Paris e 1917m Norway Swans Island it states. Recent years have seen a Gardiner Rockland P W hMount Lafayette Lewiston Waldoboro gradual recovery; Massachusetts Thomaston Lisbon 1600m i n s Auburn Isle au Haut Vinalhaven now annually ranks third or Woodsville t a Pleasant Mountain Bridgton 64 Wiscasset Island 612m North un fourth in the US in terms of the Seal Island Conway Mo Sebago Lisbon Matinicus Bath Falls value of fish landed. Conway Island Lake Brunswick Boothbay Ragged Island iv e r Squam North Windham Harbor Lake Lake Westbrook Plymouth Winnipesaukee Gorham Casco Bay Mount Lebanon 951m Cardigan Portland South Portland Meredith Wolfeboro Saco Cape Elizabeth Bristol Km Laconia Alfred 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sanford Biddeford Kennebunk Northfield Claremont Farmington Rochester Sunapee Lake 40 80 90 100 30 60 70 0 5 10 50 20 Miles Somersworth projection: Lambert Conformal Conic York Harbor Concord Charlestown Dover Henniker Suncook Kittery Hillsboro Newmarket Portsmouth Goffstown Exeter Hampton Manchester Keene ᭤ The islands, inlets and Peterborough Amesbury Milford Newburyport promontories of Maine’s Haverhill Jaffrey coast extend 3500 miles Methuen Plum Island Nashua Winchester The marshy lowlands of the Atlantic Coastal Plain dwindle i (5630 km). The tidal range is Cape Ann Winchendon Lowell v e r Lawrence toward the north, giving way to the rocky coast of Maine. Gloucester Athol particularly high, varying Danvers Fitchburg Leominster Salem Beverly between 12 and 24 ft Quabbin Uplifted over 400 million years ago, the Appalachian Woburn Lynn Reservoir (3.7–7.3 m). Medford Clinton Malden Mountains have since been carved into several discrete Logan International Barre Hudson Cambridge Boston Newton ranges by the region’s main rivers and heavily denuded by Quincy Worcester Framingham Dedham Weymouth successive glacial advances. This broad upland belt, with the Stoughton Randolph Marshfield Auburn Palmer Race Provincetown Whitinsville younger Adirondack Mountains, is bounded by the Brockton Point Stafford Southbridge Mansfield Bridgewater Kingston Woonsocket Great Lakes in the northwest. Springs Plymouth Attleboro Cape Cod Cape Cod Taunton Putnam Greenville Pawtucket Orleans Bay The lower Connecticut River has Storrs Providence East Providence Bay Buzzards Cranston cut down into the flat, clay valley Danielson Somerset The Adirondack Mountains The narrow Finger Lakes Barnstable Nauset Beach Moosup Fall River floor, which previously formed the Warwick were formed when the deeply of northwestern New York State South Yarmouth Fairhaven City Jewett bed of an ice-dammed lake. Tiverton New Bedford Hyannis buried basement rocks were were formed by glaciers cutting Island East Falmouth Monomoy Colchester y Rhode forced upward in a dome by as into deep deposits of material Norwich Ba Falmouth Island ds Nantucket much as 2 miles (3 km). from an earlier ice advance. Kingston Newport zzar Great Point Sound Bu Oak Bluffs New London d Green Edgartown Westerly Soun Rhode Island Deposits of glacial The Genesee River in New York Groton nd Martha's Mountains Isla Niantic till from the last Ice State has eroded a canyon Sound Vineyard Nantucket Nantucket ck Fishers Island Blo Age are up to 1000 ft Island 800 ft (240 m) deep through Island Block Gardiners (300 m) deep around the Appalachians. The river Southold Island Montauk Point Lake Ontario. continued to cut downward as Montauk the land was uplifted. Sag Harbor The urban/rural population divide The landscape 10 Massachusetts Bay MASSAC HUSETTS Holyoke Great Barrington Chicopee r Ta c oni Hudson Ashokan Reservoir Slide Mountain 1274m Kingston Hancock MAINE Sebasticook Lake C o nn s r ou M ck s n Cre il l Cr ee k Black Dome 1213m Catskill Hunter Mountain 1232m Saugerties Pepacton Reservoir Downsville D e l aw S S Pi yR O t a i n e ett R a qu o M lDelhi C at s S Ch r kil li c ive r ive aR S ch oh ar i e Una Rivdilla er i Ri ve r a nn R R re Galeton a S i n n e mC r e hen A nta ins C T ve r e Ri ese en h g t ll e la ive r Ots e D A N CA Gra ss R i ve N A Ohio O l Al l e g ve r N u eh Bingham Sugarloaf Mountain Saddleback Mountain 1255m Madison i R Pittsfield 1265m Stratton Rangeley 1291m 2 ck R u go Ca t sk i r r ima an Montrose s h Mooselookmeguntic Lake Farmington Me o Binghamton Sayre v Endicott Waverly Ri ive r Rive r n sic er in l a p a A p c ch r a Ti o g Riv ta un Aziscohos Lake Woodland Big Lake Ma ve r M Elmira t o oo Horseheads mun g a La Danforth Vanceboro Mattawamkeag West Grand Lake Lincoln A 1 oR Ri VERMONT c White Cap Mountain 1111m Y Sac i ite k re Cre iv e Al ek Ri W E ST V I RG I NIA A O t te r ve r Che d Windsor Towanda Elk Hill New Paltz Blossburg Wyalusing 821m us Ellenville qu Canton Monticello k ehaFactoryville Carbondale Walden nn ee aR Orange Lake Cr ek i ve Clarks Summit Ralston Franklin Cre Dushore ttle ck r Ridgway Ke ive r Middletown Newburgh Beacon Sharon l so Dunmore r i on R Mercer Goshen ya Cla Renovo Carmel Laporte Taylor Knox Port Jervis Hamden Lo h North Farrell Scranton ek oni Clarion Brockway Danbury Shelton Haven Swoyersville h High Point Jersey Williamsport qu e Peekskill Grove City Weedville n g Brookville New Haven p 550m Monroe Milford Shore us East Du Bois Slippery Rock Ridgefield West Haven Warwick Haven Nanticoke Muncy B ea Karthaus Dingmans Ferry ve r Milford Sussex New City Mount Kisco Wilkes Barre a New Castle ve r Lock Haven k C Reynoldsville Clearfield Montgomery Br Bridgeport Lake Ossining Ringwood Re d b an st e ek Berwick Norwalk Spring Valley Newton Milton Punxsutawney Curwensville Arthur We S o un d Cr Grassflat East Stroudsburg Ellwood City Butler iv e Stamford Island Wanaque g le Lewisburg Mattituck r Bloomsburg Freeland Ea Beaver Falls la Mifflinburg Wayne Mahoning Stroudsburg Yonkers White Plains Long ld Sound Beach Danville De Bellefonte Ba Hopatcong Paterson New Rochelle New Brighton Sunbury KittanningCreek Lake Jim Thorpe Bangor State College Hackensack Smithtown r Selinsgrove Beaver Dover e Shamokin Lehighton Dixonville Morristown Clifton Tyrone Natrona Heights Aliquippa Ambridge i n Belvidere Bernardsville Brentwood Mastic La Guardia New Kensington Indiana Pottsville Coraopolis Etna t a Easton Phillipsburg Jersey City Levittown Penn Newark u n Pittsburgh Hills Somerville Ebensburg Mifflintown Fire Island John F Kennedy Plainfield Altoona Huntingdon ve Blairsville M o Allentown Bethlehem Monroeville a Ri r Millersburg Lykens Mount Lebanon t Flemington Edison Staten Island Long Beach New Portage Hollidaysburg ni a u e Mckeesport Fleetwood Emmaus Bethel Park Bloomfield Ju New Brunswick Sayreville Sandy Hook Latrobe Johnstown B l Laureldale Quakertown n Hazlet Linglestown Lebanon Kendall Park Mount Union Monongahela Clairton Greensburg Westmont Princeton Reading Doylestown Harrisburg Middletown Raystown Washington Monessen Mount Palmyra Lambertville Pleasant Hershey Shillington Lake Windber Long Branch Pottstown Freehold New Cumberland Lansdale California Trenton Middletown Ephrata Asbury Park Scottdale Spring City Warminster Carlisle Lititz Elizabethtown i Neptune Norristown New Holland Shippensburg iv og h e Phoenixville Everett Levittown Lakewood er n Waynesburg Columbia Lancaster Bedford Point Pleasant Abington Willingboro Berlin Coatesville Silverton Uniontown Mount Holly Chambersburg McConnellsburg Toms River Camden Masontown Browns Mount Morris Upper York West Chester Point Marion Cherry Hill Mills Seaside Heights Darby Mount Davis Red Lion Hyndman Kennett Square Chester Tu Gettysburg 979m Greencastle Island Hanover Oxford Philadelphia Beach New Freedom Mu Lindenwold Penns Grove l li Barnegat Pitman n Carneys Point Pi r Glassboro Manahawkin ar Pennsville Elmer Surf City r B Salem Buena Egg Harbor City Long Beach Vineland Island Mays Landing Bridgeton 64 Millville Brigantine Pleasantville Atlantic City Somers Point Ventnor City Port Norris Ocean City 22 Woodbine Delaware Cape May Court House Bay Villas Avalon North Wildwood North Cape May Cape May Cape May L M B C D E F G H n eg Meadville h Mount Jewett e n y R i v e Kane Pymatuning Titusville Reservoir Wilcox eek Cr Tionesta Cr Emporium Lake ta ee Marienville Johnsonburg k Oil City Ti o n e s Wilhelm t E Schroon Lake Lake George Barre Chelsea Wh Ri Corning Ri v e r on ir n q iv e r en Sidney us Walton Johnson City Cannonsville Reservoir R n R s qu e n Watkins Glen c to o Oxford ga ni o s k e L a Ithaca ug h Bath ho s te Elkland Cobb Hill ane Tioga 782m ow Coudersport C Mansfield Wellsboro Wi Ad Ti o Co ani Wellsville u a Vergennes Mount Marcy Bristol 1629m Mount Moosalamoo 799m Canastota N E W YO R K i n g e r Hornell Alfred Belmont y n e Montpelier Elizabethtown H Indian Lake a oo ski R i Camels Hump 1244m v e r Vanderwhacker Mountain 1032m Lake Reservoir Old Forge South Burlington Moose River Salmon River Rutland Woodstock Reservoir Whitehall Lake Poultney Boonville Pleasant Wallingford Lake George Camden Ludlow Springfield Glens Falls Hinckley Reservoir Oneida Lake Erie Rome Northville Manchester Canal Whitesboro Stratton Saratoga Oneida Little Great Sacandaga Mountain Schuylerville Springs Lake Utica 1200m Syracuse Wampsville Ilion Falls Putney Gloversville Manlius Auburn Mount Fonda Amsterdam Waterville Richfield M H Snow Waterloo East Mechanicville Springs 1084m ha r Glenville Geneva w k R i ve Schenectady Bennington Rotterdam Cohoes er Williamstown Latham Troy Cobleskill Cayuga Homer North Turners Schoharie Cooperstown Albany Adams Delmar Lake Falls Cortland Mount Greylock ek Seneca Rensselaer 1063m Greenfield Lake Norwich Ravena Oneonta F e C l Cre 32 Blue Mountain Stillwater Raquette 1146m ve r Milton Mount Mansfield 1339m Burlington o o t Mayville Little Valley Chautauqua Lake Salamanca Jamestown Lakewood Allegheny Olean Reservoir Bradford Union City Warren Oi O Boston Adams Lowville Whiteface Mountain 1483m Lake Placid r Rive e North East Presque Isle Providence B e av e r R i Rive Lake Champlain c rana s on Amherst Depew Tupper Lake Carthage Watertown Sa ud Kenmore s Rive r Philadelphia Cranberry Lake Sodus Hilton Fulton Point Greece Webster Albion Rochester Spencerport Baldwinsville East Rochester North Syracuse Fairport Lyons Palmyra Fairmount Newark Le Roy Medina l Er ie Cana Tonawanda Batavia Canandaigua Buffalo Lancaster Attica Avon Lackawanna Geneseo Canandaigua East Aurora Orchard Park Warsaw Lake Mount Morris Lake Erie Beach Hamburg Perry Penn Yan Silver Creek C at Dansville Keuka Dunkirk ar Arcade au g u s Cre ek Lake Springville Fredonia Gowanda Westfield Eri hie i ve r ck R Niagara Falls Re g i Carry Falls Reservoir Saranac Lake O s w e ga Ninemile Point Pulaski Oswego Mexico Newfane Lewiston Niagara Falls Lockport int Potsdam Canton Black Lake Gouverneur Alexandria Bay nds Bl a A u sla dI Sackets Harbor Galloo Island Stony Point O n t a r i o L a k e ho san S Ogdensburg A 14 tc major towns chemicals international airports coal major roads defense major industrial area electronics engineering finance hi-tech industry iron & steel pharmaceuticals printing & publishing research & development textiles timber processing R ho de Island N E ne Greenville Brownville Junction a s a n t R i v e r Milo Sebec Lake Flagstaff Lake Guildford Bigelow Mountain X Rochester Buffalo Mattawamkeag Lake Chiputneticook Sherman Mills Lakes Millinocket Pe n ob s cot Ri v Pemadumcook Lake Big Squaw Mountain 974m Coburn Mountain 1133m W e C Con Gore Mountain 517m Houlton Island Falls Patten Mount Katahdin 1605m D D O Tumbledown Mountain 1080m 1015m Colebrook Newport Blue Mountain Island Pond 998m Barton Mars Hill ok o o s to Saddleback Mountain Mount Chase 744m S a i nt Cr o i x Riv C Missisquoi Richford Bay Enosburg North Hero Falls Saint Albans Dannemora Plattsburgh L a Lyon Mountain moille R i v e r Johnson 1167m Champlain hi a s River Chamberlain Lake A TI Sa Malone Churchill Lake Eagle Lake e Pl N C A Lake Memphremagog er Ri v ce Massena ren ve r aw r Ri R ive r LA tL ain Jackman r Moose Rive N ac Squa Pan Mountain Ashland 451m Moosehead Millinocket Lake Lake Boundary Bald Mountain 1109m A D A a Sa AT 14 sea level New York’s commercial success is tied historically to its transportation connections. The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, opened up the Great Lakes and the interior to New York’s markets and carried a stream of immigrants into the Midwest. Limestone Caribou Washburn Fort Fairfield Presque Isle Seboomook Chesuncook Lake Lake 100m / 328ft iv e r New Jerse y D el aware 2108 miles (3389 km) Eagle Lake Fish River Lake V Using the land & sea N C A 12,872 miles (20,592 km) 250m / 820ft nR nd 500m / 1640ft 4813 miles (7700 km) o o lm Harrisburg yla below 10,000 1000m / 3281ft 340,090 miles (544,144 km) New Hamp sh i re Philadelphia Mar ᭡ The Hancock Tower dominates the skyline of Boston’s business district. New England’s principal city has grown through land reclamation within Massachusetts Bay. Elevation Transportation network centers of commerce and corporate administration, dominating the regional economy. Research and development facilities Albany Rochester support an expanding electronics and Buffalo Massachusetts New York communications sector throughout the region. Boston C on ne c t ic ut Pharmaceutical and chemical industries are Hartford Providence Pennsy lvania R ho de Island New York important in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh o u n t a i n s 50,000 to 100,000 10,000 to 50,000 U NA D C on ne c t ic ut Pennsylvania has a large rural population and a major agribusiness sector dominated by livestock-raising. Fruit, vegetables, and nursery plants are grown throughout the region, with Mai ne fishing on the coast. Cranberries and maple syrup A NA D are traditional products in New England. CA Ver mont Large areas of cropland in the north were returned to forest New York New in the 20th century. Albany shire Hamp shi re r ive 100,000 to 500,000 ᭡ Chelsea in Vermont, surrounded by trees in their fall foliage. Tourism and agriculture dominate the economy of this self-consciously rural state, where no town exceeds 30,000 people. Van Buren Dickey ve r 1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million Portland We s t Virg ini a T Sai nt Jo Long hn R Fort Lake Kent Beau Lake above 5 million Ver mont 6 P Madawaska The principal seaboard cities grew up on trade and manufacturing. They are now global Mai ne A D A A N Syracuse O r er C 5 N M an L Population an Ch K Map key Transportation & industry 4 Erie N J M 3 Massachusetts C I dM an H The indented coast and vast woodlands of the northeastern states were the original core area for European expansion. The rustic character of New England prevails after nearly four centuries, while the great cities of the Atlantic seaboard have formed an almost continuous urban region. Over 20 million immigrants entered New York from 1855 to 1924 and the northeast became the industrial center of the US. After the decline of mining and heavy manufacturing, economic dynamism has been restored with the growth of hi-tech and service industries. Albion O Mai ne Gr an G M F G E h Ohio Wind erosion: Migration of a dune 5 Wadis (above) drain much of northern Africa. These drybed courses are flooded only after infrequent, but intense, storms in the uplands cause water to surge along their channels. 14 escarpment ocean current rift active volcano inselberg oasis river wadi waterfall Build up of sand produces strata inside the dune Ephemeral channels Water collects and floods the dry channel C o n n e c t i c u t , M a i n e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , N e w H a m p s h i r e , N e w J e r s e y, N e w Yo r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a , R h o d e I s l a n d , V e r m o n t n Fre nc on Hartford est Hartford E t i Dese D ck R Springfield 25m n Windsor Locks ted Windsor 13 sinking land stable land uplifting land Deposition on the slip face Ephemeral channels: Flash flooding of a wadi USA: NORTHEASTERN STATES 2 New Hamp shi re 11 12 R HODE ISLAND A N C E 13 Southampton O Lake Erie, receiving water flowing from the rest of the Great Lakes, drains via the Niagara Falls, into Lake Ontario, which lies 325 ft (99 m) below. River fed by water from the Great Lakes Resistant rock 15 Softer rock is eroded more quickly Force of water continues to undercut cliffs ᭡ The Niagara Falls were created where the Niagara River reached an escarpment capped by hard limestone. This was gradually eroded, exposing softer rock strata. Plunging water continues to erode the softer strata causing the falls to recede upstream. N Cape Cod Niagara Falls C O 14 P Q Cape Cod, Long Island and the islands between them mark the top of a great terminal moraine, formed at the front of the ice sheet which once covered the land. This ridge of deposited material was subsequently flooded by rising seas. Dingmans Ferry ᭤ The waterfalls at Dingmans Ferry are typical of those found in villages on the “Fall-line,” where rivers drop from the Appalachians to the coastal lowlands. These locations provide waterpower and are often at the navigable head of the river. The Atlantic Coastal Plain is part of the continental shelf, which extends several hundred miles out to sea, providing a rich environment for marine life. R S T U Rising sea levels have flooded river valleys along the coast, creating rias such as Long Island Sound. V W X ᭡ At Provincetown, Cape Cod, complex and powerful ocean currents continue to modify the shoreline, washing away some 3 ft (1 m) of the lower cape each year, while extending the beaches in the north. Y 16 17 Z 19 Continuation symbols These symbols indicate where adjacent maps can be found. Urban/rural population divide The proportion of people in the region who live in urban and rural areas, as well as the overall population density and land area are clearly shown in these simple graphics. Landscape map The computer-generated terrain model accurately portrays an oblique view of the landscape. Annotations highlight the most important geographic features of the region. Main regional map A wealth of information is Worcester displayed on the main map, Stoughton Randolph Marshfield Auburn building up a rich portrait of Palmer Race Provincetown Whitinsville the interaction between the Brockton Point Stafford Southbridge Mansfield Bridgewater Kingston physical landscape and the human Woonsocket Springs Plymouth Attleboro Cape C Cape Cod Taunton and political geography of each Putnam Greenville Pawtucket Orleans The key to the regional maps Bay region. Storrs Providence East Providence Buzzards Bay n Cransto Danielson Somerset can be Barnstable Nauset found on page viii. Moosup Fall River W i k A S S A C H U S E T T SNewton Holyoke t ington Chicopee ez mib C ma North Amherst Amherst Zig-zag gorge of the Zambezi Réunion L K 12 Fault and joint lines running in two directions River systems: Retreating of the Victoria Falls Key to main map A key to the population symbols and land heights accompanies the main map. G Transportation and industry map The main industrial areas are mapped, and the most important industrial and economic activities of the region are shown . ittsfield 5 N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – N O R T H E A S T E R N S TAT E S B 16 Mount Greylock 063m Greenfield 11 River plunges over falls a y A Portland Bennington Old site of Victoria Falls NORTH AMERICA 1 Albany D el aware 2 The Zambezi river (above) drops 360 ft (110 m) over the Victoria Falls into a zig-zag gorge. The river has eroded the gorge along lines of weakness in the bedrock, created by fault lines running in two directions. We s t Virg i nia Lake C River systems Groundwater: Replenishment of an oasis Philadelphia Ver mont TI Aquifer exposed near the surface Water migrates up through fault Rainwater feeds the aquifer Groundwater trapped between impermeable strata Landscape Regional Locator This small map shows the location of each country in relation to its continent. 10 AN The evolving landscape Key to transportation symbols Extent of national paved road network. Extent of motorways, freeways, or major national highways. Extent of commercial railroad network. Extent of inland waterways navigable by commercial craft. Mai ne L AT 9 10 Joints or cracks caused by expansion and contraction Sand is gradually blown up the back slope Transportation network New Jerse y External stresses act on the surface of the inselberg B 9 Williamstown North Turners Adams Falls J 8 hot wind Pemba Island Zanzibar 8 nd zam b Ch an ique ne l NT Er y bez Na C Major industry and infrastructure yla cold wind 6 N I ak Cape of Good Hope 7 Philadelphia Dr Ka Great roo F 7 daily hours of sunshine, January daily hours of sunshine, July 1 Oases are found in desert areas such as the Sahara (left). Groundwater migrates through permeable rock strata, confined between two impermeable layers. Oases form either when the permeable rocks come near to the surface, or at a fault line, when water is able to seep up to the surface through the crushed rocks at the fault. 6 Inselbergs (above), found extensively across West Africa, are exposed remnants of an extensive upland area. Erosion of the surrounding uplands leaves a resistant rock outcrop. Its spheroidal shape is the result of ‘onion-skin’ weathering – the exfoliating of layers – due to repeated expansion and contraction. Mauritius Main physical map Detailed satellite data has been used to create an accurate and visually striking picture of the surface of the continent. Kilimanjaro 5895m Lake Tanganyika The main body of the Atlas is a unique regional map set, with detailed information on the terrain, the human geography of the region, and its infrastructure. Around the edge of the map, additional “at-a-glance” maps, give an instant picture of regional industry, land use, and agriculture. The detailed terrain map (shown in perspective), focuses on the main physical features of the region, and is enhanced by annotated illustrations, and photographs of the physical structure. Mar Comoro Islands Okavango Delta C E Regional mapping We s t Virg inia Pemba Island Zanzibar Kalahari Basin Orange River 200 Miles 200–300 mm (8–12 in) 300–400 mm (12–16 in) 400–500 mm (16–20 in) more than 500 mm (20 in) Groundwater Seychelles Lake Nyasa 200 Km 100 D 0–25 mm (0–1 in) 25–50 mm (1–2 in) 50–100 mm (2–4 in) 100–200 mm (4–8 in) Average July rainfall Weathering B i Kalahar i D es e r t arid humid equatorial mediterranean semi-arid tropical warm humid 1 Kilimanjaro 5895m Zamb Z am A N O C E 100 0 C eb Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf) Lake Tanganyika Cape Town Tropic of Capricorn Maputo 6 Weathering: Formation of an inselberg le I C B Lake Victoria Bié Plateau 68 le G r e a t R i f t Va l umb a R ang e B C 0 Cross-section through southern Africa showing the boundary of the Great Escarpment. A Lake Albert o T Drakensberg C 17 Mi t ng G r e a t R i f t Va l Co Windhoek Climate Exfoliated layers Juba C ongo N Uplift of the basement rock created a raised plateau Boundary of the Great Escarpment Sh Congo B a sin A 16 Cross-sections Detailed cross-sections through selected parts of the continent show the underlying geomorphic structure. bangi Sudd Cameroon Mountain 4070m São Tomé L s if a s go M B on s de Maputo Durban 5 Antananarivo Durban e li Niger Delta The Great Escarpment marks the southern boundary of Africa’s basement rock and includes the Drakensberg range. It was uplifted when Gondwanaland fragmented about 160 million years ago and it has gradually been eroded back from the coast. To the north, the relief drops steadily, forming the Kalahari Basin. In the far south are the fold mountains of the Great Karoo. Kalahari Basin, covered with the sandy plains of the Kalahari Desert E AT E PL AT N PL IA AB AN C AR RI AF wa ma ds da an A ighl H Tropic of Capricorn Tshwane/Pretoria Pemba Tshwane/Pretoria Average January rainfall en of Ad Gulf Horn of Africa Lake Tana Ethiopian Highlands e Gulf of Guinea A T 15 A Slave Coast Bight of Benin s Gold Coa y Coast Ivor a st Benu le Ni A Niger Lake Volta Windhoek Tropic of Capricorn 4 Dar es Salaam Average July temperature Blue Lake Chad a h e l I Nile S S Se Nubian Desert a Antananarivo Equator Mombassa Kinshasa Luanda Harare African landscapes are shaped by the intensity of climatic extremes and by tectonic action. High aridity, wind action and infrequent but heavy rainstorms, lead to the migration of sand dunes and dramatic flash flooding across much of the north and west. In the wetter areas, high precipitation increases the rate of weathering. To the east, the rift system has created a volcanic and lake environment and allowed rivers to erode weaknesses left in the crustal structure by faults. A d Massif de l'Aïr Niger l r Re Lake Nasser r Tibesti t er es a D h Kisangani Libreville Shaping the continent t ser De ar n Taoude nni B a sin S e ne ga ag g ya Ah Harare Lusaka 20° S Tropic of Capricorn ᭡ The hot, equatorial basin of the Congo river receives over 48 inches (1200 mm) of rainfall per year. sea level rn ste e Nil h a ib ec L h g C Pemba Lusaka 3 Mogadishu Rainfall line of cross-section 250m / 820ft below sea level a Er S 500m / 1640ft 100m / 328ft ARABI Nile Delta Qattara Depression W Gr ea D este tS es r n an ert dS e Luanda b Ha Bangui Douala Bata Cape Town 1000m / 3281ft of Sirte Southern Africa Harrisburg Lagos Abidjan Equator Ea I Chott el Jerid g Er l ta d an Gr r i e n O îdi gu Dar es Salaam Djibouti b Ha Wau Tropic of Capricorn O C E A N rg dE G r a n e nt al d Occi E ains unt o s M la At IC CE a t R i f t Va l l e y AN 500 Miles Equator Mombassa Kinshasa 2 Khartoum Abéché Niamey r Ha Rainfall uncertain AN P L AT E U R A S I A N P L AT E A F R I C A N P L AT E 500 Km 250 në 250 Port Sudan an Ouagadougou ds 2000m / 6562ft Të 0 14 Hartford at t Tropic of Cancer 20° N destructive conservative i t AN PLA OLI TE AT e r AN r a A N P L AT E RIC n e a AF n S e a Gulf 1 constructive 4000m / 13,124ft 3000m / 9843ft M e d Section across northern Africa showing infilled basins and uplifted plateaux. Average January temperature (for explanation see page xiv) 5000m / 16,405ft 800 600 projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area 13 New York m Har Bamako Mogadishu Kisangani Libreville Tropic of Cancer Bilma Nouakchott Conakry Bangui Douala Bata Equator Z b Ha Nairobi 0 to 10°C (32 to 50°F) 10 to 20°C (50 to 68°F) 20 to 30°C (68 to 86°F) above 30°C (86°F) Plate margins Elevation 800 400 200 Miles A Djibouti Lagos Abidjan Temperature Map key Scale 1:36,000,000 Lake Chad lies in a sandfilled basin ds b Ha Wau Tamanrasset Dakar Khartoum Abéché Niamey r Ha Nairobi 20° S Tropic of Capricorn 100 Miles 50 an Ouagadougou Cairo Tropic of Cancer Temperature 50 100 Km 0 N Volcanic Ahaggar mountains, formed by rising magma from a hot spot 0 Y Marrakech B Cross-section through eastern Africa showing the two arms of the Great Rift Valley and its interior plateau. ad ag as ca r The Earth’s crust has been warped to form the Taoudenni Basin 12 Pittsburgh ᭡ Savannah grasslands run in a belt across Africa; limited rainfall inhibits tree growth. Extensive faulting occurs as rift valley pulls apart Lake Victoria B A Gr ain Co a C on ne c t ic ut Casablanca Equator 6 ge Ni New York S The climates of Africa range from mediterranean to arid, dry savannah and humid equatorial. In East Africa, where snow settles at the summit of volcanoes such as Kilimanjaro, climate is also modified by altitude. The winds of the Sahara export millions of tonnes of dust a year both northwards and eastwards. A 5 A Buffalo R Climate Tropic of Cancer 20° N 11 Syracuse Q P Equator Cape Verde Islands A D A A N O in Khams Rift valley lakes, like Lake Tanganyika, lie along fault lines 10 Pennsy lvania N Northern Africa 9 Rochester M The Great Rift Valley is the most striking feature of this region, running for 4475 miles (7200 km) from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea. North of Lake Nyasa it splits into two arms and encloses an interior plateau which contains Lake Victoria. A number of elongated lakes and volcanoes lie along the fault lines. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression, which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. Northern Africa comprises a system of basins and plateaux. The Tibesti and Ahaggar are volcanic uplands, whose uplift has been matched by subsidence within large surrounding basins. Many of the basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the north were formed by convergence of the African and Eurasian plates. 4 8 C L i Ghibl 3 K at t oo J East Africa The structure of Africa was dramatically influenced by the break up of the supercontinent Gondwanaland about 160 million years ago and, more recently, rifting and hot spot activity. Today, much of Africa is remote from active plate boundaries and comprises a series of extensive plateaux and deep basins, which influence the drainage patterns of major rivers. The relief rises to the east, where volcanic uplands and vast lakes mark the Great Rift Valley. In the far north and south sedimentary rocks have been folded to form the Atlas Mountains and the Great Karoo. O B m Har Bamako Conakry b I Physical Africa 1 0 Lake Victoria Dakar Port Sudan Bilma oo H tan G at F m E July Wi nd s D Jul yW in C Sirocco B Tropic of Cancer Tamanrasset Nouakchott PHYSICAL AFR ICA Algiers A 7 ongo a sin Tropic of Cancer Jul yW in AFRICA Sirocco The astonishing variety of landforms, and the dramatic forces that created and continue to shape the landscape, are explained in the continental physical spread. Cross-sections, illustrations, and terrain maps highlight the different parts of the continent, showing how nature’s forces have produced the landscapes we see today. in Khams The physical continent Cairo i Ghibl Climate map Climatic regions vary across each continent. The map displays the differing climatic regions, as well as daily hours of sunshine at selected weather stations. Climate charts Rainfall and temperature charts clearly show the continental patterns of rainfall and temperature. Boston Quincy Framingham Dedham Weymouth ix
  • 10. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H I J 1 M All the Solar System’s planets and dwarf planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and (apart from Pluto) roughly in the same plane. All the orbits have the shapes of ellipses (stretched circles). However, in most cases, these ellipses are close to being circular: only Pluto and Eris have very elliptical orbits. Orbital period (the time it takes an object to orbit the Sun) increases with distance from the Sun. The more remote objects not only have further to travel with each orbit, they also move more slowly. Nine major planets, their satellites, and countless minor planets (asteroids) orbit the Sun to form the Solar System. The Sun, our nearest star, creates energy from nuclear reactions deep within its interior, providing all the light and heat which make life on Earth possible. The Earth is unique in the Solar System in that it supports life: its size, gravitational pull and distance from the Sun have all created the optimum conditions for the evolution of life. The planetary images seen here are composites derived from actual spacecraft images (not shown to scale). 3 L Orbits The Solar System 2 K 4 5 6 7 8 Ceres (dwarf planet) 9 Mercury Venus Earth Mars 10 The Sun Diameter: 864,948 miles (1,392,000 km) Mass: 1990 million million million million tons 11 The Sun was formed when a swirling cloud of dust and gas contracted, pulling matter into its center. When the temperature at the center rose to 1,000,000°C (1,800,000°F), nuclear fusion – the fusing of hydrogen into helium, creating energy – occurred, releasing a constant stream of heat and light. 12 Jupiter Solar eclipse 13 A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, casting its shadow on Earth’s surface. During a total eclipse (below), viewers along a strip of Earth’s surface, called the area of totality, see the Sun totally blotted out for a short time, as the umbra (Moon’s full shadow) sweeps over them. Outside this area is a larger one, where the Sun appears only partly obscured, as the penumbra (partial shadow) passes over. 14 15 ᭡ Solar flares are sudden bursts of energy from the Sun’s surface. They can be 125,000 miles (200,000 km) long. The formation of the Solar System 16 Area of totality Penumbra (partial shadow) Moon Earth Sunlight The cloud of dust and gas thrown out by the Sun during its formation cooled to form the Solar System. The smaller planets nearest the Sun are formed of minerals and metals. The outer planets were formed at lower temperatures, and consist of swirling clouds of gases. Umbra (total shadow) Area of partial eclipse 17 A x B C D E F G H I J K L M
  • 11. TH E SOL AR SYSTE M N O P Q R S T U V W X PLANETS Y Z 1 DWARF PLANETS MERCURY VENUS EARTH MARS JUPITER SATURN URANUS NEPTUNE CERES PLUTO ERIS DIAMETER 3029 miles (4875 km) 7521 miles (12,104 km) 7928 miles (12,756 km) 4213 miles (6780 km) 88,846 miles (142,984 km) 74,898 miles (120,536 km) 31,763 miles (51,118 km) 30,775 miles (49,528 km) 590 miles (950 km) 1432 miles (2304 km) 1429-1553 miles (2300-2500 km) AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM THE SUN 36 mill. miles (57.9 mill. km) 67.2 mill. miles (108.2 mill. km) 93 mill. miles (149.6 mill. km) 141.6 mill. miles (227.9 mill. km) 483.6 mill. miles (778.3 mill. km) 889.8 mill. miles (1431 mill. km) 1788 mill. miles (2877 mill. km) 2795 mill. miles (4498 mill. km) 257 mill. miles (414 mill. km) 3675 mill. miles (5915 mill. km) 6344 mill. miles (10,210 mill. km) ROTATION PERIOD 58.6 days 243 days 23.93 hours 24.62 hours 9.93 hours 10.65 hours 17.24 hours 16.11 hours 9.1 hours 6.38 days not known ORBITAL PERIOD 88 days 224.7 days 365.26 days 687 days 11.86 years 29.37 years 84.1 years 164.9 years 4.6 years 248.6 years 557 years SURFACE TEMPERATURE -180°C to 430°C (-292°F to 806°F) 480°C (896°F) -70°C to 55°C (-94°F to 131°F) -120°C to 25°C (-184°F to 77 °F) -110°C (-160°F) -140°C (-220°F) -200°C (-320°F) -200°C (-320°F) -107°C (-161°F) -230°C (-380°F) -243°C (-405°F) 2 3 AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM THE SUN 4 MERCURY EARTH VENUS JUPITER SATURN URANUS NEPTUNE PLUTO (dwarf planet) MARS ERIS (dwarf planet) CERES (dwarf planet) SUN 5 6 7 8 Eris (dwarf planet) 9 Pluto (dwarf planet) Neptune Uranus 10 Space Debris Millions of objects, remnants of planetary formation, circle the Sun in a zone lying between Mars and Jupiter: the asteroid belt. Fragments of asteroids break off to form meteoroids, which can reach the Earth’s surface. Comets, composed of ice and dust, originated outside our Solar System. Their elliptical orbit brings them close to the Sun and into the inner Solar System. Saturn 11 12 ᭡ Meteor Crater in Arizona is 4200 ft (1300 m) wide and 660 ft (200 m) deep. It was formed over 10,000 years ago. 13 Possible and actual meteorite craters The Earth’s Atmosphere 14 During the early stages of the Earth’s formation, ash, lava, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were discharged onto the surface of the planet by constant volcanic eruptions. The water formed the oceans, while carbon dioxide entered the atmosphere or was dissolved in the oceans. Clouds, formed of water droplets, reflected some of the Sun’s radiation back into space. The Earth’s temperature stabilized and early life forms began to emerge, converting carbon dioxide into life-giving oxygen. Halley’s Comet 15 Earth’s orbit ᭡ It is thought that the gases that make up the Earth’s atmosphere originated deep within the interior, and were released many millions of years ago during intense volcanic actvity, similar to this eruption at Mount St. Helens. 16 Halley’s orbit ᭡ The orbit of Halley’s Comet brings it close to the Earth every 76 years. It last visited in 1986. Orbit of Halley’s Comet around the Sun 17 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z xi
  • 12. THE WOR LD D E F G H The physical world These cross-sections around the Earth, one in the northern hemisphere; one straddling the Equator, reveal the limited areas of land above sea level in comparison with the extent of the sea floor. The greater erosive effects of weathering by wind and water limit the upward elevation of land above sea level, while the deep oceans retain their dramatic mountain and trench profiles. The Earth’s surface is constantly being transformed: it is uplifted, folded, and faulted by tectonic forces; weathered and eroded by wind, water, and ice. Sometimes change is dramatic, the spectacular results of earthquakes or floods. More often it is a slow process lasting millions of years. A physical map of the world represents a snapshot of the ever-evolving architecture of the Earth. This terrain map shows the whole surface of the Earth, both above and below the sea. 3 Map key s Demerara Plateau gon ia Ant a rc 2000 t i c Ci rc le Am un dse n Bahía Blanca Peníns ula Valdé s Gulf of San Jorge Strait of Magellan Dra Amundsen Sea projection: Wagner VII A xii B a Ross Se C D E F ce Ross Ilf She e ure Zon d Fract Falklan South Georgia South San dw ic South S c o t i a S e a Sandwich Islands Falkl and Island s ke ge Pa s s a U O Bellingshausen Sea and Byrd L Marie I St Helena J Gough Island Argent ine Basin -105m Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn S Guinea Basin Tristan da Cunha Rio de la Plata Miles 17 s Santos Plateau h Trench Pa 1500 Bra z Pa t a 1000 500 in Pla Trindade á as o er Rio Grande Rise p 250 2000 ra n Ni g Sierra Leone Basin Brazil Basin Abrolhos Bank Uruguay m Golfo Corcovado e i s 0 1500 1000 500 ech Island nd Mag d s aj ó Pa ra do Southeast Pacific Basin ge o ci sc an Pa lo Co R 250 Ch e c Ridg do Sala s c f i c i P a 0 cif rc t g s uîd ne re Zo Fractu scension Ascension A Noronha aguay Par e t Atacama Deser c h Tr e n Juan Fernandez Islands Menard Fracture Zone nt a gI la At i eg tlanti l e s t E a nch Tre dec ma Ker Km A ic- Er OCEAN Fernando de Toca Planalto de Mato Grosso d i Lake Titicaca Cerro Aconcagua 6959m Eltanin Fracture Zone Scale 1:66,000,000 f Gibraltar Strait o ATLANTIC Ce ará Pla in S OUTH A M E RICA Ne g r id ic R Iberian Peninsula g Er Sierra Leone Rise la zie ssi pp i Miss i e h a Xingu M s n Chal leng er Fr actu re Z one 16 Douro Mid-A ru Pe E a s t ru Chile San Felix B a s i n Island San Ambrosio Island Ro g g e v e e n Basin Chatham Islands British Isles Bay of Biscay Cape Verde Terrace Cape Verde Islands Guiana Basin Ilha de Marajó Río Neg ro A C Gomez k ja la l s n oOr inoco Juruá n Galapagos Rise ez Ridge y Gom Sala Sala y y Re Faeroe Is s in nt M M ale r Ant il G uiana Hig hlands yali Uca Bauer Basin Easter Island Southwest Pacific Basin 15 Gulf of Guayaquil Peru Basin Pitcairn Islands Barr acuda Fracture Z one Putumay A m a z o n B a s i n Nap o a z on o Am Chimborazo 6310m Isl an ds Tubuai Islands a Ll Caq uetá ó rañ i s nd Isla 14 u Isthmmsáof a Pan Indies Sea Lesse ch Ma s k Coo Tropic of Capricorn C ar ibb e an Galápagos Islands n a dB Canary Basin ntins ds e Trench Tonga a Tonga aT re n Newfoundland Basin Sargasso Gran Cha co an n Penrhyn Basin Bermuda Nor th Amer ican Basin Sea St ra o as Nares Fl Plain Pu Cuba erto Rico Tr G enc re at e r Hispaniola W e s t An tille s Mexico Basin Yucatan Peninsu la n Iceland e Oc ean Azores t ogr A aph er F i d racture Z M one Madeira Atla ntis Fract ure Zon e Canary Is a App ira Isl y Marquesas Islands Tuam otu Gulf of Mexico Grand Banks of Newfoundland Lake Michigan Lake ts Erie O hio Delaware Bay e i Chesapeake Bay esse ch nn Te la Blake Plateau y Re Newfoundland Ta p ne l OCEAN Great k ja es n dg Ri Jan Mayen it l an Ice Labrador Basin Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Laurentian Mountains va No tia Sco Cape Cod Colón Ridge P a c i f i c Li o Samoa 13 R i s e P PACIFIC Manihiki Plateau Red River Guatemala Basin ne ture Zo n Frac perto Clip n S hi e l d Labrador Sea De n S t ra al r ic di a es si Ba rk ma Sen me Clipperton Island Kiritimati de Sie rr M d aM id d l e el Su adre r A Revillagigedo Islands Hudson S tr Pénin sule ait d'Ung ava Hudson Bay Belcher Islands Greenland Sea Gree nland h ne ture Zo n Frac Clario 9 n ra Great Plains l Johnston Atoll na Baffin Bay Baffin I sl de Hawai‘i Lake Winnipeg m ha Ba one Fracture Z Molokai Ca tchewan Saska Lake Superior Arka nsas 120°W Ellesmere Island M is Co Co as Snake ta r ien dre O S i e r ra Ma d re Ma S i e r r ad e nt al O cc i or ni a Gu l f of C a l i f a L ow e r C alifor ni one racture Z Murray F Isl an ds do Co lor a Death Valley -86m Queen Elizabeth Islands N O R T H Lakes Lake Huron Lake A M E R I C A Ontario s ge a tR n R o c k Ri oG y 7 ca ri sou Great Basin Francisco Bay abas Ath 150°W São Fr Fr bia lum 6 o Fracture Zone er Fracture Zone Mendocin Pione San Gre at Sla ve Lak e as Vancouver Island below sea level 12 10°S an Trench Aleutian sea level Phoenix Islands Hawaiian Islands gh Gulf of Alaska 120°W 20°N Gre at Bea r Lak e i r i dt s of a 100m / 328ft ount McKin ley (Denali) 6194m na B an l an d s uti i a n Is Ale Al e ut 250m / 820ft a s 5 sk Ala N Victoria Island Ma c ke n Bering Sea n asi Ha wa i‘i an 150°W Cross-section: Northern hemisphere d an 500m / 1640ft ks Range Broo ge Ran M IC OC EA Sea Mackenzie it Bering Stra o u er C o a s t M t s n t a i n -4000m / -13,124ft Mt Arctic C ircle 1000m / 3281ft Equator 180° Rid e g Beaufort Chukchi Sea Rocky Mountains Str ait ARCT es -2000m / -6562ft Tropic of Cancer Pacific Ocean M Cross-section: Southern hemisphere Pu 3000m / 9843ft 8 Aleutian Trench Da v is -250m / -820ft 2000m / 6562ft L 180° sea level 4000m / 13,124ft 4 K 60°N Sea depth 6000m / 19,686ft g Elevation Ri d 2 J The world in section Na z c a 1 I ic C nH i B ilia A T Ant arc tic Pen insu la ge ica Rid tarct -An N R E H a eric Am Weddel l Sea Ronne Ice Shelf K N A L T A M
  • 13. TH E PHYSICAL WOR LD N O Great Lakes P Appalachian Mountains Q Grand Banks of Newfoundland R S British Isles Mid-Atlantic Ridge Alps T U Mediterranean Sea Caucasus V Zagros Mountains Hindu Kush 90°W 60°W Peru-Chile Trench 30°W Andes Guiana Highlands Cape Verde Islands 30°E 60°E Congo Basin Gulf of Guinea Y Gobi Japan Z Japan Trench Pacific Ocean Asia 0° Mid-Atlantic Ridge Himalayas X 1 Africa North America W Ethiopian Highlands 90°E Gulf of Aden Bay of Bengal 120°E Ninetyeast Ridge 150°E Java Trench East Indies 180° Micronesia 2 Pacific Ocean 3 South America 90°W Africa 60°W 30°W 0° 30°E 60°E 90°E 120°E 150°E 180° an pm ak er Sea mo unt s re b e Kh rait uT rench nch ' lin t Si k h ot e - A Taiw an S t ky Tr e oly ms Ko kiy ry Kh aks reb kiy et a e Mount Wilhelm 4509m e Simp son Dese rt AUSTRALIA G Mo unt Kos cius zko 222 8m e Coral Sea Fiji New Caled onia 13 South Fiji Basin we iv Ho t rd a 12 Vanu atu Lo 14 North Island New Zealand t South Island t rai Tasman Sea ok S Bass Strait re n Solomon Islands Co Grea t Aus trali an Bigh t Lake Eyre -16m ng rli Da Bismarck a Archipelago Tropic of Capricorn D Nu Great Victo ria Deser t l l ar b or P l ain Equator Tungaru Cape York Land Gulf of Carpentaria id in g R ange M Perth Basin Melanesian Basin l Solomon Sea Arafura rres S trait To Sea or Tim Arnhem Kimberley Plateau Bismarck Sea Rise a tor R i dge ast etye Nin aga a Tr ench Ashmore & Cartier Islands In v e s t i g a R i d g e lat Ma scaren eP sca r Mo zam biqu e Ch ann Ma el d Timor Se s at Hi n Owen E a s te r n Gh ChagosLaccadive P lateau Chagos Trench Ni l e Wh ite Nile Mo za Pla mbiqu teau e g er n a sb Marshall Islands o a Heard Island Auckland South Indian Ba sin Campbell Islan d Macquarie Island N Campbell Plateau Islands 15 Physical factfile Diameter of Earth at Equator: 7927 miles (12,756 km) Equatorial circumference of Earth: 24,901 miles (40,075 km) Diameter from Pole to Pole: 7900 miles (12,714 km) Polar circumference of Earth: 24,860 miles (40,008 km) Mass: 5988 million million million tons (tonnes) D av i s S e a Wilkes A P r i O c 9 i New G uin ea E a s t I n d i e s Antarct ic Circle Land Mt Ere bus Ro 3794m S ss Ice helf N i M Ta sm an ia dg ai n s s Ja v an Kerguelen M an Borneo South Australian Basin Ri ount Central Pacific Basin Ree f Gre at B a r r i e r di cM OCEAN Celebes st Crozet Islands cifi PACIFIC Celebes Sea Java S ea Amsterdam Island In Pa 8 e a Lu laba Su l R ai m Ind ange a n us Sea ic ré né Té h Mar i re nch ne T sR idg e nc -10,920m ppi vi re nT Mar iana Islan ds g Philippine Islands id- West Mariana Basin ili al ni M Ryu Java Ridge Tropic of Cancer a M Ph ea 7 Taiwan Great Sandy Desert Brok en th Northwest Pacific Basin Bo Malay Peninsula al ac c tra A Ryukyu Islands Gibson Desert St Paul Island Prince Edward Islands h Cocos Basin e au C u Kyúshú East China Sea ma So n nc d s e Tr an nt a t e s g 6 ou Ja p a n ai l M Su In d i a id m s of w R re n c h le T Th ait OCEAN k in ea St r Mid-Indian Basin Shikoku South China Sea of INDIAN rS f To ng Gulf ea an S Andam Chagos Archipelago ro Hokkaidó Gu l ng ko dy Nicobar Islands Ceylon Plain of pe Philippine Sea e P l at E I wad o Natal Basin ele n T Me e nch Em rgu C Ir r a Réunion Enderby Plain Dronning Maud Land Maldive Islands Ri dg e een Mauritius Ke R i S u t h Bouvet Island C Sri Lanka t i an Tr Honshú o Agulhas Basin O at s zi pop en Cape of Good Hope Maud Rise ar be b Desert Drak Andaman Islands u Madagascar Basin Oran Riv ge er Cape Basin Gh y o ang av mi W Lim ern le Ok Na Kalahari Desert Bay of Bengal Ca r Seychelles Lake Nyasa Zam Kri sh na Arabian Basin Somali Basin Lake T anganyika Ganges Fan G o d av st We V al Okavango Delta Kilimanjaro 5895m Lake Victoria Mount Everest 8848m es Deccan Kirinyaga 5200m Va l l e y Great Rift o ang Kw Angola Basin h bilas Lu Kasai o ng Co Ga ng Al e u Japan Yan g tz e a mad Nar Arabian Sea erg Congo Somali Plain She T har Desert 5 n ka Yel low G r e a t Sea ain of Pl China a l a y a s Laccadive Islands li Uele Congo Basin A be Gulf of Guinea C ba Ju ang i I im lsb R ft Great Ri F Ub H Socotra Horn of Africa Q i li an Sh a n n Mo u n t a i n n lu s Ku Plateau of Tibet a si Sea of Japan (East Sea) S a lw a ea d S A da la A igh H le e Ni Blu Lake Volta f of n Ad e Yellow R nB Is l a n d s f hn Re er t a e w s nu Be m a n d Gu l Ethiopian Highlands sh Ku at tia ri Ku ts Da Des S a h e l Lac ‘Assal -156m Gobi Takla Makan Desert ir s ch eu ile M Ad an Lake Chad M an ch ur ia n Pl ai n s m Sakhalin Am ur A im He Tar Gu O m lf of a n Oman Basin Arabian Peninsula Sea of Okhotsk Al r Ku s er sia nG ul du Alta i Mo unta in Ka oliv y Pr ski tar Ta Iranian Plateau o K et eb hr K r ive a gr 4 ircle Arctic C Stanovoy Khrebet Shan u Za P by Tibesti Nubian Desert m Pa ea te s rn ste r t Ea ese D Li S a h a r a Da ry is Sea Syrian Dead Desert Qattara -423m Sea Depression An Nafud -133m Western Desert Gulf of Sirte Ahaggar Ti Euph ra Ti e n I S A h Lake Balkash ar ya gr an nS a Chott el Jerid El'brus 5642m at o li a s An Mt Taurus Aegean Sea s Ustyurt A Plateau m ia Se Medite rr an ts e Ionian Sea M Black Sea M ts lkan Ba ic a su sp i at Aral Sea Syr D -28m C au c Ca A dr Ir t y s Ural g hi z Ste p p e Ki r r ste e oir Alps E P Don r Moun a Dnie i an s t h t ain e D ube Mont Blanc 4807m O Dni epe Lake Baikal ns e hin Sein L Kama UCarp R Ean O b' ai R Volga rian a S i b e r i nt o Eur No r t h n pea n East Sibe Sea Ve K h r e b e t Cher rk skog ho o Le n y a n s k i y K h r e bet a Central Siberian Plateau y ou B t al ai M North Sea Pl yr Fracture Z one an Lake Ladoga Sc a Ye ni se West Siberian Plain al n di v ia Ur Norwegian Sea Poluostrov Ta y m Kara Sea Poluostrov Yamal ea i d - I n d i a n Novaya Zemlya Barents Sea Spitsbergen Laptev Sea Ridge Severnaya Zemlya Franz Josef Land ri New Sibe Islands Q R U V W X Y 16 17 Z xiii
  • 14. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H Structure of the Earth 1 J K L Rocky crust Inside the Earth 3 M Viscous asthenosphere Rigid lithosphere The Earth’s hot inner core is made up of solid iron, while the outer core is composed of liquid iron and nickel. The mantle nearest the core is viscous, whereas the rocky upper mantle is fairly rigid. The crust is the rocky outer shell of the Earth. Together, the upper mantle and the crust form the lithosphere. The Earth as it is today is just the latest phase in a constant process of evolution which has occurred over the past 4.5 billion years. The Earth’s continents are neither fixed nor stable; over the course of the Earth’s history, propelled by currents rising from the intense heat at its center, the great plates on which they lie have moved, collided, joined together, and separated. These processes continue to mold and transform the surface of the Earth, causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and creating oceans, mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, and island chains. 2 I Inner core of solid iron Liquid outer core Mantle composed of solid rock and magma Mesosphere Inner core The dynamic Earth Continental plate The Earth’s crust is made up of eight major (and several minor) rigid continental and oceanic tectonic plates, which fit closely together. The positions of the plates are not static. They are constantly moving relative to one another. The type of movement between plates affects the way in which they alter the structure of the Earth. The oldest parts of the plates, known as shields, are the most stable parts of the Earth and little tectonic activity occurs here. 4 5 Deep within the Earth, at its inner core, temperatures may exceed 8,100°F (4,500°C). This heat warms rocks in the mesosphere which rise through the partially molten mantle, displacing cooler rocks just below the solid crust, which sink, and are warmed again by the heat of the mantle. This process is continuous, creating convection currents which form the moving force beneath the Earth’s crust. Movement of plate Oceanic plate Mid-ocean ridge Lithosphere Shield area in middle of plate: little tectonic activity occurs here Plate boundary: most tectonic activity takes place here Asthenosphere Mesosphere Continental crust Mid-ocean ridges Ocean plates meeting Mid-ocean ridges are formed when two adjacent oceanic plates pull apart, allowing magma to force its way up to the surface, which then cools to form solid rock. Vast amounts of volcanic material are discharged at these mid-ocean ridges which can reach heights of 10,000 ft (3000 m). The boundaries between the plates are the areas where most tectonic activity takes place. Three types of movement occur at plate boundaries: the plates can either move toward each other, move apart, or slide past each other. The effect this has on the Earth’s structure depends on whether the margin is between two continental plates, two oceanic plates, or an oceanic and continental plate. 7 Convection currents Subduction zone Ocean crust Plate boundaries 6 Outer core Rigid tectonic plate Oceanic crust is denser and thinner than continental crust; on average it is 3 miles (5 km) thick, while continental crust averages 18–24 miles (30–40 km). When oceanic plates of similar density meet, the crust is contorted as one plate overrides the other, forming deep sea trenches and volcanic island arcs above sea level. ᭡ The Mid-Atlantic Ridge rises above sea level in Iceland, producing geysers and volcanoes. Ocean floor ᭡ Mount Pinatubo is an active volcano, lying on the Pacific “Ring of Fire.” Earthquake zone Overriding plate Ocean trench Magma pushed upwards along centre of ridge 8 Diving plate Volcanic activity Solid mantle Formation of a mid-ocean ridge Tectonic activity Ocean plates meeting to form an island arc Arctic C ircle uncertain plate boundary 9 Chain of islands ircle Arctic C volcanic zone earthquake zone hot spot E U R A S I A N rift valley J UA N D E F U C A N O R T H P L AT E A NAT O L I A N A M E R I C A N P L AT E P L AT E 10 P L AT E PAC I F I C P L AT E IRANIAN P L AT E Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Cancer ARABIAN PHILIPPINE P L AT E 11 P L AT E CARIBBEAN CAROLINE P L AT E P L AT E COCOS P L AT E Equator P A C I F I C BISMARCK Equator P L AT E P L A T E A F R I C A N P L AT E 12 S O U T H A M E R I C A N SOLOMON P L AT E P L AT E N A Z C A F I J I P L AT E P L AT E I N D O - Tropic of Capricorn A U S T R A L I A N 13 Tropic of Capricorn P L A T E 14 S C O T I A P L AT E A N T A R C T I C A P L A T E Antarctic Circle Circ l e nt a rc t i c Sliding plates 15 Diving plates When an oceanic and a continental plate meet, the denser oceanic plate is driven underneath the continental plate, which is crumpled by the collision to form mountain ranges. As the ocean plate plunges downward, it heats up, and molten rock (magma) is forced up to the surface. 16 17 A xiv B Oceanic plate dives under continental plate Mountains thrust up by collision Plate ᭡ The deep fracture caused by the sliding plates of the San Andreas Fault can be clearly seen in parts of California. Earthquake zone Continental plate Diving plate C D ᭤ The Alps were formed when the African Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate, about 65 million years ago. When two plates slide past each other, friction is caused along the fault line which divides them. The plates do not move smoothly, and the uneven movement causes earthquakes. ᭣ The Andean mountain chain is the typical result of the impact of a diving plate. E F Plate buckles as it collides Earthquake zone Plate Earthquake zone When two continental plates collide, great mountain chains are thrust upward as the crust buckles and folds under the force of the impact. Continental plates colliding to form a mountain range Sliding plates H Colliding plates Crust thickens in response to the impact Fault line G Mountains thrust upwards I J K L M
  • 15. STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH O P Continental drift Although the plates which make up the Earth’s crust move only a few inches in a year, over the millions of years of the Earth’s history, its continents have moved many thousands of miles, to create new continents, oceans, and mountain chains Q R S G ON DWA NA L A N D 4: Triassic period 245–208 million years ago. All three major continents have joined to form the super-continent of Pangea. Arabia Africa G O N D AN N Northern Europe AL Siberia India A DW South America D Antarctica BALTICA Siberia North Northern America Manchuria Greenland Europe China Africa Arabia Central Asia South America W Southeast Asia AN A L India Australia AND Antarctica N Greenland North America 570–510 million years ago. Most continents are in tropical latitudes. The supercontinent of Gondwanaland reaches the South Pole. 208–145 million years ago. The super-continent of Pangea begins to break up, causing an overall rise in sea levels. L AU R A S I A Siberia Northern Manchuria Europe China Spain Turkey Africa Arabia Central Asia Southeast Asia GO India ND Australia W North America Greenland LAURENTIA /BALTICA Northern South Asia Europe Kazakhstania Africa Australia Arabia India N Antarctica South America A NA LAND Antarctica D G O N DWA N AL A 2: Devonian period 408–362 million years ago. The continents of Gondwanaland and Laurentia are drifting northward. R AU EN TIA BALTICA Africa Siberia DW 3: Carboniferous period 362–290 million years ago. The Earth is dominated by three continents; Laurentia, Angaraland, and Gondwanaland. Korean African Guiana (Venezuelan) 30 million years ago Antarctica Australian 3 4 Between 10 and 20 million years ago, the Indian subcontinent, part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland, collided with the continent of Asia. The Indo-Australian Plate continued to move northward, displacing continental crust and uplifting the Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain chain. Movements of India H im 5 Force of collision pushes up mountains ala 6 yas Cross-section through the Himalayas 7 20 million years ago nd PAC I F IC OCEAN un ts ᭡ The Himalayas were uplifted when the Indian subcontinent collided with Asia. 80 million years ago Hawai‘i ᭣ Basalt columns at Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland, UK. Gneiss 1 Gneiss is a metamorphic rock made at great depth during the formation of mountain chains, when intense heat and pressure transform sedimentary or igneous rocks. The Earth’s rocks are created in a continual cycle. Exposed rocks are weathered and eroded by wind, water, and chemicals and deposited as sediments. If they pass into the Earth’s crust they will be transformed by high temperatures and pressures into metamorphic rocks or they will melt and solidify as igneous rocks. 8 60 million years ago 2 million years ago 10 million years ago Direction of movement of plate over hot spot The Earth’s geology 9 Limestone 3 Limestone is a sedimentary rock, which is formed mainly from the calcite skeletons of marine animals which have been compressed into rock. 10 Basalt 2 Basalt is an igneous rock, formed when small quantities of magma lying close to the Earth’s surface cool rapidly. ᭡ Gneiss formations in Norway’s Jotunheimen Mountains. 8 Sandstones are sedimentary rocks formed mainly in deserts, beaches, and deltas. Desert sandstones are formed of grains of quartz which have been well rounded by wind erosion. Brazilian Active volcano Al e u t i a n I s l a 20 million years ago 65–2 million years ago. Although the world’s geography is becoming more recognizable, major events such as the creation of the Himalayan mountain chain, are still to occur during this period. Sandstone 2 Antarctic Evolution of the Hawai'ian Islands 7: Tertiary period G O N D WA A L A N D N Siberian Indian India ALAND Z Cross-section through the Hawai‘ian Islands Northern Europe Australia AN Scandinavian (Fenno-Scandian) Canadian (Laurentian) Present day o S eam Emperor South America Arabia G ON Northwest Greenland China Antarctica Northern Europe Australia Arabia Africa LAURENTIA Siberia Y Creation of the Himalayas Direction of plate movement over hot spot 145–65 million years ago. Warm, shallow seas cover much of the land: sea levels are about 80 ft (25 m) above present levels. North America ANGARALAND North America South America Extinct volcano 6: Cretaceous period L North America South America X 1 A hot spot lying deep beneath the Pacific Ocean pushes a plume of magma from the Earth’s mantle up through the Pacific Plate to form volcanic islands. While the hot spot remains stationary, the plate on which the islands sit is moving slowly. A long chain of islands has been created as the plate passes over the hot spot. Greenland SIBERIA W The Hawai'ian island chain 5: Jurassic period 1: Cambrian period V The centers of the Earth’s continents, known as shields, were established between 2500 and 500 million years ago; some contain rocks over three billion years old. They were formed by a series of turbulent events: plate movements, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Since the Pre-Cambrian period, over 570 million years ago, they have experienced little tectonic activity, and today, these flat, low-lying slabs of solidified molten rock form the stable centers of the continents. They are bounded or covered by successive belts of younger sedimentary rock. GO Australia U Continental shields Siberia Manchuria Greenland I A Northern S A Europe R China U A Arabia Central Asia Southeast Asia North L P America A N Africa India Australia G South America E A Antarctica L AU R A S I A LAURENTIA T s N 11 12 1 ᭡ Limestone hills, Guilin, China. 2 Coral 8 6 4 Coral reefs are formed from the skeletons of millions of individual corals. 3 7 13 4 ᭡ Rock stacks of desert sandstone, at Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, US. ᭣ Extrusive igneous rocks are formed during volcanic eruptions, as here in Hawai‘i. 15 ᭡ Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Geological regions continental shield sedimentary cover coral formation igneous rock types Alpine (new) Hercynian (old) Caledonian (ancient) 7 Andesite is an extrusive igneous rock formed from magma which has solidified on the Earth’s crust after a volcanic eruption. O Schist Granite P Q Schist is a metamorphic rock formed during mountain building, when temperature and pressure are comparatively high. Both mudstones and shales reform into schist under these conditions. 5 Granite is an intrusive igneous rock formed from magma which has solidified deep within the Earth’s crust. The magma cools slowly, producing a coarse-grained rock. ᭤ Schist formations in the Atlas Mountains, northwestern Africa. Mountain ranges Andesite N 14 5 1 ᭤ Namibia’s Namaqualand Plateau is formed of granite. S V W X 16 17 Y Z xv
  • 16. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H I Shaping the landscape 1 Less than 2% of the world’s water is on the land, but it is the most powerful agent of landscape change. Water, as rainfall, groundwater, and rivers, can transform landscapes through both erosion and deposition. Eroded material carried by rivers forms the world’s most fertile soils. 3 Coastal water ᭤ A low, wide sandy beach on South Africa’s Cape Peninsula is continually re-shaped by the action of the Atlantic waves. 5 L M ᭡ Waterfalls such as the Iguaçu Falls on the border between Argentina and southern Brazil, erode the underlying rock, causing the falls to retreat. Permeable zone where groundwater is stored Groundwater The world’s coastlines are constantly changing; every day, tides deposit, sift and sort sand, and gravel on the shoreline. Over longer periods, powerful wave action erodes cliffs and headlands and carves out bays. 4 K Water The basic material of the Earth’s surface is solid rock: valleys, deserts, soil, and sand are all evidence of the powerful agents of weathering, erosion, and deposition which constantly shape and transform the Earth’s landscapes. Water, either flowing continually in rivers or seas, or frozen and compacted into solid sheets of ice, has the most clearly visible impact on the Earth’s surface. But wind can transport fragments of rock over huge distances and strip away protective layers of vegetation, exposing rock surfaces to the impact of extreme heat and cold. 2 J In regions where there are porous rocks such as chalk, water is stored underground in large quantities; these reservoirs of water are known as aquifers. Rain percolates through topsoil into the underlying bedrock, creating an underground store of water. The limit of the saturated zone is called the water table. ᭡ The sheer chalk cliffs at Seven Sisters in southern England are constantly under attack from waves. Perched aquifer Water table Impermeable rock Spring Storage of groundwater in an aquifer World river systems: Sediment deposited annually per drainage basin World river systems 6 Arctic C ircle A C R I T O C C A E N tons per sq mile per year 9120 ircle Arctic C Yukon Yenisey Mackenzie drainage basin 6080 Volga Nelson Colorado 1520 760 Danube Mississippi/ Missouri Indus tonnes per sq km per year Yangtze Tropic of Cancer Ganges/ Brahmaputra OCEAN Mekong PAC I F I C Nile Niger P A C I F I C 400 200 and less Yellow River Tigris/ Euphrates AT L A N T I C Rio Grande Tropic of Cancer Amur Rhine St. Lawrence Columbia 9 1600 Ob' 7 8 Lena 2400 OCEAN Orinoco Equator Equator Congo Amazon O C E A N INDIAN Sáo Francisco Zambezi OCEAN AT L A N T I C 10 Paraná Tropic of Capricorn OCEAN Tropic of Capricorn Orange Murray/ Darling 11 Ant a rc t i c Ci rc le Antarct ic Circle 12 Drainage basins Rivers River valleys Rivers erode the land by grinding and dissolving rocks and stones. Most erosion occurs in the river’s upper course as it flows through highland areas. Rock fragments are moved along the river bed by fast-flowing water and deposited in areas where the river slows down, such as flat plains, or where the river enters seas or lakes. 13 14 Deltas Over long periods of time rivers erode uplands to form characteristic V-shaped valleys with smooth sides. When a river deposits its load of silt and sediment (alluvium) on entering the sea, it may form a delta. As this material accumulates, it chokes the mouth of the river, forcing it to create new channels to reach the sea. Chemical erosion cuts valley in softer rock Resistant rock River Apennines Tributary river In their lower courses, rivers flow slowly. As they flow across the lowlands, they form looping bends called meanders. 17 A xvi B Heavy rain and associated flooding on slopes can loosen underlying rocks, which crumble, causing the top layers of rock and soil to slip. ᭣ Mud is deposited by China’s Yellow River in its lower course. ᭤ A huge landslide in the Swiss Alps has left massive piles of rocks and pebbles called scree. Deposition When rivers have deposited large quantities of fertile alluvium, they are forced to find new channels through the alluvium deposits, creating braided river systems. ᭡ The meanders of Utah’s San Juan River have become deeply incised. C River mouth Po Valley Landslides 16 ᭡ The Mississippi River forms meanders as it flows across the southern US. Delta The drainage basin of the Po river, northern Italy. Meanders 15 Alps Dolomites ᭤ The Nile forms a broad delta as it flows into the Mediterranean. River valley erosion Major trunk river Watershed The drainage basin is the area of land drained by a major trunk river and its smaller branch rivers or tributaries. Drainage basins are separated from one another by natural boundaries known as watersheds. D E F G H Gullies ᭡ A deep gully in the French Alps caused by the scouring of upper layers of turf. I J K In areas where soil is thin, rainwater is not effectively absorbed, and may flow overland. The water courses downhill in channels, or gullies, and may lead to rapid erosion of soil. L M
  • 17. SHAPING THE LANDSCAPE N O P Q Ice R S V W X Y Z Glacial valleys During its long history, the Earth has experienced a number of glacial episodes when temperatures were considerably lower than today. During the last Ice Age, 18,000 years ago, ice covered an area three times larger than it does today. Over these periods, the ice has left a remarkable legacy of transformed landscapes. 1 Glaciers can erode much more powerfully than rivers. They form steep-sided, flat-bottomed valleys with a typical U-shaped profile. Valleys created by tributary glaciers, whose floors have not been eroded to the same depth as the main glacial valley floor, are called hanging valleys 2 ᭡ The U-shaped profile and piles of morainic debris are characteristic of a valley once filled by a glacier. ᭡ A series of hanging valleys high up in the Chilean Andes. ᭡ The profile of the Matterhorn has been formed by three cirques lying “back-to-back.” Past and present world ice-cover and glacial features Glaciers 3 Cirques Cirques are basin-shaped hollows which mark the head of a glaciated valley. Where neighboring cirques meet, they are divided by sharp rock ridges called arêtes. It is these arêtes which give the Matterhorn its characteristic profile. Glaciers are formed by the compaction of snow into “rivers” of ice. As they move over the landscape, glaciers pick up and carry a load of rocks and boulders which erode the landscape they pass over, and are eventually deposited at the end of the glacier. 4 Fjords Fjords are ancient glacial valleys flooded by the sea following the end of a period of glaciation. Beneath the water, the valley floor can be 4000 ft (1300 m) deep. 5 6 ᭡ A massive glacier advancing down a valley in southern Argentina. 7 Past and present world ice cover and glacial features Post-glacial features When a glacial episode ends, the retreating ice leaves many features. These include depositional ridges called moraines, which may be eroded into low hills known as drumlins; sinuous ridges called eskers; kames, which are rounded hummocks; depressions known as kettle holes; and windblown loess deposits. Wind Kame terrace extent of last Ice Age loess deposits post-glacial feature glacial feature Retreating glacier Kettle hole Esker Drumlin Braided river Water drips into fissures in rocks and freezes, expanding as it does so. The pressure weakens the rock, causing it to crack, and eventually to shatter into polygonal patterns. Glacial till Bedrock Post-glacial landscape features Prevailing winds and dust trajectories Strong winds can transport rock fragments great distances, especially where there is little vegetation to protect the rock. In desert areas, wind picks up loose, unprotected sand particles, carrying them over great distances. This powerfully abrasive debris is blasted at the surface by the wind, eroding the landscape into dramatic shapes. Prevailing winds northeast trade southeast trade polar easterly polar easterly ᭡ Irregular polygons show through the sedge-grass tundra in the Yukon, Canada. trajectory of aeolian dust semi-arid 10 Most of the world’s deserts are in the tropics. The cold deserts which occur elsewhere are arid because they are a long way from the rain-giving sea. Rock in deserts is exposed because of lack of vegetation and is susceptible to changes in temperature; extremes of heat and cold can cause both cracks and fissures to appear in the rock. cold polar Deposition Heat The rocky, stony floors of the world’s deserts are swept and scoured by strong winds. The smaller, finer particles of sand are shaped into surface ripples, dunes, or sand mountains, which rise to a height of 650 ft (200 m). Dunes usually form single lines, running perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind. These long, straight ridges can extend for over 100 miles (160 km). Fierce sun can heat the surface of rock, causing it to expand more rapidly than the cooler, underlying layers. This creates tensions which force the rock to crack or break up. In arid regions, the evaporation of water from rock surfaces dissolves certain minerals within the water, causing salt crystals to form in small openings in the rock. The hard crystals force the openings to widen into cracks and fissures. ᭡ Barchan dunes in the Arabian Desert. 9 Temperature Main desert types hot arid 8 Periglacial areas occur near to the edge of ice sheets. A layer of frozen ground lying just beneath the surface of the land is known as permafrost. When the surface melts in the summer, the water is unable to drain into the frozen ground, and so “creeps” downhill, a process known as solifluction. Hot and cold deser t s Dust trajectories westerly westerly Periglaciation Ice shattering Terminal moraine Windblown loess ᭡ A fjord fills a former glacial valley in southern New Zealand. present day ice cover glacial field 11 12 Desert abrasion Abrasion creates a wide range of desert landforms from faceted pebbles and wind ripples in the sand, to large-scale features such as yardangs (low, streamlined ridges), and scoured desert pavements. Wind abrasion 13 Gravel Faceted rock Sand desert Wind direction 14 Wind rippling Desert pavement Thermal fracturing ᭡ Complex dune system in the Sahara. 15 Features of a desert surface Dunes Types of dune Dunes are shaped by wind direction and sand supply. Where sand supply is limited, crescentshaped barchan dunes are formed. ᭡ The cracked and parched floor of Death Valley, California. This is one of the hottest deserts on Earth. Wind direction Transverse dune N O P Barchan dune Q Linear dune R Star dune S ᭣ This dry valley at Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic is an example of a cold desert. The cracked floor and scoured slopes are features also found in hot deserts. T U V W X Y 16 17 Z xvii
  • 18. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H The world’s oceans 1 J K L M The great oceans There are five oceans on Earth: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Southern oceans, and the much smaller Arctic Ocean. These five ocean basins are relatively young, having evolved within the last 80 million years. One of the most recent plate collisions, between the Eurasian and African plates, created the present-day arrangement of continents and oceans. Two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by the oceans. The landscape of the ocean floor, like the surface of the land, has been shaped by movements of the Earth’s crust over millions of years to form volcanic mountain ranges, deep trenches, basins, and plateaus. Ocean currents constantly redistribute warm and cold water around the world. A major warm current, such as El Niño in the Pacific Ocean, can increase surface temperature by up to 10°F (8°C), causing changes in weather patterns which can lead to both droughts and flooding. 2 I ᭡ The Indian Ocean accounts for approximately 20% of the total area of the world’s oceans. 3 Sea level If the influence of tides, winds, currents, and variations in gravity were ignored, the surface of the Earth’s oceans would closely follow the topography of the ocean floor, with an underwater ridge 3000 ft (915 m) high producing a rise of up to 3 ft (1 m) in the level of the surface water. rth No Depressed sea level over trough in ocean floor Se a Sea of Okhotsk Red Sea ve Plateau -Laccadi ca lac Chagos arr tB ier e n Ri dg est In dia ou thw ef Re Mozambique Channel ea Gr Ocean floor Water heated by hot basalt Formation of black smokers xviii nP lat ea Tasman Sea ell pb am teau C la P n Ridge n South Indian Basi u SOUTHERN ANTA RC TIC A le Tropic of Cancer Ocean floors 16 C M Plume of hot mineral laden water B of ᭡ A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean. A ele st In dia Bass Strait Arctic Circle ᭡ Surtsey, near Iceland, is a volcanic island lying directly over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was formed in the 1960s following intense volcanic activity nearby. 17 South Fiji Basin Ages of the ocean floor These vents in the ocean floor disgorge hot, sulfur-rich water from deep in the Earth’s crust. Despite the great depths, a variety of lifeforms have adapted to the chemical-rich environment which surrounds black smokers. Water percolates into the sea floor rgu thea Enderby Plain Black smokers Chimney ge Typical sea-floor features South Australian Basin Sou t i c Ci rc Coral Sea Perth Basin O C E A N Ant a rc untains Solomon Sea Arafura Sea AUSTRALIA S Sea level 200m / 656ft 1000m / 3281ft 2000m / 6562ft 3000m / 9843ft 4000m / 13,124ft 5000m / 16,400ft 6000m / 19,686ft 12 Rid Ocean depth fic M o Melanesian Basin Bismarck Sea Timor Sea Ke Northwest Pacific Basin a Marian east Agulhas Basin en Celebes Sea Ninety Continental shelf idge Volcanic island ndian R Flat-topped guyot Mid-I Oceanic ridge Abyssal plain Cape Basin Mid-Indian Basin Madagascar Basin u tea Pla ue biq zam Mo Seamount idge vis R Trench 11 Wal 10 Tropic of Capricorn scarene M al a t e a u P The continental shelf is a shallow, flat seabed surrounding the Earth’s continents. It extends to the continental slope, which falls to the ocean floor. Here, the flat abyssal plains are interrupted by vast, underwater mountain ranges, the mid-ocean ridges, and ocean trenches which plunge to depths of 35,828 ft (10,920 m). a I N D I A N Somali Basin Angola Basin f of Gul iland Tha Equator ᭡ The low relief of many small Pacific islands such as these atolls at Huahine in French Polynesia makes them vulnerable to changes in sea level. ait Str ge Rid erg lsb Car Gulf of Guinea Tr Mi d-P ac i Philippine Sea South China Sunda Sea Shelf c h Ta iwa nS tra it Bay of Bengal J e ril nts s Per G u Arabian Sea renc h n ia lf n Yellow Sea East China Sea Ku ap an T ian rra ea AFRICA Ocean structure A Sea of Japan (East Sea) 7 9 I C Tropic of Cancer 8 S asp A ea nS A Tr e n ch Se a Black Sea iati c Med ite How surface waters reflect the relief of the ocean floor 6 ARCTI C Laptev Sea E U R O P E Base level of the sea surface at 0 ft (0 m) Actual relief of ocean floor Baltic dr 5 Sea Emperor Seamou Elevated sea level over ridge in ocean floor Kara East Siberian Sea Se a Se a 4 Baren Sea ts Arctic C ircle D Mid-ocean ridges are formed by lava which erupts beneath the sea and cools to form solid rock. This process mirrors the creation of volcanoes from cooled lava on the land. The ages of sea floor rocks increase in parallel bands outward from central ocean ridges. E F Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle Jurassic Tertiary (Paleogene) Quaternary Cretaceous 208 million years old G 145 65 H 23 0 23 Tertiary (Neogene) I Jurassic Cretaceous 145 65 J Age uncertain Continental shelf and island arcs 208 million years old K L M
  • 19. THE WOR LD’S OCE ANS N O P Q R S T U V W Deposition of sediment ᭡ Currents in the Southern Ocean are driven by some of the world’s fiercest winds, including the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties, and Shrieking Sixties. OC EAN Be ri n g Sea Al an euti Tr e enl an d Baffin Bay Se a ircle Arctic C Dav i Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea ᭡ The Atlantic Ocean was formed when the landmasses of the eastern and western hemispheres began to drift apart 180 million years ago. ᭡ The Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest and deepest ocean, covering over one-third of the surface of the Earth. Gre sS tra i Hudson Strai t t Hudson Bay Storms, earthquakes, and volcanic activity trigger underwater currents known as turbidity currents which scour sand and gravel from the continental shelf, creating underwater canyons. These strong currents pick up material deposited at river mouths and deltas, and carry it across the continental shelf and through the underwater canyons, where it is eventually laid down on the ocean floor in the form of fans. id -A t la i dg Mol o e C kai F ct n Fra lar io Clipp er ton M one ure Z ure Frac t id Tropic of Cancer Basin e A m eric a T r Guate mala B a sin Zone Barracud Caribbean Sea en 2 Deep sea turbidity flow How sediment is deposited on the ocean floor 3 5 a Fracture Z 6 7 one ch Equator ca Ri dg e Idealized globe showing the movement of water around a landless Earth. O C E A N Tropic of Capricorn st P a Argentine Basin a M id ge -A t Amun dsen Sea Ross Sea Ocean currents Surface currents are driven by the prevailing winds and by the spinning motion of the Earth, which drives the currents into circulating whirlpools,or gyres. Deep sea currents, over 330 ft (100 m) below the surface, are driven by differences in water temperature and salinity, which have an impact on the density of deep water and on its movement. 10 Sur face temperature and current s Tropic of Cancer ich Scotia Sea S o u t h e a s t Pa c i f i c Basin dw San h South Trenc Bel lin gsh aus en Sea 12 Equator Antarcti c Circle Weddell Sea 11 Arctic Circle E e idg tic R OCEAN 9 n ti c ci fi c Ri se Rio Grande Rise id Ton ga Trench az N Chile Basin l e Tr e n c h Southwest Pacific Basin Brazil Basin hi Ea st Pa ci fi c R is e 8 -C O C E A N SOUTH AMERICA Per u Per u Basin Sala y Gomez Ridge tarc c-An Pacifi 1 Ocean currents move warm water away from the Equator toward the poles, while cold water is, in turn, moved towards the Equator. This is the main way in which the Earth distributes surface heat and is a major climatic control. Approximately 4000 million years ago, the Earth was dominated by oceans and there was no land to interrupt the flow of the currents, which would have flowed as straight lines, simply influenced by the Earth’s rotation. Yucatan Basin dl Rocks and Other debris, flow from shelf to ocean floor Surface water A T L A N T I naC Ca ry Sargasso Sea Gulf of Mexico ne re Zo rac t u P A C I F I C Central Pacific Basin North American Basin Zone R nR e Continental shelf la a i’ i a NORTH AMERICA ic Ridge Haw actur Newfoundland Basin nt M Fr ur ray Sediment accumulates at head of underwater canyon Recentlydeposited sediments overlay older rocks Z 4 M c t ure Zone c ino Fra Y ᭤ Satellite image of the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Delta, in which the land appears red. The river deposits immense quantities of silt into the East China Sea, much of which will eventually reach the deep ocean floor. L ab ra d or Se a Gulf of n c h Alaska Me n d o X Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle 13 Tides and waves High and low tides Tides are created by the pull of the Sun and Moon’s gravity on the surface of the oceans. The levels of high and low tides are influenced by the position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and Sun. Waves are formed by wind blowing over the surface of the water. Surface temperature and currents The highest tides occur when the Earth, the Moon and the Sun are aligned (below left). The lowest tides are experienced when the Sun and Moon align at right angles to one another (below right). Ice-shelf (below 32˚F / 0˚C) Sea-ice* (average) below 28˚F / -2˚C Sea-water 28–32˚F / -2–0˚C * Sea-water freezes at 28.4˚F / -1.9˚C warm current cold current 14 Lowest high tides Highest high tides Tidal range and wave environment s Arctic Circle Deep sea temperature and current s Arctic Circle Earth 15 Sun Tropic of Cancer 32–50˚F / F 0–10˚C 50–68˚F / 10–20˚C 68–86˚F / 20–30˚C Moon Tropic of Cancer Equator Equator Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle Antarctic Circle 16 Tidal bulge created by gravitational pull Tidal range and wave environments less than 7ft / 2m 7–13ft / 2–4m greater than 13ft / 4m N O east coast swell west coast swell P tropical cyclone storm wave Q Deep sea temperature and currents ice-shelf R Primary currents Secondary currents Ice-shelf (below 32˚F / 0˚C) Sea-water 28–32˚F / -2–0˚C (below 16,400ft / 5000m) Sea-water 32–41˚F /0–5˚C (below 13,120ft / 4000m) S T U V W X Y 17 Z xix
  • 20. THE WOR LD F G H The global climate Warm air rises t S r a e m No n t Ju l y re Eq N O R T H tor y ial Cu r re Ca nt na ry m at E A S T Ju l y C u r r e n t ua ar uar h H Ja n ur No rt Doldrums re n (H Bra z i l u T R A D E S u m bo t ld n t ) Pampero nt rre Cu Average Januar y temperatures s I E S T E R L W E S Tropic of Cancer E A S T Cur r 12 Arctic Circle i al Cur re nt S O U T H ño e Equator t Ni P uth Ju l y El S O U T H T R A D E S We s t We s t Win d Dr if t Equator Ant a rc Tropic of Capricorn t i c Ci rc le P O L A R Climatic change Antarctic Circle The Earth is currently in a warm phase between ice ages. Warmer temperatures result in higher sea levels as more of the polar ice caps melt. Most of the world’s population lives near coasts, so any changes which might cause sea levels to rise, could have a potentially disastrous impact. 14 Average July temperatures Arctic Circle 15 The greenhouse effect Gases such as carbon dioxide are known as “greenhouse gases” because they allow shortwave solar radiation to enter the Earth’s atmosphere, but help to stop longwave radiation from escaping. This traps heat, raising the Earth’s temperature. An excess of these gases, such as that which results from the burning of fossil fuels, helps trap more heat and can lead to global warming. Tropic of Cancer Equator Incoming shortwave solar radiation Tropic of Capricorn 16 Antarctic Circle below -22˚F (-30˚C) -22 to -4˚F (-30 to -20˚C) -4 to 14˚F (-20 to -10˚C) 17 A xx B 14 to 32˚F (-10 to 0˚C) 32 to 50˚F (0 to 10˚C) 50 to 68˚F (10 to 20˚C) C D E F G H Deflected shortwave solar radiation Deflected longwave radiation emitted by the Earth heats the atmosphere ᭡ This ice fair, painted by Pieter Brueghel the Younger in the 17th century, shows the Little Ice Age which peaked around 300 years ago. 68 to 86˚F (20 to 30˚C) above 86˚F (30˚C) tan T R A D E S E A S T Tro p i c o f C a p ri c o r n a f El Niño ur rent quator ial C South E A h rt tl W E S T E R L I E S So The world can be divided into three major climatic zones, stretching like large belts across the latitudes: the tropics which are warm; the cold polar regions and the temperate zones which lie between them. Temperatures across the Earth range from above 86°F (30°C) in the deserts to as low as -70°F (-55°C) at the poles. Temperature is also controlled by altitude; because air becomes cooler and less dense the higher it gets, mountainous regions are typically colder than those areas which are at, or close to, sea level. 13 D ri t ft nt ren er– M a h rc a Cu r r Cu rador Lab ds De cem b E A S T t C o u n t e r R ic Ju l y ren T R A D E S A Ju l y zar Cur orial L Ju l y e nt O ren t Cu r r r re n N O R T H E q u a t o r i a l 11 k Chinoo y Januar Ju l y Nor ther n Equat Doldrums Southeast trade winds P W E S T E R L I E S t u N o r t h Pa c i f i c C Equator ᭡ The Antarctic pack ice expands its area by almost seven times during the winter as temperatures drop and surrounding seas freeze. Low Bliz Al a s k a Tropic of Cancer Temperature Rain falls in the tropics Ju l y 7 8 High Low Ja n u a r y ᭣ Heavy fogs, as here in southern England, form as moistureladen air passes over cold ground. 10 High Low South Pole Arctic C ircle 6 9 Equator Westerlies Californi 5 North Pole Cooled air sinks High The Earth’s atmosphere has been compared to a giant ocean of air which surrounds the planet. Its circulation patterns are similar to the currents in the oceans and are influenced by three factors; the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and rotation about its axis, and variations in the amount of heat radiation received from the Sun. If both heat and moisture were not redistributed between the Equator and the poles, large areas of the Earth would be uninhabitable. M Air does not simply flow from the Equator to the poles, it circulates in giant cells known as Hadley and Ferrel cells. As air warms it expands, becoming less dense and rising; this creates areas of low pressure. As the air rises it cools and condenses, causing heavy rainfall over the tropics and slight snowfall over the poles. This cool air then sinks, forming high pressure belts. At surface level in the tropics these sinking currents are deflected poleward as the westerlies and toward the equator as the trade winds. At the poles they become the polar easterlies. The atmosphere, wind and weather 4 L C u r re 3 K Global air circulation The Earth’s climatic types consist of stable patterns of weather conditions averaged out over a long period of time. Different climates are categorized according to particular combinations of temperature and humidity. By contrast, weather consists of short-term fluctuations in wind, temperature, and humidity conditions. Different climates are determined by latitude, altitude, the prevailing wind, and circulation of ocean currents. Longer-term changes in climate, such as global warming or the onset of ice ages, are punctuated by shorter-term events which comprise the day-to-day weather of a region, such as frontal depressions, hurricanes, and blizzards. 2 J d F a l k l a n 1 I C E l D u C G B No r th er Jan Tornadoes uar May y –Ju ly A I J Greenhouse gases prevent the escape of longwave radiation K L M
  • 21. T H E G L O B A L C L I M AT E N O P Q R ᭣ The islands of the Caribbean, Mexico’s Gulf coast and the southeastern US are often hit by hurricanes formed far out in the Atlantic. S T W Oceanic water circulation X Y Z Tilt and rotation 1 The tilt and rotation of the Earth during its annual orbit largely control the distribution of heat and moisture across its surface, which correspondingly controls its large-scale weather patterns. As the Earth annually rotates around the Sun, half its surface is receiving maximum radiation, creating summer and winter seasons. The angle of the Earth means that on average the tropics receive two and a half times as much heat from the Sun each day as the poles. In general, ocean currents parallel the movement of winds across the Earth’s surface. Incoming solar energy is greatest at the Equator and least at the poles. So, water in the oceans heats up most at the Equator and flows poleward, cooling as it moves north or south toward the Arctic or Antarctic. The flow is eventually reversed and cold water currents move back toward the Equator. These ocean currents act as a vast system for moving heat from the Equator toward the poles and are a major influence on the distribution of the Earth’s climates. ᭡ In marginal climatic zones years of drought can completely dry out the land and transform grassland to desert. 2 Earth’s orbit Earth’s axis tilted 3 Map key Climate zones Ocean currents ice cap subarctic tundra continental temperate warm temperate Prevailing winds warm cold warm cold mediterranean semi-arid arid hot humid humid equatorial tropical Day Rays from the Sun Local winds Night warm cold seasonal* * (seasonal winds which can either be warm or cold) June 4 The Coriolis effect ir Arc ti c C l y Ja n ry J a nua ry Ju l Ja n u a r y y Ju l Ja n u a r y y ar y Ja n u y Ju l sin Ja n r am Ja n u a r y A p ly on y ob uar ob th Equ er atorial Eq ar y ry an Ju ly ua st ry nu S ar y y Ja n u a r Ja n u a r y E e nt ngu 10 Qu een sla nd Tro p i c o f C a p r i co r n ᭡ Monsoon rains, which affect southern Asia from May to September, are caused by sea winds blowing across the warm land. nu ar y al ia Be ch Ja T D 9 ar A H a sJ ne ica R S t rr Hu A T Equator S Mo o u t h E q u a t o r i a l C ur re nt ns oo nO ct ob er – M U es O ur r ar y Ju ly J nu Doldrums ea 8 When warm air expands, it rises and cools, and the water vapor it carries condenses to form clouds. Heavy, regular rainfall is characteristic of the equatorial region, while the poles are cold and receive only slight snowfall. Tropical regions have marked dry and rainy seasons, while in the temperate regions rainfall is relatively unpredictable. li T tr y s Au Ju l y 11 ᭡ Heavy tropical rainstorms occur frequently in Papua New Guinea, often causing soil erosion and landslides in cultivated areas. Ju st We ly Dr if t Wind ut h il Ja n u a r y So W l ela C urrent h y Equator ial Cur ren E ar y Ju l c y Ju Ja n u uth S y y a Ju l So Ju l M o n s o o n N o r t h e a s t M r – b e t o O c r y ua T R A D E S t Doldrums nC Ju l y Ju l y E A S T en 7 Precipitation Current E q u a t o r i a l C o u n t e r Cu r re nt ill Ja l Counter C urr W Ja n u ria Ja n u a r Ja nu o at Deflection to left in southern hemisphere, creates southeast trade winds Maximum deflection at South Pole N O R T H Ja n if t bo Tro p i c o f C a n c e r or ct Dr Ha O o Westerlies N Mo n s o ry – ua n Ja n ly Ju l y Ju Ju y 6 No deflection at Equator Polar easterlies uar 5 Direction of Earth’s rotation Deflection to right in northern hemisphere, creates northeast trade winds ho S outhwes t Mons o on r The rotation of the Earth influences atmospheric circulation by deflecting winds and ocean currents. Winds blowing in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the right and those in the southern hemisphere are deflected to the left, creating large-scale patterns of wind circulation, such as the northeast and southeast trade winds and the westerlies. This effect is greatest at the poles and least at the Equator. Maximum deflection at North pole t ren Ju ly p Ty Kh Cu o w Ju l y y ar u Ja n Ja n u a r y Si uar y c c o ly ro Bor a Föhn ua y Ju l y Ju l S i r o Ju y y ar y Ja n Ju l Mistral Ja n u uar Ku a n B u r ra Bo E Ju tesia ne n –O cto be r Ja n il -S ept ember Ju l y ᭡ The wide range of environments found in the Andes is strongly related to their altitude, which modifies climatic influences. While the peaks are snow-capped, many protected interior valleys are semi-tropical. cl e Ju l y I L R E T S A Ju E S E Average Januar y rainfall W E S T E R L I E We s t W ind Dr ift S 12 Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer E A S T E R L I Ant arc t E 13 Equator i c Circ l e S Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle 14 Average July rainfall ᭡ The intensity of some blizzards in Canada and the northern US can give rise to snowdrifts as high as 10 ft (3 m). ᭡ The Atacama Desert in Chile is one of the driest places on Earth, with an average rainfall of less than 2 inches (50 mm) per year. When moist air is forced to rise by mountains, it cools and the water vapor falls as precipitation, either as rain or snow. Only the dry, cold air continues over the mountains, leaving inland areas with little or no rain. This is called the rainshadow effect and is one reason for the existence of the Mojave Desert in California, which lies east of the Coast Ranges. N O P ᭡ Violent thunderstorms occur along advancing cold fronts, when cold, dry air masses meet warm, moist air, which rises rapidly, its moisture condensing into thunderclouds. Rain and hail become electrically charged, causing lightning. Moist air travels inland from the sea The rainshadow effect Arctic Circle As air rises it cools and condenses leading to cloud 15 Tropic of Cancer Equator Dry air in ‘shadow’ of mountain Tropic of Capricorn 16 Antarctic Circle 0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) The rainshadow effect Q R S T U V 4–8 in (100–200 mm) 8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) W X 16–20 in (400–500 mm) above 20 in (500 mm) Y 17 Z xxi
  • 22. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H I J K L M Life on Earth 1 Biogeographical regions A unique combination of an oxygen-rich atmosphere and plentiful water is the key to life on Earth. Apart from the polar ice caps, there are few areas which have not been colonized by animals or plants over the course of the Earth’s history. Plants process sunlight to provide them with their energy, and ultimately all the Earth’s animals rely on plants for survival. Because of this reliance, plants are known as primary producers, and the availability of nutrients and temperature of an area is defined as its primary productivity, which affects the quantity and type of animals which are able to live there. This index is affected by climatic factors – cold and aridity restrict the quantity of life, whereas warmth and regular rainfall allow a greater diversity of species. 2 3 The Earth can be divided into a series of biogeographical regions, or biomes, ecological communities where certain species of plant and animal coexist within particular climatic conditions. Within these broad classifications, other factors including soil richness, altitude, and human activities such as urbanization, intensive agriculture, and deforestation, affect the local distribution of living species within each biome. Polar regions A layer of permanent ice at the Earth’s poles covers both seas and land. Very little plant and animal life can exist in these harsh regions. 4 5 Broadleaf forests Much of the northern hemisphere was once covered by deciduous forests, which occurred in areas with marked seasonal variations. Most deciduous forests have been cleared for human settlement. Tundra A desolate region, with long, dark freezing winters and short, cold summers. With virtually no soil and large areas of permanently frozen ground known as permafrost, the tundra is largely treeless, though it is briefly clothed by small flowering plants in the summer months. With milder summers than the tundra and less wind,these areas are able to support large forests of coniferous trees. Arctic Circ le Deserts In warmer wetter areas, such as southern China, temperate deciduous forests are replaced by evergreen forest. Deserts are areas with negligible rainfall. Most hot deserts lie within the tropics; cold deserts are dry because of their distance from the moisture-providing sea. A C O C I T na dian Shield ircle Arctic C an ope Eur North Me dite r ra ATLANTIC Tropic of Cancer hiz irg Steppe Gobi nea H n Se a OCEAN Sahara Takla Makan Desert im Thar Desert An Nafud Car ibbean S ea 10 Hot, dry summers and short winters typify these areas, which were once covered by evergreen shrubs and woodland, but have now been cleared by humans for agriculture. in Pla at P Gre Ro c 9 N A E Mediterranean a S i b e r i lains ky M ount a C R Ca 8 Temperate rain forests Greenland ins 7 Needleleaf forests K 6 Arabian Peninsula ala yas Tropic of Cancer Deccan PAC I F I C Sahel P A C I F I C OCEAN Equator Equator Congo Basin Amazon Basin O C E A N INDIAN 11 n de s Tropic of Capricorn Gran Ch ac A OCEAN ATLANTIC o Kalahari Desert OCEAN Great Victoria Desert Tropic of Capricorn Pa mp as 12 World biomes World biomes (continued) polar tundra needleleaf forest broadleaf forest temperate rain forest temperate grassland cold desert 13 Ant a rc t i c Ci rc le S O U T E H R A N O T N A C R E C A T mediterranean hot desert tropical grassland dry woodland tropical rain forest mountain wetland N I C Antarcti c Circle A 14 15 Tropical and temperate grasslands The major grassland areas are found in the centers of the larger continental landmasses. In Africa’s tropical savannah regions, seasonal rainfall alternates with drought. Temperate grasslands, also known as steppes and prairies are found in the northern hemisphere, and in South America, where they are known as the pampas. 16 17 A xxii B C Wetlands Mountains Dry woodlands Tropical rain forests Trees and shrubs, adapted to dry conditions, grow widely spaced from one another, interspersed by savannah grasslands. Characterized by year-round warmth and high rainfall, tropical rain forests contain the highest diversity of plant and animal species on Earth. D E F G Though the lower slopes of mountains may be thickly forested, only groundhugging shrubs and other vegetation will grow above the tree line which varies according to both altitude and latitude. H I J Rarely lying above sea level, wetlands are marshes, swamps, and tidal flats. Some, with their moist, fertile soils, are rich feeding grounds for fish and breeding grounds for birds. Others have little soil structure and are too acidic to support much plant and animal life. K L M
  • 23. LIFE ON EARTH N O P Q R S T U V Biodiversity X Animal adaptation The number of plant and animal species, and the range of genetic diversity within the populations of each species, make up the Earth’s biodiversity. The plants and animals which are endemic to a region – that is, those which are found nowhere else in the world – are also important in determining levels of biodiversity. Human settlement and intervention have encroached on many areas of the world once rich in endemic plant and animal species. Increasing international efforts are being made to monitor and conserve the biodiversity of the Earth’s remaining wild places. W The degree of an animal’s adaptability to different climates and conditions is extremely important in ensuring its success as a species. Many animals, particularly the largest mammals, are becoming restricted to ever-smaller regions as human development and modern agricultural practices reduce their natural habitats. In contrast, humans have been responsible – both deliberately and accidentally – for the spread of some of the world’s most successful species. Many of these introduced species are now more numerous than the indigenous animal populations. Y Z Polar animals 1 The frozen wastes of the polar regions are able to support only a small range of species which derive their nutritional requirements from the sea. Animals such as the walrus (left) have developed insulating fat, stocky limbs, and double-layered coats to enable them to survive in the freezing conditions. 2 3 Diversit y of animal species 4 5 Desert animals Marine biodiversity Many animals which live in the extreme heat and aridity of the deserts are able to survive for days and even months with very little food or water. Their bodies are adapted to lose heat quickly and to store fat and water. The Gila monster (above) stores fat in its tail. The oceans support a huge variety of different species, from the world’s largest mammals like whales and dolphins down to the tiniest plankton. The greatest diversities occur in the warmer seas of continental shelves, where plants are easily able to photosynthesize, and around coral reefs, where complex ecosystems are found. On the ocean floor, nematodes can exist at a depth of more than 10,000 ft (3000 m) below sea level. Number of animal species per country more than 2000 1000–1999 700–999 400–699 200–399 100–199 0–99 Amazon rain forest The vast Amazon Basin is home to the world’s greatest variety of animal species. Animals are adapted to live at many different levels from the treetops to the tangled undergrowth which lies beneath the canopy. The sloth (below) hangs upside down in the branches. Its fur grows from its stomach to its back to enable water to run off quickly. data not available Urban animals High altitudes Few animals exist in the rarefied atmosphere of the highest mountains. However, birds of prey such as eagles and vultures (above), with their superb eyesight can soar as high as 23,000 ft (7000 m) to scan for prey below. 7 Endemic species The growth of cities has reduced the amount of habitat available to many species. A number of animals are now moving closer into urban areas to scavenge from the detritus of the modern city (left). Rodents, particularly rats and mice, have existed in cities for thousands of years, and many insects, especially moths, quickly develop new coloring to provide them with camouflage. 6 Isolated areas such as Australia and the island of Madagascar, have the greatest range of endemic species. In Australia, these include marsupials such as the kangaroo (below), which carry their young in pouches on their bodies. Destruction of habitat, pollution, hunting, and predators introduced by humans, are threatening this unique biodiversity. 8 9 10 Plant adaptation Cold conditions Environmental conditions, particularly climate, soil type, and the extent of competition with other organisms, influence the development of plants into a number of distinctive forms. Similar conditions in quite different parts of the world create similar adaptations in the plants, which may then be modified by other, local, factors specific to the region. Rain forests In areas where temperatures rarely rise above freezing, plants such as lichens (left) and mosses grow densely, close to the ground. Most of the world’s largest and oldest plants are found in rain forests; warmth and heavy rainfall provide ideal conditions for vast plants like the world’s largest flower, the rafflesia (left). 11 12 Hot, dry conditions Arid conditions lead to the development of plants whose surface area has been reduced to a minimum to reduce water loss. In cacti (above), which can survive without water for months, leaves are minimal or not present at all. Diversit y of plant species Ancient plants Some of the world’s most primitive plants still exist today, including algae, cycads, and many ferns (above), reflecting the success with which they have adapted to changing conditions. 13 14 15 Number of plant species per country Resisting predators A great variety of plants have developed devices including spines (above), poisons, stinging hairs, and an unpleasant taste or smell to deter animal predators. N O Weeds data not available P Q 16 Weeds such as bindweed (above) are fast-growing, easily dispersed, and tolerant of a number of different environments, enabling them to quickly colonize suitable habitats. They are among the most adaptable of all plants. more than 50,000 7000–49,999 3000–6999 2000–2999 1000–1999 600–999 0–599 R S T U V W X Y 17 Z xxiii
  • 24. THE WOR LD A B C D E F Population and settlement 1 2 4 The past 200 years have seen the most radical shift in world population patterns in recorded history. K L M Europe With its temperate climate, and rich mineral and natural resources, Europe is generally very densely settled. The continent acts as a magnet for economic migrants from the developing world, and immigration is now widely restricted. Birthrates in Europe are generally low, and in some countries, such as Germany, the populations have stabilized at zero growth, with a fast-growing elderly population. ᭡ North America’s central plains, the continent’s agricultural heartland, are thinly populated and highly productive. ᭡ Vancouver on Canada’s west coast, grew up as a port city. In recent years it has attracted many Asian immigrants, particularly from the Pacific Rim. ᭡ Many European cities, like Siena, once reflected the “ideal” size for human settlements. Modern technological advances have enabled them to grow far beyond the original walls. ᭡ Within the denselypopulated Netherlands the reclamation of coastal wetlands is vital to provide much-needed land for agriculture and settlement. (inhabitants per sq mile) 520–2600 260–520 130–260 52–130 26–52 13-26 3–13 Fewer than 3 All the world’s peoples were hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago. Today nomads, who live by following available food resources, account for less than 0.0001% of the world’s population. They are mainly pastoral herders, moving their livestock from place to place in search of grazing land. 7 J Population density Nomadic life 6 I The eastern and western seaboards of the US, with huge expanses of interconnected cities, towns, and suburbs, are vast, densely-populated megalopolises. Central America and the Caribbean also have high population densities. Yet, away from the coasts and in the wildernesses of northern Canada the land is very sparsely settled. Patterns of settlement 5 H North America The Earth’s population is projected to rise from its current level of about 7 billion to reach some 10.5 billion by 2050. The global distribution of this rapidly growing population is very uneven, and is dictated by climate, terrain, and natural and economic resources. The great majority of the Earth’s people live in coastal zones, and along river valleys. Deserts cover over 20% of the Earth’s surface, but support less than 5% of the world’s population. It is estimated that over half of the world’s population live in cities – most of them in Asia – as a result of mass migration from rural areas in search of jobs. Many of these people live in the so-called “megacities,” some with populations as great as 40 million. 3 G Europe North America Population World land area 8 11% 7.1% Africa Population World land area 8% 17% 9 Nomadic population area 10 The growth of cities In 1900 there were only 14 cities in the world with populations of more than a million, mostly in the northern hemisphere. Today, as more and more people in the developing world migrate to towns and cities, there are over 70 cities whose population exceeds 5 million, and around 490 “million-cities.” 11 Population World land area South America Nomadic population 14% 20.2% Most settlement in South America is clustered in a narrow belt in coastal zones and in the northern Andes. During the 20th century, cities such as São Paulo and Buenos Aires grew enormously, acting as powerful economic magnets to the rural population. Shantytowns have grown up on the outskirts of many major cities to house these immigrants, often lacking basic amenities. South America Million-cities in 190 0 12 ᭡ Many people in western South America live at high altitudes in the Andes, both in cities and in villages such as this one in Bolivia. 13 ᭡ Venezuela is one of the most highly urbanized countries in South America, with nearly 90% of the population living in cities such as Caracas. Population World land area 6% 11.8% Africa 14 Asia The arid climate of much of Africa means that settlement of the continent is sparse, focusing in coastal areas and fertile regions such as the Nile Valley. Africa still has a high proportion of nomadic agriculturalists, although many are now becoming settled, and the population is predominantly rural. Million-cities in 1900 Cities over 1 million population Million-cities in 20 05 15 Most Asian settlement originally centered around the great river valleys such as the Indus, the Ganges, and the Yangtze. Today, almost 60% of the world’s population lives in Asia, many in burgeoning cities – particularly in the economically-buoyant Pacific Rim countries. Even rural population densities are high in many countries; practices such as terracing in Southeast Asia making the most of the available land. ᭡ Traditional lifestyles and homes persist across much of Africa, which has a higher proportion of rural or village-based population than any other continent. ᭡ Many of China’s cities are now vast urban areas with populations of more than 5 million people. 16 ᭡ Cities such as Nairobi (above), Cairo, and Johannesburg have grown rapidly in recent years, although only Cairo has a significant population on a global scale. Million-cities in 2005 17 Cities over 1 million population A xxiv B C D E F G H I J ᭡ This stilt village in Bangladesh is built to resist the regular flooding. Pressure on land, even in rural areas, forces many people to live in marginal areas. K L M
  • 25. P O P U L AT I O N A N D S E T T L E M E N T N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Population structures Population growth Population pyramids are an effective means of showing the age structures of different countries, and highlighting changing trends in population growth and decline. The typical pyramid for a country with a growing, youthful population, is broad-based (left), reflecting a high birthrate and a far larger number of young rather than elderly people. In contrast, countries with populations whose numbers are stabilizing have a more balanced distribution of people in each age band, and may even have lower numbers of people in the youngest age ranges, indicating both a high life expectancy, and that the population is now barely replacing itself (right). The Russian Federation (center) is suffering from a declining population, forcing the government to consider a number of measures, including tax incentives and immigration, in an effort to stabilize the population . Improvements in food supply and advances in medicine have both played a major role in the remarkable growth in global population, which has increased five-fold over the last 150 years. Food supplies have risen with the mechanization of agriculture and improvements in crop yields. Better nutrition, together with higher standards of public health and sanitation, have led to increased longevity and higher birthrates. Declining population (India) (Russian Federation) (United States of America) Males Males Females 80+ 70–79 60–69 50–59 40–49 30–39 20–29 10–19 0–9 Females 80+ Males 4 2 50–59 40–49 30–39 20–29 10–19 0–9 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Population in millions 3 6 Females 80+ 70–79 60–69 70–79 60–69 50–59 40–49 30–39 20–29 10–19 0–9 8 World population growth 1500 to present day Ageing population 2 billion people Youthful population 1 4 0 1500 Population in millions 20 16 12 8 4 0 4 8 1600 1800 1700 1900 2000 12 16 20 Population in millions 5 World nutrition Asia Two-thirds of the world’s food supply is consumed by the industrialized nations, many of which have a daily calorific intake far higher than is necessary for their populations to maintain a healthy body weight. In contrast, in the developing world, about 800 million people do not have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs. Population World land area 6 60% 29.1% 7 8 Daily calorie intake per capita above 3000 2500–2999 2000–2499 below 2000 data not available 9 World life expectancy Improved public health and living standards have greatly increased life expectancy in the developed world, where people can now expect to live twice as long as they did 100 years ago. In many of the world’s poorest nations, inadequate nutrition and disease, means that the average life expectancy still does not exceed 45 years. Australasia & Oceania 10 11 Population World land area 1% 5.9% Antarctica 12 Population World land area Life expectancy at birth 0% 8.9% above 75 years 65–74 years Australasia and Oceania 13 55–64 years 45–54 years below 44 years data not available Average world birth rates World infant mortality Birthrates are much higher in Africa, Asia, and South America than in Europe and North America. Increased affluence and easy access to contraception are both factors which can lead to a significant decline in a country’s birthrate. This is the world’s most sparsely settled region. The peoples of Australia and New Zealand live mainly in the coastal cities, with only scattered settlements in the arid interior. The Pacific islands can only support limited populations because of their remoteness and lack of resources. In parts of the developing world infant mortality rates are still high; access to medical services such as immunization, adequate nutrition, and the promotion of breast-feeding have been important in combating infant mortality. 14 ᭤ Brisbane, on Australia’s Gold Coast is the most rapidly expanding city in the country. The great majority of Australia’s population lives in cities near the coasts. 15 16 ᭣ The remote highlands of Papua New Guinea are home to a wide variety of peoples, many of whom still subsist by traditional hunting and gathering. N O P Q World infant mortality rates (deaths per 1000 live births) Number of births (per 1000 people) above 40 30–39 R 20–29 below 20 S data not available T above 125 75–124 U V W 35–74 15–34 17 below 15 data not available X Y Z xxv
  • 26. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H I J K The economic system 1 2 M Trade blocs The wealthy countries of the developed world, with their aggressive, market-led economies and their access to productive new technologies and international markets, dominate the world economic system. At the other extreme, many of the countries of the developing world are locked in a cycle of national debt, rising populations, and unemployment. In 2008 a major financial crisis swept the world’s banking sector leading to a huge downturn in the global economy. Despite this, China overtook Japan in 2010 to become the world’s second largest economy. 3 L International trade blocs are formed when groups of countries, often already enjoying close military and political ties, join together to offer mutually preferential terms of trade for both imports and exports. Increasingly, global trade is dominated by three main blocs: the EU, NAFTA, and ASEAN. They are supplanting older trade blocs such as the Commonwealth, a legacy of colonialism. Trade blocs NAFTA SADC EU CACM ASEAN ECOWAS LAIA CEEAC 4 International trade flows World trade acts as a stimulus to national economies, encouraging growth. Over the last three decades, as heavy industries have declined, services – banking, insurance, tourism, airlines, and shipping – have taken an increasingly large share of world trade. Manufactured articles now account for nearly two-thirds of world trade; raw materials and food make up less than a quarter of the total. 5 6 Shipping Multinationals Primary products Ships carry 80% of international cargo, and extensive container ports, where cargo is stored, are vital links in the international transportation network. Multinational companies are increasingly penetrating inaccessible markets. The reach of many American commodities is now global. Many countries, particularly in the Caribbean and Africa, are still reliant on primary products such as rubber and coffee, which makes them vulnerable to fluctuating prices. 7 Service industries Service industries such as banking, tourism and insurance were the fastest-growing industrial sector in the last half of the 20th century. Lloyds of London is the center of the world insurance market. 8 9 10 Balance of trade 11 (millions US$) over 30,000 10,000–29,000 1000–9999 0-999 0–999 1000-9999 10,000–29,999 over 30,000 12 Direct foreign investment Surplus from USA Deficit from UK data unavailable from Japan World money markets The financial world has traditionally been dominated by three major centers – Tokyo, New York, and London, which house the headquarters of stock exchanges, multinational corporations and international banks. Their geographic location means that, at any one time in a 24-hour day, one major market is open for trading in shares, currencies, and commodities. Since the late 1980s, technological advances have enabled transactions between financial centers to occur at ever-greater speed, and new markets have sprung up throughout the world. 13 14 New stock markets Major money market s The developing world New stock markets are now opening in many parts of the world, where economies have recently emerged from state controls. In Moscow and Beijing, and several countries in eastern Europe, newly-opened stock exchanges reflect the transition to market-driven economies. International trade in capital and currency is dominated by the rich nations of the northern hemisphere. In parts of Africa and Asia, where exports of any sort are extremely limited, home-produced commodities are simply sold in local markets. ᭡ Dealers at the Kolkata Stock Market. The Indian economy has been opened up to foreign investment and many multinationals now have bases there. ᭡ Markets have thrived in communist Vietnam since the introduction of a liberal economic policy. 15 London New York Kolkata Tokyo 16 ᭡ The Tokyo Stock Market crashed in 1990, leading to a slow-down in the growth of the world’s most powerful economy, and a refocusing on economic policy away from export-led growth and toward the domestic market. Location of major stock markets 17 Major stock markets A xxvi B C D E F G H I J K L M
  • 27. T H E ECO N O M I C SYS T E M N O P Q R S World wealth disparity U V W X Y Z Urban decay Booming cities Although the US still dominates the global economy, it faces deficits in both the federal budget and the balance of trade. Vast discrepancies in personal wealth, high levels of unemployment, and the dismantling of welfare provisions throughout the 1980s have led to severe deprivation in several of the inner cities of North America’s industrial heartland. A global assessment of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by nation reveals great disparities. The developed world, with only a quarter of the world’s population, has 80% of the world’s manufacturing income. Civil war, conflict, and political instability further undermine the economic self-sufficiency of many of the world’s poorest nations. Since the 1980s the Chinese government has set up special industrial zones, such as Shanghai, where foreign investment is encouraged through tax incentives. Migrants from rural China pour into these regions in search of work, creating “boomtown” economies. 1 2 ᭣ Foreign investment has encouraged new infrastructure development in cities like Shanghai. ᭡ Cities such as Detroit have been badly hit by the decline in heavy industry. Urban sprawl Cities are expanding all over the developing world, attracting economic migrants in search of work and opportunities. In cities such as Rio de Janeiro, housing has not kept pace with the population explosion, and squalid shanty towns (favelas) rub shoulders with middle-class housing. T 3 Economic “tigers” Comparative world wealth The economic “tigers” of the Pacific Rim – China, Singapore, and South Korea – have grown faster than Europe and the US over the last decade. Their export- and service-led economies have benefited from stable government, low labor costs, and foreign investment. 4 5 6 ᭡ The favelas of Rio de Janeiro sprawl over the hills surrounding the city. 7 ᭡ Hong Kong, with its fine natural harbour, is one of the most important ports in Asia. Agricultural economies In parts of the developing world, people survive by subsistence farming – only growing enough food for themselves and their families. With no surplus product, they are unable to exchange goods for currency, the only means of escaping the poverty trap. In other countries, farmers have been encouraged to concentrate on growing a single crop for the export market. This reliance on cash crops leaves farmers vulnerable to crop failure and to changes in the market price of the crop. World economies average GDP per capita (US$) The affluent West 8 The capital cities of many countries in the developed world are showcases for consumer goods, reflecting the increasing importance of the service sector, and particularly the retail sector, in the world economy. The idea of shopping as a leisure activity is unique to the western world. Luxury goods and services attract visitors, who in turn generate tourist revenue. above 20,000 5000–20,000 2000–5000 below 2000 data unavailable ᭡ The Ugandan uplands are fertile, but poor infrastructure hampers the export of cash crops. 9 ᭡ A shopping arcade in Paris displays a great profusion of luxury goods. Tourism ᭣ In rural Southeast Asia, babies are given medical checks by UNICEF as part of a global aid program sponsored by the UN. Money flows In 2004, there were over 940 million tourists worldwide. Tourism is now the world’s biggest single industry, employing over 130 million people, though frequently in low-paid unskilled jobs. While tourists are increasingly exploring inaccessible and less-developed regions of the world, the benefits of the industry are not always felt at a local level. There are also worries about the environmental impact of tourism, as the world’s last wildernesses increasingly become tourist attractions. 10 In 2008 a global financial crisis swept through the world’s economic system. The crisis triggered the failure of several major financial institutions and lead to increased borrowing costs known as the “credit crunch”. A consequent reduction in economic activity together with rising inflation forced many governments to introduce austerity measures to reduce borrowing and debt, particulary in Europe where massive “bailouts” were needed to keep some European single currency (Euro) countries solvent. ᭡ Botswana’s Okavango Delta is an area rich in wildlife. Tourists go on safaris to the region, but the impact of tourism is controlled. Tourist arrivals 11 12 13 International debt 14 15 16 International debt (as percentage of GNI) Tourist arrivals over 20 million 10–20 million N 5–10 million 2.5–5 million O 1–2.5 million 700,000–999,000 P under 700,000 data unavailable Q R over 100% 70–99% S T 50–69% 30–49% U 10–29% below 10% V 17 data unavailable W X Y Z xxvii
  • 28. THE WOR LD E F G H The political world Most densely populated country L Smallest country Monaco: 40,680 people per sq mile (15,646 people per sq km) Vatican City: 0.17 sq miles (0.44 sq km) Longest land borders Russian Federation: 12,427 miles (20,000 km) Longest single land border There are 196 independent countries in the world today. With the exception of Antarctica, where territorial claims have been deferred by international treaty, every land area of the Earth’s surface either belongs to, or is claimed by, one country or another. The largest country in the world is the Russian Federation, the smallest is Vatican City. Some 60 overseas dependent territories remain, administered variously by France, Australia, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, the UK, the US, and the Netherlands. Largest country Canada/USA: 5526 miles (8893 km) Russian Federation: 6,592,735 sq miles (17,075,200 sq km) Most populous City Tokyo: 36,900,000 people Most sparsely populated country Mongolia: 5 people per sq mile (2 people per sq km) Most populous country China: 1,347,350,000 people The map shows three main types of boundary between states. Full borders represent internationally agreed and recognized territorial boundaries. Undefined borders exist where no fixed boundary between states has been demarcated; the boundaries indicated in this way show approximate areas of sovereignty. A disputed border is indicated where a de facto territorial boundary exists, which is not S) Aleutian Is (to U agreed or is subject to arbitration. ARC O C ET I C AN Arctic C ircle Bering S ea Jan Mayen (to Norway) Reykjavik ICELAND Hu d s on Bay C A N A Faeroe Islands (to Denmark) D A UNITED KINGDOM IRELAND London Isle of Man (to UK) Channel Islands (to UK) Lake Super ior Seattle 7 Greenland (to Denmark) Baffin Bay USA (Alaska) 6 PAC I F IC O CEAN Nauru: 8.2 sq miles (21.2 sq km) Australia: 2,967,893 sq miles (7,686,850 sq km) Lake Ottawa Montreal Lake Huron Michigan Toronto Lake Chicago Ontar io Lake New York Er ie Washington, DC St Pierre & Miquelon (to France) U N I T E D S TAT E S OF AMERICA San Francisco Azores (to Portugal) Ceuta (to Spain) Melilla (to Spain) Dallas Bermuda (to UK) Tropic of Cancer MEXICO Ca IVORY SIERRA LEONE COAST Yamoussoukro LIBERIA Abidjan Accra G U YA N Baker & Howland Is (to US) Equator SENEGAL Dakar MALI GAMBIA Bamako BURKINA GUINEAGUINEA BISSAU NA Clipperton Island (to French Polynesia) Palmyra Atoll (to US) Nouakchott CAPE VERDE GHA 9 A COLOMBIA O Rabat O C C TA Revillagigedo Islands (to Mexico) Quito Jarvis I (to US) I R I B A Galápagos Is (to Ecuador) T ECUADOR Fernando de Noronha (to Brazil) I P E R A Z I L Cook Islands (to NZ) Lima U SAMOA Wallis & Futuna American (to France) Samoa (to US) Ascension (to St Helena) Recife Lake Titicaca La Paz PAC I F IC O CEAN Belo Horizonte R PA AG UA Y I Kermadec Islands (to NZ) Santiago L Juan Fernandez Islands (to Chile) 14 São Paulo Trindade (to Brazil) Rio de Janeiro Asuncion URUGUAY Montevideo Tristan da Cunha (to St Helena) Buenos Aires E Map key A I N N T A R G E San Felix Island (to Chile) San Ambrosio Island (to Chile) Sala y Gomez (to Chile) Easter Island (to Chile) St Helena (to UK) BOLIVIA H Pitcair n Islands (to UK) O CEAN Brasilia C Tropic of Capricorn AT L A N T I C Salvador French Poly nesia (to France) Niue TONGA (to NZ) 13 B R Tokelau (to NZ) 12 WESTERN SAHARA (occupied by Morocco) Guadalajara Johnston Atoll (to US) K BAHAMAS Casablanca Canary Islands (to Spain) Turks & Caicos Is (to UK) Havana Puerto Rico (to US) C UBA Virgin Is Cayman Is British Virgin Is (to UK) Mexico City (to US) (to UK) Anguilla (to UK) HAITI DOM. r i JAMAICA REP. ANTIGUA & BARBUDA b Guadeloupe (to France) BELIZE b e a n S Navassa I. ST KITTS & DOMINICA GUATEMALA e a (to US) NEVISMontserrat Martinique (to France) HONDURAS Guatemala City Curaçao (to UK) ST LUCIA (to Neth.) ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES EL SALVADOR BARBADOS Aruba Guatemala City (to Neth.) NICARAGUA GRENADA Caracas TRINIDAD & TOBAGO COSTA RICA PANAMA VENEZUELA Georgetown SURINAME Bogotá French Guiana (to France) Hawaii (to US) Kingman Reef (to US) AT L A N T I C O CEAN Madrid SPAIN RI 8 Gulf of Mexico Madeira (to Portugal) R Midway Islands (to US) Monterrey Lisbon Gibraltar (to UK) Los Angeles Guadalupe (to Mexico) PORTUG AL 5 Smallest island country Largest island country International borders 4 M O 3 K M 2 J U 1 I A D NI C A B M A Gough Island (to Tristan da Cunha) Borders Chatham Islands (to NZ) full borders 15 Falkland Islands (to UK) undefined borders South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands (to UK) disputed borders indication of country extent (island territories only) indication of dependent territory extent (island territories only) 16 South Orkney Islands South Shetland Islands Settlements M E X I C O : independent state Gibraltar (to UK): self-governing dependent territory capital city Laccadive Is (to India): non self-governing major city dependent territory, with parent state indicated 17 O S Political status U E H T R Peter I Island (to Norway) A other city c Circle Antarcti Ronne Ice Shelf e Ross Ic lf She A xxviii B C D E F G H I J K L M
  • 29. THE POLITICAL WOR LD N O P Q R The world in 1914 S T U V Percentage of Earth’s land surface controlled by colonial empires in 1914 The early years of the 20th century saw the mainly European colonial empires reaching their greatest extents by 1914. Two world wars inaugurated their disintegration, but even in 1950 there were only 82 independent countries. Since then, over 100 have gained their independence, culminating in the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. Independent: 29.8% W X Y Colonial empires in 1914 1 Chinese: 6% Ottoman: 1.5% Russian: 15% 2 French: 7.7% Portuguese: 1% Belgian: 1.6% Spanish: 1% Italian: 1.8% German: 1.6% British: 21.5% Japanese: 0.4% United States: 7.6% Dutch: 1.4% Danish: 1.5% 3 TIC ARC AN CE O Colonial Empires in 1914 Y T I O N F E D E R A SWE D NOR W EN A Baren ts Sea R U S S I A N Se a St Petersburg of O Lak e Ba ika l Moscow kh POLAND BELARUS NETH. Berlin GERMANY Kiev Warsaw BELGIUM CZECH REP. LUX. UKRAINE Paris LIECH. Vienna SLOVAKIA FRANCE Budapest MOLDOVA AUSTRIA Ulan Bator Harbin A M O N G O L I pi an Sea JORDAN Cairo I R A N e Riyadh P i an BAHRAIN R EGYPT rs KUWAIT LIBYA Gu QATAR lf Muscat d AN O e a DJIBOUTI Brazzaville Ryukyu Is (to Japan) RWANDA BRUNEI IA MALDIVES Kuala Lumpar I SEYCHELLES MICRONESIA P A L AU TANZANIA Lake Nyasa ANGOLA MALAWI Lilongwe Q DA MI MOZ NA ZIMBABWE BI BIA Pretoria Johannesburg SWAZILAND Réunion (to France) MA BOTSWANA Tromelin (to Réunion) Antananarivo Rodrigues (to Mauritius) MAURITIUS O N E S I NAU RU P A P UA NEW GUINEA A K I RI BAT I Surabaya Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Mayotte (to France) UE GA Harare AM Lusaka SC ZAMBIA D Jakarta Agalega Islands (to Mauritius) COMOROS N Java Sea British Indian Ocean Territory (to UK) Dar Es Salaam Luanda Christmas Island (to Australia) SOLOM ON I SL A N D S EAST TIMOR TUVAL U Ashmore & Cartier Islands (to Australia) 12 Coral Sea Islands (to Australia) INDIAN O CEAN VANUATU New Cale doni a (to France) FIJI Tropic of Capricorn Maputo 13 A U S T R A L I A LESOTHO Bloemfontein MARSHALL ISLANDS SINGAPORE AR Lake Tangany ika Gaborone 9 Guam (to US) M A L A Y S I A Mogadishu Kinshasa Windhoek 8 Wake Island (to US) Nor thern Mariana Is (to US) Nairobi Lake Victor ia BURUNDI ANGOLA (Cabinda) Tropic of Cancer Taipei U NG Chongqing BHUTAN L KENYA G D E M . R E P. CONGO CO SAO TOME & GABON PRINCIPE AN DA S EP A SRI LANKA O Bangui O Libreville N New Delhi AL Juba M ON Yaounde ETHIOPIA SOUTH SUDAN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC ME CA EQUATORIAL GUINEA Socotra (to Yemen) Addis Ababa RO BENIN Lagos TOGO N Delhi TNA M Ndjamena NIGERIA Abuja EN Sanaa M YE A P A C I F I C O C E A N V IE ERITREA ST 7 A Kánpur BANGLADESH Dhaka Guangzhou TAIWAN Chittagong Kolkata Ahmadabad Hong Kong Hanoi (Calcutta) MYANM AR (BURM A) LAOS Mumbai I N D I A Nay Pyi Taw Vientiane (Bombay) Paracel Is Bay Yangon Hyderabad Pune (disputed) Arabian o f (Rangoon) Manila Sea gal Ben THAILAND South Chennai PHILIP PINES Bangkok China (Madras) Bangalore CAMBODIA Andaman Is (to India) Sea Laccadive Is Phnom Penh (to India) Ho Chi Minh City Spratly Is Nicobar Is Davao Colombo (disputed) (to India) M S Khartoum SU DA N CHAD Niamey I AK N NORTH KOREA Sea of Dalian Pyongyang Japa n Beijing JAPAN Seoul (Ea st Sea ) Tianjin Jinan Tokyo SOUTH Daegu Nagoya Qingdao KOREA Yokohama Busan Osaka Xi’an Nanjing Shanghai Wuhan Chengdu Karachi UAE S AU D I ARABIA NIGER Lahore Pe Giza ALGERIA GH Alexandria Baghdad IR AQ I Islamabad AN Damascus LEBANON ISRAEL H C Kabul AF TUNISIA Tripoli Tehran SYRIA CYPRUS Mediter ranean Sea IST AN AN Athens MALTA 6 Shenyang as Tunis sk Astana N K A Z A K H S T A Aral SWITZ. HUNGARY Lake Sarajevo ROMANIA Sea SLOVENIA Balka sh C Urumqi CROATIA Bucharest Almaty MONACO UZ B-H SERBIA BE IT Bishkek KOS. BULGARIA Black Sea K I Tashkent SAN MARINO A L MON. GEORGIA ST KYRGYZSTAN Istanbul Y A ANDORRA ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN T U R K N M Ankara MACEDONIA TAJIKISTAN VATICAN Rome Asgabat E N I CITY ALBANIA GREECE ST Dushanbe AZERB. ƒzmir T U R K E Y Algiers ot Kurile Is an Fed.) Russi RUSS. FED. 5 (to FINLAND Helsinki Oslo Stockholm ESTONIA LATVIA Copenhagen DENMARK LITHUANIA 4 Japanese Ottoman Portuguese Russian Spanish United States Independent Disputed Belgian British Chinese Danish Dutch French German Italian ircle Arctic C Svalbard (to Norway) Z SOUTH AFRICA Nor folk Island (to Australia) Cape Town Amsterdam Island Canberra Crozet Islands 14 Melbourne St Paul Island Prince Edward Islands (to South Africa) Lord Howe Island (to Australia) Sydney NEW ZEALAN D Frenc h South ern & Antar ctic Territ ories (to Franc e) Wellington 15 Kerguelen Bouvet Island (to Norway) N O T N Bounty Isl ands (to Auckland Islan Antipodes Islan NZ) (to NZ) ds (to NZ) ds Heard & McDonald Islands ( to Australia) A R C C E A Macquar ie Isl (to Austral and ia) Campbell Islan (to NZ) d 16 Scale 1:66,000,000 N Km T I (All territorial claims are held in abeyance under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty) C A 0 Antarcti c Circle 250 0 1000 500 250 500 1500 2000 1000 1500 2000 Miles 17 projection: Wagner VII Ross Ic Shelf e N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z xxix
  • 30. THE WOR LD A B C D E States and boundaries 1 2 4 5 G H The changing world map I J K L M New nations 1945 –1965 Decolonization In 1950, large areas of the world remained under the control of a handful of European countries (page xxix). The process of decolonization had begun in Asia, where, following the Second World War, much of southern and southeastern Asia sought and achieved self-determination. In the 1960s, a host of African states achieved independence, so that by 1965, most of the larger tracts of the European overseas empires had been substantially eroded. The final major stage in decolonization came with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc after 1990. The process continues today as the last toeholds of European colonialism, often tiny island nations, press increasingly for independence. There are almost 200 sovereign states in the world today; in 1950 there were only 82. Over the last half-century national self-determination has been a driving force for many states with a history of colonialism and oppression. As more borders have been added to the world map, the number of international border disputes has increased. In many cases, where the impetus toward independence has been religious or ethnic, disputes with minority groups have also caused violent internal conflict. While many newly-formed states have moved peacefully toward independence, successfully establishing government by multiparty democracy, dictatorship by military regime or individual despot is often the result of the internal power-struggles which characterize the early stages in the lives of new nations. 3 F New nations 1965 – present 6 The nature of politics ᭡ Icons of communism, including statues of former leaders such as Lenin and Stalin, were destroyed when the Soviet bloc was dismantled in 1989, creating several new nations. Democracy is a broad term: it can range from the ideal of multiparty elections and fair representation to, in countries such as Singapore, a thin disguise for singleparty rule. In despotic regimes, on the other hand, a single, often personal authority has total power; institutions such as parliament and the military are mere instruments of the dictator. ᭣ The stars and stripes of the US flag are a potent symbol of the country’s status as a federal democracy. ᭡ Iran has been one of the modern world’s few true theocracies; Islam has an impact on every aspect of political life. 9 ICELAND Hudso n Bay EGYPT RI AU MALI O AN KI Tropic of Cancer BANGLADESH TAIWA N I N D I A Bay of Bengal LAOS THAI. CAMB. AL IA Arabian Sea MYANMAR (BURMA) O M SRI LANKA Nor t her n Mar iana Is (to US) PHILIPPINES Guam (to US) South China Sea BRUNEI MALDIVES S PA C I F I C O C E A N P MARSHALL ISLANDS PALAU MICRONESIA M A L A YSIA SINGAPORE Equator I N D SEYCHELLES O N E S I A Java Sea PAPUA NEW GUINEA KIRIBATI NAU RU SOLOMON ISLANDS TUVALU SCA DA GA MAURITIUS BIA MA ZIMB. BOTS. MB I R EAST TIMOR VANUAT U INDIAN O CEAN T ARGEN New Caledonia (to France) Tropic of Capricorn SWAZILAND A U S T R A L I A LESOTHO URUGUAY JAPAN SOUTH KOREA BHUTAN KENYA Lake Victoria o A Persian Gulf A N I H NEPAL UAE Lake TANZANIA Tanganyika Lake Nyasa COMOROS A NG OL A MALAWI ZAMBIA E QU MI R PA AG UA Y UG NG RWANDA BURUNDI NA BOLIVIA DEM. REP. CONGO C ST KUWAIT S AU D I ARABIA AND A ME ROO N CA SAO TOME GABON & PRINCIPE C ANGOLA (Cabinda) AT L A N T IC O CEA N AFGHAN. N ERITREA M E YE DJIBOUTI NIGER GHANA EQ. GUIN. TOGO A Z I L U CHILE 16 IRAN JORDAN BAHRAIN QATAR LIBYA O R Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Tropic of Capricorn I R AQ NA M P E B R kh Sea of Japan NORTH (East KOREA Sea) ET M ECUADOR PAC I F I C O CEAN SYRIA LEB. ISRAEL AN Sea M RO M ALGERIA K I R I B A T I French Polynesia (to France) N GREECE MALTA CYPRUS O TUNISIA MONGOLIA VI CAPE VERDE French Guiana (to France) COLOMBIA Equator Tokelau (to NZ) Cook Islands SAMOA (to NZ) American Samoa TONGA (to US) Niue (to NZ) O k d ite r ran ean O a Se ANTIGUA & BARBUDA DOMINICA C C SENEGAL ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES GAMBIA CHAD S U DA N BARBADOS BURKINA GUINEA-BISSAU GRENADA GUINEA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO NIGERIA VENEZUELA G U YA NA IVORY SIERRA LEONE BENIN CENTRAL SOUTH ETHIOPIA COAST SURINAME LIBERIA AFRICAN REP. SUDAN PANAMA of ts WESTERN SAHARA (occupied by Morocco) CUBA COSTA RICA Sea . AT L A N T IC O CEAN DOM. JAMAICA HAITI REP. BELIZE ST KITTS & HONDURAS NEVIS GUATEMALA ST LUCIA EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA ir cl e Lake Baikal N MEXICO Me BAHAMAS R U S S I A N ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA d Re Gulf of Mexico N FINLAND POLAND BELARUS NETH. BELGIUM GERM. SLVK. CZ. K A Z A K H S TA N LUX. LIECH. REP. UKR AINE Aral Lake FR ANCE MOLD. AUT. HUNG. SWITZ. Sea Balkash SLVN. CRO. ROM. Caspian U Z B SM SERB. MONACO B-H Black Sea EK ITALY BULG. Sea IS KYRG. ANDORRA GEORGIA MON. TA ARM. AZERB. T U R VAT. CITY KOSOVO PORTUGAL KM SPAIN TAJ. MACED. T U R K E Y E ALBANIA AZERB. U N I T E D S TAT E S OF AMERICA Tropic of Cancer A ᭡ In Brunei the Sultan has ruled by decree since 1962; power is closely tied to the royal family. The Sultan’s brothers are responsible for finance and foreign affairs. N A T I O F E D E R IRELAND Great Lakes 12 A rc ti c C Barents Sea Y RUSS. FED. (Kaliningrad) DEN. UNITED KINGDOM C A N A D A PAC I F IC O CEAN A RC TIC O C EA N ᭣ In early 2011, Egypt underwent a revolution, part of the so called “Arab Spring,” which resulted in the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak after nearly 30 years in power. MOZ A Be ri ng Se a Greenland (to Denmark) O Current civil unrest Baffin Bay SA (Alaska) RW 11 DE Multiparty democracy for more than 10 yrs Multiparty democracy within last 10 yrs Single-party government Military regime Theocracy Monarchy Non-party system Arctic C ircle Transitional regime U SWE Types of government NO 10 Netherlands New Zealand Pakistan Portugal South Africa Spain Sudan UK Unified country USA USSR Yugoslavia Australia Aust/NZ/UK Belgium China Czechoslovakia Egypt/UK Ethiopia France France/UK Indonesia Italy Japan Malaysia ᭡ North Korea is an independent communist republic. Power was transferred directly to Kim Jong-un in 2012 following the death of his father Kim Jong-il. ᭣ Afghanistan has suffered decades of war and occupation resulting in widespread destruction. The hardline Taliban government were ousted by a US-led coalition in 2001 but efforts to stabilize the country are still continuing over ten years later. IA 8 Administration at the time of independence TA N 7 SOUTH AFRICA INA NEW ZEAL AN French Southern & Antarctic Territories (to France) FIJI D 17 Circle Antarctic A xxx B A N T A R C T I C A (All territorial claims are held in abeyance under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty) Antarcti c Circle K L M
  • 31. S TAT E S A N D B O U N D A R I E S P Q R Lines on the map S T U V W X Z 1 The shifting political map over the course of history has frequently led to anomalous situations. Parts of national territories may become isolated by territorial agreement, forming an enclave. The West German part of the city of Berlin, which until 1989 lay a hundred miles (160km) within East German territory, was a famous example The determination of international boundaries can use a variety of criteria. Many of the borders between older states follow physical boundaries; some mirror religious and ethnic differences; others are the legacy of complex histories of conflict and colonialism, while others have been imposed by international agreements or arbitration. ESTONIA RU S S I A N F E D E R AT I O N L A T V I A 2 L I T H UA N I A RUSS. FED. (Kaliningrad) Post-colonial borders ᭡ Since the independence of Lithuania and Belarus, the peoples of the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad have become physically isolated. B E L A RU S POLAND When the European colonial empires in Africa were dismantled during the second half of the 20th century, the outlines of the new African states mirrored colonial boundaries. These boundaries had been drawn up by colonial administrators, often based on inadequate geographical knowledge. Such arbitrary boundaries were imposed on people of different languages, racial groups, religions, and customs. This confused legacy often led to civil and international war. 3 Geometric borders Antarctica Brazilian zone of interest A When Antarctic exploration began a century ago, seven nations, Australia, Argentina, Britain, Chile, France, New Zealand, and Norway, laid claim to the new territory. In 1961 the Antarctic Treaty, now signed by 45 nations, agreed to hold all territorial claims in abeyance. T L British Norwegian claim claim O C E A N (undefined limits) T I Ctarctic Circle A N An Australian claim Argentinian claim EAN C EA IA O N FIC OC Chilean claim PA C I ALGERIA WESTERN SAHARA Y Enclaves S e a O B a l t i c N 4 5 IN D N Straight lines and lines of longitude and latitude have occasionally been used to determine international boundaries; and indeed the world’s second longest continuous international boundary, between Canada and the USA follows the 49th Parallel for over one-third of its course. Many Canadian, American, and Australian internal administrative boundaries are similarly determined using a geometric solution. French claim Australian claim New Zealand claim C M AU R I TA N I A A MALI N A D A 6 49th Parallel World boundaries U N I T E D S T AT E S O F A M E R I C A 7 8 ᭡ The conflict that has plagued many African countries since independence has caused millions of people to become refugees. Physical borders Dates from which current boundaries have existed 9 1990–present 1966–1989 1946–1965 1915–1945 1850–1914 1800–1849 Pre-1800 Many of the world’s countries are divided by physical borders: lakes, rivers, mountains. The demarcation of such boundaries can, however, lead to disputes. Control of waterways, water supplies, and fisheries are frequent causes of international friction. ᭡ Different farming techniques in Canada and the US clearly mark the course of the international boundary in this satellite map. Lake borders River borders Mountain borders Countries which lie next to lakes usually fix their borders in the middle of the lake. Unusually the Lake Nyasa border between Malawi and Tanzania runs along Tanzania’s shore. Rivers alone account for one-sixth of the world’s borders. Many great rivers form boundaries between a number of countries. Changes in a river’s course and interruptions of its natural flow can lead to disputes, particularly in areas where water is scarce. The center of the river’s course is the nominal boundary line. 10 Mountain ranges form natural barriers and are the basis for many major borders, particularly in Europe and Asia. The watershed is the conventional boundary demarcation line, but its accurate determination is often problematic. AW I MOZA MB I A UKRAINE GERMANY be Danu IA MAL ZAMBIA Z N Lake Nyasa 12 N Q MOZAMBIQUE TA 11 F R A N C E SLOVAKIA AUSTRIA P y r e A N D OR R A n e e s H U NG ARY ROM AN I A CROATIA UE ᭡ Complicated agreements between colonial powers led to the awkward division of Lake Nyasa. Danube SE R BI A BU LG ARI A 13 S PA I N ᭡ The Danube forms all or part of the border between nine European nations. ᭡ The Pyrenees form a natural mountain border between France and Spain. 14 Shifting boundaries – Poland Borders between countries can change dramatically over time. The nations of eastern Europe have been particularly affected by changing boundaries. Poland is an example of a country whose boundaries have changed so significantly that it has literally moved around Europe. At the start of the 16th century, Poland was the largest nation in Europe. Between 1772 and 1795, it was absorbed into Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and it effectively ceased to exist. After the First World War, Poland became an independent country once more, but its borders changed again after the Second World War following invasions by both Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany. N O P Moscow Moscow A POLAND P SI Warsaw IA Kiev S RU R U S S I A P OL A N D POLAND Warsaw Kiev 15 Warsaw Kiev Kiev R Warsaw Moscow Moscow AU ᭡ In 1634, Poland was the largest nation in Europe, its eastern boundary reaching toward Moscow. Q R S S 16 T ᭡ From 1772–1795, Poland was gradually partitioned between Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Its eastern boundary receded by over 100 miles (160 km). T U ᭡ After the Second World War, the Baltic Sea border was extended westward, but much of the eastern territory was annexed by Russia. ᭡ Following the First World War, Poland was reinstated as an independent state, but it was less than half the size it had been in 1634. V W X Y 17 Z xxxi
  • 32. THE WOR LD A B C D E F G H I International disputes 1 Cyprus was partitioned in 1974, following an invasion by Turkish troops. The south is now the Greek Cypriot Republic of Cyprus, while the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is recognized only by Turkey. C H I N A Ye l l o w Sea 2 ᭡ Indian army troops maintain their positions in the mountainous terrain of northern Kashmir. 3 N C NI H I N A 4 Claimed by India A 'line of control' was agreed between India and Pakistan in 1972. Pre 1947 Boundary Aksai Chin Peshawar r pa Ka sía JAMMU & KASHMIR I N D I A Rawalpindi Administered by China, claimed by India. ᭡ Heavy fortifications on the border between North and South Korea. UK Sovereign Base Area UK Sovereign Base Area Lárnaka Faisalabad Administered by China, claimed by India. HIMACHAL PRADESH Amritsar Lahore Medite r ranean S ea Lemesós (Limassol) CHINA Demchok/ Demqog Gujranwala Tr o ó d o s CYPRUS 5 PA K I S T A N NICOSIA SEOUL 1 ISLAMABAD TURKISH REPUBLIC OF NORTHERN CYPRUS (recognized only by Turkey) ns Medite r ranean Kyrenia Mountai S ea PYONGYANG SOUTH KOREA M Srinagar ᭡ The so-called “green line” divides Cyprus into Greek and Turkish sectors. NORTH KOREA A ST Cyprus Since 1953, the de facto border between North and South Korea has been a cease-fire line which straddles the 38th Parallel and is designated as a demilitarized zone. Both countries have heavy fortifications and troop concentrations behind this zone. HA North and South Korea 4 L Disputes over Jammu and Kashmir have caused three serious wars between India and Pakistan since 1947. Pakistan wishes to annex the largely Muslim territory, while India refuses to cede any territory or to hold a referendum, and also lays claim to the entire territory. Most international maps show the “line of control” agreed in 1972 as the de facto border. In addition, India has territorial disputes with neighboring China. The situation is further complicated by a Kashmiri independence movement, active since the late 1980s. AFG 3 K Jammu and Kashmir There are more than 60 disputed borders or territories in the world today. Although many of these disputes can be settled by peaceful negotiation, some areas have become a focus for international conflict. Ethnic tensions have been a major source of territorial disagreement throughout history, as has the ownership of, and access to, valuable natural resources. The turmoil of the postcolonial era in many parts of Africa is partly a result of the 19th century “carve-up” of the continent, which created potential for conflict by drawing often arbitrary lines through linguistic and cultural areas. 2 J 6 Claimed by India. P U N JA B Ludhiana Conflicts and international disputes 7 UN peacekeeping missions 2002-2012 R U S S I A N F E D E R AT I O N Major active territorial or border disputes Kurile Islands 8 Chechnya CROATIA KOS. MOLDOVA B.&H. BULG. GEORGIA MACEDONIA ARMENIA TURKEY SYRIA CYPRUS LEBANON IRAQ ISRAEL CO Melilla 9 C RO MO B R A Z I L ZIMBABWE 12 URUGUAY ARGENTINA Former Yugoslavia r C HERZEGOVINA ᭡ Barbed-wire fences surround a settlement in the Golan Heights. D E F G AM Celeb es 16 N IE Philippine claim S ea Malaysian claim Occupied by Taiwan Occupied by Philippines Occupied by Malaysia Occupied by China Occupied by Vietnam MONTENEGRO Dubrovnik H 15 Spratly Island s Gornji Vakuf Goraªde SARAJEVO Mostar Republika Srpska Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina PH I L I PPI N ES S ea Tuzla S e i at Split a ic 14 S outh China Brâko Dr Jajce BOSNIA & i Srebrenica Ad xxxii B Bihaá Banja Luka PT A ISR AEL CAMBODIA The site of potential oil and natural gas reserves, the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea have been claimed by China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Malaysia, and the Philippines since the Japanese gave up a wartime claim in 1951. T I A O A Sava GAZA STRIP EGY Palestinian control Mixed control Israeli settlement block R WEST BANK Israeli settlement Palestinian settlement West Bank fence ᭡ Most claimant states have small military garrisons on the Spratly Islands. RBIA (Israel retains 15%control) Dead Sea The Spratly Islands na Hebron 13 V C Bethlehem HEIGHTS N JERUSALEM Mediterranean Sea GOLAN Following the disintegration in 1991 of the communist state of Yugoslavia, the breakaway states of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina came into conflict with the “parent” state (consisting of Serbia and Montenegro). Warfare focused on ethnic and territorial ambitions in Bosnia. The tenuous Dayton Accord of 1995 sought to recognize the post-1990 borders, whilst providing for ethnic partition and required international peacekeeping troops to maintain the terms of the peace. T Falkland Islands SYRIA Jordan 'Auja et Tahta Nu'eima Jericho EAST TIMOR BOTSWANA Israel was created in 1948 following the 1947 UN Resolution (147) on Palestine. Until 1979 Israel had no borders, only cease-fire lines from a series of wars in 1948, 1967, and 1973. Treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994 led to these borders being defined and agreed. Negotiations over Israeli settlements and Palestinian self-government seen little effective progress LEBANON since 2000. J O R Ramallah D A N WEST BANK BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY ZAMBIA RDA I S R Nablus KENYA RWANDA BURUNDI BOLIVIA JO L E A Tulkarm MALAYSIA UGANDA ANGOLA Israel Qalqiliya DEM. REP. CONGO 10 11 CHILE Jenin O C Cabinda ᭣ British warships in Falkland Sound during the 1982 war with Argentina. 13 BENIN CAMEROON PHILIPPINES Spratly Islands SE 12 C.A.R. IVORY COAST Paracel Islands CAMBODIA SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA Bosna 11 THAI. YEMEN SOMALIA SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA O The British dependent ECUADOR territory of the Falkland Islands was invaded by Argentina in 1982, sparking a PERU full-scale war with the UK. Tensions ran high during 2012 in the build up to the thirtieth anniversary of the conflict. NIGERIA NG VENEZUELA GU YA NA SURINAME French Guiana COLOMBIA The Falkland Islands BURKINA MYANMAR (BURMA) AM 10 BANGLADESH ERITREA S U DA N 9 Senkaku Islands TAIWAN TN MALI SENEGAL SOUTH KOREA BHUTAN EGYPT NIGE R CHAD N A Jammu and Kashmir Arunachal Pradesh INDIA MAURITANIA HAITI I IE BELIZE H Active territorial or border disputes and internal conflict V Guantanamo Bay CUBA IRAN C Aksai Chin AFGHANISTAN L I B YA ALGERIA WESTERN SAHARA MEXICO TAJIKISTAN PA K Gibraltar Ceuta NORTH KOREA AZERB. IST AN SPAIN 8 Countries involved in internal conflict I J B RU N EI M A L AYS I A K INDONESIA L M 17
  • 34. N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 North America North America is the world’s third largest continent with a total area of 9,358,340 sq miles e Ri s all ck n Ro asi d B PLATE ATE PL lan N Ice RASIA RICAN EU ME sin HA s Ba RT ane NO ykj 6 r sF ac tu re n Zo e Greatest extent, East–West: 3500 miles / 5700 km ar Ch T Isl e one re Z ratu co F Pi Ci rcl e Boothia Peninsula (71° 59’ N) 9 Strai t Zone acture Oceanographer Fr s Brown Bank 8 c c ti Ar Az ore s of B ell e d n lan d I C N T tia rges co Geo k Ban GE un fo asi w Ne B Lowest recorded temperature: Northice, Greenland -87° F (-66° C) Cape Prince of Wales (168° 4’ W) ID ks an 7 Most westerly point: Attu, Aleutian Islands, USA 172° 30’ E A R TIC AN B nd Gra sh mi Fle ap C Most easterly point: Nordøstrundingen, northeast Greenland 12° 08’ W Most northerly point: Kap Morris Jesup, northern Greenland 83° 38’ N L L AT D- d lan nd fou New of Gulf ence wr St La C a b ot S t rai t Nov aS Greatest extent, North–South: 4600 miles / 7400 km A lie -G It lies wholly within the Northern Hemisphere. MI swa Gro i bb 5 (24,238,000 sq km) including Greenland and the Caribbean islands. Re or ad abr L sin Bater Bay 4 Battle Harbour (55° 35’ W) Highest point: Mount McKinley (Denali), Alaska, USA 20,322 ft (6194 m) 10 mo ville Nash un Se ner C o r u nt s o eam S ts unt amo m S oh Pla At l a n t i in uda da Berm Bermu Rise Hatteras Plain h Nor t ican Amer n Basi Sea Plai s San Francisco Washington DC Highest recorded temperature: Death Valley, California, USA 135°F (57°C ) ic of Trop Lowest point: Death Valley, California, USA -282 ft (-86 m) below sea level n Indi We s t e Most southerly point: Península de Azuero, southeast Panama 7° 15’ N Península de Azuero (7° 15’ N) 13 Rocky Mountains Great Plains Great Lakes San Francisco Zone cture a Fra Appalachian Mountains Washington DC 14 s ud NORTH ico Trench Barrac Puerto R Le uda AN PLATE Barbigua AMERIC AN ERIC Ant iola SOUTH AM Hispan pe PLATE elou vis o uad to Ric Ne G Puer inica Dom ique Ant illes tin Mar ia elan os uc St L arbad enezuin V a B rar Bas me De lain da P rena G idad Trin ra G era LATE TE Dem eau AN P A lat N PL IBBE P CAR AMERICA o c H no SOUT Or i 11 cer Can 12 Ba Nare e Zon cture ne Fra Ka e Largest lake: Lake Superior, Canada/USA 32,142 sq miles (83,270 sq km) Ca pe sin Ver de Sarg asso tu s Fra c on re Z Trop ic of C ancer S ea N O C E A and AFRICAN PLATE En g l NORTH AMERICAN PLATE Ne w ve s Gr Ridge Win enada Basin dward Islands Bra nco 500 1000 Miles 15 line of cross-section Eq ua tor r Ant illes Orinoco O 0 1000 Km E Caroní s A se Le nez uela ul fo f Ve N land mbetas Tro re v ia Gua Hig h 500 DG ana 0 RI Gui a Met Cross-section from San Francisco to Washington DC IC NT e Apur LA AT DMI ds slan dI ar ew a Se ana Gui sin Ba 16 n azo Am Fan s 17 on az Am P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1
  • 35. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J K Physical North America 1 Spanning northern Canada and Greenland, this geologically stable plain forms the heart of the continent, containing rocks more than two billion years old. A long history of weathering and repeated glaciation has scoured the region, leaving flat plains, gentle hummocks, numerous small basins and lakes, and the bays and islands of the Arctic. About 80 million years ago the Pacific and North American plates collided, uplifting the Western Cordillera. This consists of the Aleutian, Coast, Cascade, and Sierra Nevada mountains, and the inland Rocky Mountains. These run parallel from the Arctic to Mexico. 4 5 Once overlain by sedimentary rocks, erosion has reexposed the ancient Laurentian Mountains Hudson Bay was depressed by the ice sheet to form North America’s largest basin The hard bedrock of the Canadian Shield is slowly rising The weight of the ice sheet, 1.8 miles (3 km) thick, has depressed the land to 0.6 miles (1 km) below sea level The Western Cordillera M The Canadian Shield The North American continent can be divided into a number of major structural areas: the Western Cordillera, the Canadian Shield, the Great Plains, and Central Lowlands, and the Appalachians. Other smaller regions include the Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain which borders the southern coast of North America from the southern Appalachians to the Great Plains. This area includes the expanding Mississippi Delta. A chain of volcanic islands, running in an arc around the margin of the Caribbean Plate, lie to the east of the Gulf of Mexico. 3 L A A 0 100 200 Km Section across the Canadian Shield showing where the ice sheet has depressed the underlying rock and formed bays and islands. 0 200 Miles 100 Map key Elevation ᭡ This computer-generated view shows the ice-covered island of Greenland without its ice cap. Plate margins (for explanation see page xiv) 3500m / 11,484ft 6 B B 100 Km 100 Miles 50 ASIA Lake Michigan Lake Erie ANT Nov aS co tia Cape Cod The Appalachians A an L Sedimentary strata folded and faulted into ridges and valleys rient de al N CAR A A L Cross-section through the Appalachians showing the numerous folds, which have subsequently been weathered to create a rounded relief. t W e s E AT PL TE AN PLA IC N ER BEA AM IB H AR RT C IBB Hard basement rock C C PL Yucatan Península O Softer strata has been crumpled against the harder basement rock D Mississippi Delta N 1000 The Appalachian Mountains, uplifted about 400 million years ago, are some of the oldest in the world. They have been lowered and rounded by erosion and now slope gently toward the Atlantic across a broad coastal plain. Horizontal strata G del Sur 800 600 r e a t e r Caribbean Sea Lake Nicaragua EA N PL AT E Ist hmus o f Panama SO 0 0 25 50 Km 25 50 Miles i e I n d s re O ci A dre 400 200 1000 Newfoundland Gulf of Mexico ad c eO Ma 800 Miles an de aM dr F hi I C C O A S TA C IN O C hio al S N D Gr rr Ma E 0 600 400 M A U 200 A S aw ren c St L Lake Huron re Lake Ontario at L a k e s ac L Ri o ra I C G LF L AT Volcán Pico de Orìzaba 5700m rra r e W s A Sier F Sie do I E L D ou n C tains H I A O Missouri R I N S L A E I O E H 0 P e ang L P L f lf o ia Gu iforn l Ca i a n or lif D al C 400 Miles 200 S L T s A i n t a R a n g e Casca s de R A E n C o a s t N N G Ark an sa e ra Laurentian Mountains Lake Winnipeg Km O C E A N A R u L Ca C C A er A B 0 Si nt D A 2 D 400 Km Lab Lake Superior Colorado Plateau Low P 17 t C o I Canyon D L abrador S ea ai t Lake Manitoba Great Salt Lake o rad D Ne va d a r ra in a qu S an Jol l e y Va 16 Section across the Great Plains and Central Lowlands showing river systems and structure. I Scale 1:38,000,000 S Hud son B ay R G Great Basin Sonoran Desert 200 D Reindeer Lake T B Death Valley -86m Grand Confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers 0 A A N M Sie Upland rivers drain south toward the Mississippi Basin E Mount St Helens 2549m Mojave Desert 15 Sedimentary layers overlay domed basement rock Lake Athabasca Mount Rainier 4392m R C O TE 14 e DE FUCA PL A Deposits left by retreating glaciers San and rivers have made this vast flat area Andreas Fault very fertile. In the north this is the result of glaciation, with deposits up to one mile (1.7 km) thick, covering the basement rock. To the south and west, the massive Missouri/Mississippi river system has for centuries deposited silt across the plains, creating broad, flat floodplains and deltas. C y AN 13 Hu d s o n St r Great Slave Lake k JU 12 Great Bear Lake tains B o c 11 R N T E R W E S s ountain ast M ka E R I C A N P L AT E AM PA C I F I C P L AT E The Great Plains & Central Lowlands H 10 oun eM T Gu l f o f Al a s s Foxe Basin nzi zi R Co NO an sea level projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area ai k vi d ac pp M Da A k a R an g e Ma c k e as Al en e Al e ut i an R ang n I sl 100m / 328ft tr s Baffi Mackenzie Delta Miss issipp i and 9 Mount McKinley 6194m ge Colo Isl an A k eu an R B af f in B ay P oo s B e r ing S ea a d B eaufor t S ea Br Al ti l ng Strait er i n B n line of cross-section 250m / 820ft N 0 G r e e physiographic regions 500m / 1640ft e s l l n t i A il l e s 50 uncertain 1000m / 3281ft I C N T L A A T 0 conservative 1500m / 4922ft Cross-section through the Western Cordillera showing direction of mountain building. 7 destructive 2000m / 6562ft The Rocky Mountain Trench is the longest linear fault on the continent constructive 3000m / 9843ft 2500m / 8203ft Strata have been thrust eastward along fault lines Volcanic rock nt r A L e s s e E AT AT PL PL AN AN BE IC IB ER K R M CA H A UT E SOUTH AM ERICA L M
  • 36. PHYSICAL NORTH AM ER ICA O P Q R S Climate T U V W X Y Z Climate 1 Nome Resolute Fairbanks daily hours of sunshine, January daily hours of sunshine, July direction of hurricanes tornado zones ᭡ “Tornado alley” in the Mississippi Valley suffers frequent tornadoes. Eismitte le irc cC ct i Ar ice cap tundra subarctic cool continental warm humid semiarid arid humid equatorial tropical North America’s climate includes extremes ranging from freezing Arctic conditions in Alaska and Greenland, to desert in the southwest, and tropical conditions in southeastern Florida, the Caribbean, and Central America. Central and southern regions are prone to severe storms including tornadoes and hurricanes. Ar cti cC irc le N 2 Aklavik Kugluktuk Iqaluit Haines Junction 3 Juneau Fort Vermillon Temperature Churchill Happy Valley - Goose Bay Fort St John Torbay Arctic Circle Vancouver 4 Winnipeg Medicine Hat 60° N Montréal Toronto Boise 40° N Tropic of Cancer Salt Lake City San Francisco 20° N ᭡ Much of the southwest is semi-desert; receiving less than 12 inches (300 mm) of rainfall a year. Sioux City Las Vegas Average January temperature 5 Phoenix Cape Hatteras Atlanta Los Angeles Average July temperature New York Denver Little Rock Temperature -22°F (below -30°C) -22 to -4°F (-30 to -20°C) -4 to 14°F (-20 to -10°C) 14 to 32°F (-10 to 0°C) Rainfall 32 to 50°F (0 to 10°C) 50 to 68°F (10 to 20°C) 68 to 86°F (20 to 30°C) 86°F (above 30°C) Houston Guaymas Tropic o f Cance New Orleans Chihuahua Miami 6 Nassau of Tropic r Cance r Santo Domingo Fort-de-France Mérida Kingston Arctic Circle Acapulco Rainfall 60° N San Salvador 0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) 4–8 in (100–200 mm) 8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) 16–20 in (400–500 mm) more than 20 in (500 mm) 40° N Tropic of Cancer 20° N Average January rainfall San José ᭣ The lush, green mountains of the Lesser Antilles receive annual rainfalls of up to 360 inches (9000 mm). 8 Average July rainfall Shaping the continent Periglaciation Glacial processes affect much of northern Canada, Greenland, and the Western Cordillera. Along the western coast of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, underlying plates moving together lead to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The vast river systems, fed by mountain streams, constantly erode and deposit material along their paths. 9 2 The ground in the far north is nearly always frozen: the surface thaws only in summer. This freeze-thaw process produces features such as pingos (left); formed by the freezing of groundwater. With each successive winter ice accumulates producing a mound with a core of ice. Ice core pushes up ground to form pingo Volcanic activity Unfrozen lake 1 Mount St. Helens volcano (right) in the Cascade Range erupted violently in May 1980, killing 57 people and leveling large areas of forest. The lateral blast filled a valley with debris for 15 miles (25 km). Molten rock at volcano’s core Groundwater attracted to ice core Periglaciation: Formation of a pingo in the Mackenzie Delta Vertical eruption Post-glacial lakes 10 3 A chain of lakes from Great Bear Lake to the Great Lakes (above) was created as the ice retreated northward. Glaciers scoured hollows in the softer lowland rock. Glacial deposits at the lip of the hollows, and ridges of harder rock, trapped water to form lakes. 11 Ice-scoured hollow filled with glacial meltwater to form a lake Retreating glacier The evolving landscape Harder rock creates a barrier between lakes Lateral explosion increases extent of damage 12 Softer lowland rock Landslide fills valley Post-glacial lakes: Formation of the Great Lakes Volcanic activity: Eruption of Mount St Helens 2 Landscape 13 limestone region sinking land stable land uplifting land 14 3 5 The San Andreas Fault (above) places much of the North America’s west coast under constant threat from earthquakes. It is caused by the Pacific Plate grinding past the North American Plate at a faster rate, though in the same direction. Pacific Plate San Andreas Fault Fault is caused by faster movement of Pacific Plate North American Plate Seismic activity: Action of the San Andreas Fault N O active volcano 1 Seismic activity P area of tectonic activity 5 limit of permafrost 6 maximum limit of glaciation ocean current River erosion 6 The Grand Canyon (above) in the Colorado Plateau was created by the downward erosion of the Colorado River, combined with the gradual uplift of the plateau, over the past 30 million years. The contours of the canyon formed as the softer rock layers eroded into gentle slopes, and the hard rock layers into cliffs. The depth varies from 3855–6560 ft (1175–2000 m). Q R Soft rock is easily eroded into gentle slopes Weathering 4 The Yucatan Peninsula is a vast, flat limestone plateau in southern Mexico. Weathering action from both rainwater and underground streams has enlarged fractures in the rock to form caves and hollows, called sinkholes (above). Porous limestone plateau 4 Rainwater erodes porous rock forming sinkholes Hard rock resists erosion 16 Sea level Underground stream further erodes rock Colorado River cuts down through rock Weathering: Water erosion on the Yucatan Peninsula River Erosion: Formation of the Grand Canyon S 15 T U V W X Y 17 Z 3
  • 37. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I Political North America 1 K ASIA A R C T I C Strait ring Be k oo Br s A le 3 Victoria A L A S K A Aleut i an Rang e Anchorage T E R R I T O RY Mount Gulf of Alaska Whitehorse NORT HW E ST T E R R I TOR I E S ains ᭣ This busy suburban interchange in Los Angeles is part of the US’s Interstate freeway system. Construction of the 55,000 mile (88,500 km) freeway network began in the 1950s, and it now connects most major cities, and carries one-fifth of the US’s road traffic. Great Bear Lake nzie 7 cke Y U KO N In the 19th century, railroads opened up the North American continent. Air transportation is now more common for long distance passenger travel, although railroads are still extensively used for bulk freight transportation. Waterways like the Mississippi River are important for the transportation of bulk materials, and the Panama Canal is a vital link between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. In the 20th century, road transportation increased massively, with the introduction of cheap, mass-produced motor cars and extensive highway construction. 6 ge OF AM E R IC A Transportation 5 an U N I T E D STAT E S Ma 4 R B eaufor t S ea Mackenzie Democracy is well established in some parts of the continent but is a recent phenomenon in others. The economically dominant nations of Canada and the US have a long democratic tradition but elsewhere, notably in the countries of Central America, political turmoil has been more common. In Nicaragua and Haiti, harsh dictatorships have only recently been superseded by democratically elected governments. North America’s largest B e r ing u ti countries, Canada, Mexico, and the US have federal state systems, an S ea sharing political power between national and state governments. Is la nd The US has intervened militarily on several occasions in Central s America and the Caribbean to protect its strategic interests. J Juneau Yellowknife Great Slave Lake Lake Athabasca BRITISH C A N COLUM BIA Queen Charlotte Islands Prince George A L B E RTA Edmonton Vancouver Island Saskatoon Calgary Vancouver Victoria SASKATCHEWAN Regina Seattle Olympia Fairbanks Tuktoyaktuk Tacoma WA S H I N G TO N MON TA NA Portland Salem Helena Dutch Harbor Anchorage 9 Eugene OREGON IDAHO Boise W YOM I NG Skagway U N I T E D Hay River Reno Great Salt Lake Salt Lake Cheyenne City do Carson City a Sacramento U TA H Stockton N E V A D A Denver San Jose COLORADO Fresno Salinas Colorado Springs Pueblo C ALIFORN IA Las Vegas Bakersfield Prince Rupert St.John’s Prince George Calgary Vancouver Nanaimo 11 Edmonton Seattle Québec Thunder Bay Winnipeg Sault Ste. Montréal Marie Spokane Portland Duluth Butte Fargo Coos Bay Chicago Toledo San Diego 13 Phoenix Oklahoma City Albuquerque Savannah Jacksonville Mobile New Orleans Orlando Tampa Corpus Christi Chihuahua ia Houston San Antonio Wilmington Charleston Hermosillo rn Chihuahana Atlanta Birmingham El Paso Isla Cedros major roads and highways major railroads major canals international borders transport intersections international airports major ports Nashville Memphis Dallas Transportation Norfolk o lif Ca of ia lf rn Gu fo li Ca Long Beach El Paso Ciudad Juárez r Los Angeles NEW MEXICO Tucson Detroit Newark Washington DC Saint Louis Miami Durango Mazatlán Monterrey 14 Santa Fe Albuquerque Phoenix Mexicali New York Philadelphia Baltimore A M ARIZONA San Diego Tijuana Toronto Kansas City Denver Boston O F Simi Valley Riverside we Oakland San Francisco Los Angeles Lo Sioux Falls Cheyenne Omaha Salt Lake City 12 Halifax Oceanside Albany Minneapolis St.John Colo r Santa Rosa Oakland San Francisco 10 ME Havana Mazatlán San Juan Guadalajara Tampico Mérida Kingston Mexico City Manzanillo 15 Manzanillo Toluca Coatzacoalcos Salina Cruz San Salvador Guatemala City Corinto 16 H AWA I I Moloka‘i SCALE 1:12,000,000 ᭣ Low-density housing developments such as this one on the outskirts of Phoenix, Arizona, reflect the US’s abundance of land and a dispersed population, dependent on the car for personal mobility. IF C D E F G IC Km 0 0 50 100 50 150 OC 200 100 Maui Lana‘i Kaho‘olawe C 4 B PA A Kaua‘i UNITED STATES Ni‘ihau O‘ahu OF AMERICA Honolulu ᭡ The 40 mile (65 km) long Panama Canal cuts through the Isthmus of Panama, a narrow strip of land connecting North and South America. Opened in 1914, the canal reduced the journey between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by almost 8000 nautical miles (14,800 km). 17 Panama Canal Balboa Panama City 150 EA Hawai‘i N 200 Miles H I J K L M
  • 38. POLITICAL NORTH AMERICA S U V W Z N A C E O T 1 E S K I M Ellesmere Island A T Language groups Greenland Baffi Island Da vi s S 2 F R E N G 1 million to 5 million ai d L I S EN L abrador S ea GL 10,000 to 50,000 ISH /SP below 10,000 State / Province capital AN IS H FRENCH/ ENGLISH U AZ TOTECAN Country capital ENGLISH/ SPANISH Lake Michigan SOUTH DA KOTA WI SCONSI N i our Miss Minneapolis A Augusta Montpelier VERMONT NEW HAMPSHIRE Lake Ontario Albany Rochester Oshawa Toronto Hamilton NEW YORK E MAIN E Concord Boston MASSACHUSETTS Lansing nt ou N M n ia Amarillo Lubbock Dallas Shreveport T E X A S Columbus Jacksonville Tallahassee Mobile Orlando New Orleans Tampa de an Gr Rio Mississippi Delta Corpus Christi Saint Petersburg FLORIDA Fort Lauderdale Miami BA HA MAS HAVANA Mexico Santa Clara Yucatan Peninsula HONDURAS GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR MANAGUA Scale 1:28,000,000 0 100 300 200 400 500 (to Neth.) (to Neth.) SOUTH PANAMA ᭤ Mexico City is one of the world’s largest and highest cities. Fresh water supplies are dwindling, while air pollution regularly creates thick smog. 600 P 16 PANAMA CITY projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area O TRINIDAD & TOBAGO PORT-OF-SPAIN 15 Miles N below 25 25–124 125–259 260–649 650–1300 above 1300 AMERICA COSTA RICA 200 300 400 500 600 e ll t i An 14 (people per sq mile) ST LUCIA BARBADOS ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES GRENADA Bonaire Curaçao Lake Nicaragua SAN JOSÉ Km Population density Martinique (to France) (to Neth.) TEGUCIGALPA SAN SALVADOR NICARAGUA GUATEMALA CITY 100 e r Aruba L e s s Sea San Pedro Sula 11 DOMINICA ST KITTS & NEVIS SANTO Caribbean BELMOPAN Acapulco HAITI KINGSTON BELIZE Villahermosa 10 Guadeloupe (to France) G r DOMINGO Montserrat (to UK) e a PORT-AU-PRINCE Cayman Islands t e Navassa Island (to US) (to UK) r A n t i l l e s JAMAICA Mérida 9 ANTIGUA & BARBUDA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SAN JUAN Santiago de Cuba Tampico San Luis Potosí León Irapuato Querétaro Morelia MEXICO CITY Toluca Puebla 8 I n d i e s W e s t Turks & Caicos Puerto Rico Islands (to UK) (to US) Guantanamo Bay (to US) C U BA X ICO I British Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (to US) (to UK) Anguilla (to UK) NASSAU Gulf of Monterrey 0 Savannah Montgomery Jackson Baton Rouge Houston San Antonio SOUTH C A ROL INA GEORGIA ALABAMA LOUI SI ANA Austin Columbia Atlanta Birmingham MISSISSIPPI Fort Worth pa TENNESSEE Memphis A T L A Tulsa A R K A N S AS Oklahoma City OKLAHOMA Little Rock EOLE Much of North America is almost empty, especially the frozen far north. Population densities are highest in the highlands of Mexico and Central America; the coastal plain stretching from the Gulf of Mexico along the Atlantic coast; the Great Lakes area; and the Pacific coast. Large conurbations have developed, notably the San-San (San Francisco–San Diego), Boswash (Boston– Washington), and Main Street (Toronto– Montréal). The populations of the Caribbean islands are small, but settlement is dense, due to the limited amount of land available. ch Ar k a n s a s Ap Miss issipp i la E R I C A CR N Population T ain s S TAT E S Milwaukee Madison Chicago I C Sioux Falls A Providence RHODE ISLAND Hartford CONNECTICUT Buffalo Newark Lake Erie New York Detroit PENNSYLVANIA Trenton Cleveland NEW JERSEY Toledo Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh Baltimore Des Moines Dover DELAWARE OH IO I O W A Davenport NEBRASKA Annapolis INDIANA Omaha Columbus ILLINOIS WASHINGTON DC Lincoln Cincinnati WEST MARYLAND Springfield VIRGINIA Indianapolis Richmond Charleston Kansas City Topeka VIRGINIA Saint Louis hio Norfolk Frankfort O Louisville K A N S A S Jefferson City Evansville KENTUCKY MISSOURI Wichita Raleigh NORTH Springfield C A ROL INA Nashville Charlotte Pierre ᭡ Land in northern Canada has been set aside for Inuit reserves, allowing the Inuit and other Native American groups to maintain their traditional practices and culture. s MICHIGAN Halifax O OTTAWA Bismarck NOVA SCOTIA C aw ren ce Lake Huron St. L Lake Superior M I N N E S O TA Saint Paul N Charlottetown Montréal NORTH DAKOTA (to France) NEW BRUNSWICK Fredericton OLE C The three major official languages of North America are of European origin, brought by settlers in the 16th century. In Canada, French and English are spoken; in the US, English is the main language, with large Spanish-speaking areas in the southwest; Mexicans are Spanish-speaking; while the Caribbean islands use French, English, and Spanish as well as the hybrid Creole tongues. In isolated areas, languages of the indigenous peoples still exist, such as Inuit in the far north of the continent. St Pierre & Miquelon Québec CRE Languages Newfoundland ON TA R IO Y S PA St.John’s PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND FRENCH H SH Reindeer Lake Thunder Bay A NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABR AD OR QU É BE C IS N M state border Lake Winnipeg GL OLE Hud son B ay EN RE S PA N I S H full international border Winnipeg E 100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 t rait MANITOBA 3 H C N H Borders A D A N 500,000 to 1 million t Hu d s o n S L E U T ALGONQUI above 5 million NUUK Iqaluit (Frobisher Bay) N U N AV U T A A B A S C A N Population n Foxe Basin - Map key tr n I sla American Indian Germanic Romance Eskimo-Aleut Uninhabited (to Denmark) B af f in B ay H O Q R S T U V W 17 X Y Z 5
  • 39. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J North American resources 1 K L M Standard of living The US and Canada have one of the highest overall standards of living in the world. However, many people still live in poverty, especially in urban ghettos and some rural areas. Central America and the Caribbean are markedly poorer than their wealthier northern neighbors. Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere. The two northern countries of Canada and the US are richly endowed with natural resources that have helped to fuel economic development. The US is the world’s largest economy, although today it is facing stiff competition from the Far East. Mexico has relied on oil revenues but there are hopes that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), will encourage trade growth with Canada and the US. The poorer countries of Central America and the Caribbean depend largely on cash crops and tourism. Standard of living 3 ᭣ After its purchase from Russia in 1867, Alaska’s frozen lands were largely ignored by the US. Oil reserves similar in magnitude to those in eastern Texas were discovered in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 1968. Freezing temperatures and a fragile environment hamper oil extraction. Industry The modern, industrialized economies of the US and Canada contrast sharply with those of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Manufacturing is especially important in the US; vehicle production is concentrated around the Great Lakes, while electronic and hi-tech industries are increasingly found in the western and southern states. Mexico depends on oil exports and assembly work, taking advantage of cheap labor. Many Central American and Caribbean countries rely heavily on agricultural exports. 4 5 6 RUSS. FED. Be 7 r in tr gS high low N A C E O A R C T I C ait (UN human development index) B eaufor t B e r ing Greenland B af f in S ea Prudhoe Bay (to Denmark) B ay S ea USA L abrador Gulf of Alaska 9 Hu d s on S t S ea rai t ᭡ Fish such as cod, flounder, and plaice are caught in the Grand Banks, off the Newfoundland coast, and processed in many North Atlantic coastal settlements. Hud son B ay 10 C A N A D A A N Montréal C Cleveland Phoenix Atlanta Birmingham Dallas O Ciudad Juárez El Paso New Orleans C Tampa E A C UBA Cayman Islands Guadalajara (to UK) D DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Montserrat (to UK) Guadeloupe (to France) San Juan Navassa Island (to US) GUATEMALA Guatemala City ST KITTS & NEVIS ANTIGUA & BARBUDA Caribbean Sea HONDURAS Lesser Aruba DOMINICA Martinique (to France) ST LUCIA BARBADOS ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES l GRENADA ti A n TRINIDAD & Port-of-Spain TOBAGO (to Neth.) Curaçao (to Neth.) Tegucigalpa Bonaire (to Neth.) VENEZUELA A EL SALVADOR San Salvador NICARAGUA E F G M Panama City LO San José BI Managua PANAMA CO industrial cities major industrial areas (to UK) Port-au-Prince Santo Domingo G r e a t e JAMAICA r A n t i l l e s BELIZE below 1999 2000–4999 5000–9999 10,000–19,999 20,000–24,999 above 25,000 coal oil gas C HAITI Mexico City GNI per capita (US$) I n d i e s British Virgin Islands Anguilla (to UK) (to US) MEXICO N printing & publishing research & development shipbuilding sugar processing textiles timber processing tobacco processing Turks & Caicos Islands (to UK) Puerto Rico BAHAMAS Havana COSTA RICA 6 W e s t Virgin Islands (to US) Gulf of Mexico Monterrey Industry B Orlando Miami 15 A ᭡ The health of the Wall Street stock market in New York is the standard measure of the state of the world’s economy. Jacksonville le s C Charlotte Tulsa Houston ᭡ Multinational companies rely on cheap labor and tax benefits to facilitate the assembly of vehicle parts in Mexican factories. T N Greensboro Nashville A T L A I Saint Louis Wichita Tijuana Philadelphia Cincinnati Kansas City I C F Denver San Diego 17 New York Detroit Pittsburgh Baltimore Dayton A M E R I C A Los Angeles 14 Milwaukee Chicago O F Albany Buffalo I S T AT E S O C U N I T E D 13 16 Boston Toronto Minneapolis San Francisco aerospace brewing car/vehicle manufacture chemicals defense electronics engineering film industry finance food processing hi-tech industry iron & steel pharmaceuticals A Winnipeg Portland ᭡ South of San Francisco, “Silicon Valley” is both a national and international center for hi-tech industries, electronic industries, and research institutions. 12 Calgary Seattle E P Vancouver 11 K L M
  • 40. NORTH AMERICAN RESOURCES N O P Q R T S U V W X Y Environmental issues Mineral resources Many fragile environments are under threat throughout the region. In Haiti, all the primary rain forest has been destroyed, while air pollution from factories and cars in Mexico City is among the worst in the world. Elsewhere, industry and mining pose threats, particularly in the delicate arctic environment of Alaska where oil spills have polluted coastlines and decimated fish stocks. Fossil fuels are exploited in considerable quantities throughout the continent. Coal mining in the Appalachians is declining but vast open pits exist further west in Wyoming. Oil and natural gas are found in Alaska, Texas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Canadian West. Canada has large quantities of nickel, while Jamaica has considerable deposits of bauxite, and Mexico has large reserves of silver. N E A O C B af f in B ay L abrador S ea Gulf of Alaska Sacr E A C A E Fraser N o C O AT L AN TI C O ᭡ In addition to fossil fuels, North America is also rich in exploitable metallic ores. This vast, mile-deep (1.6 km) pit is a copper mine in New Mexico. N N Gulf of Mexico A A Mexico City 6 E Havana C Gr E Gulf of Mexico de C anoke Ro Ri o an I A Houston C poor urban air quality i nsas Red Rive r Phoenix Oh 5 F rka q New York i N I n Jo a uin Los Angeles San Diego dson Hu re D e l aw a Pla e tt sso Denver ur i Saint Louis O heavy marine pollution Sa marine pollution C radioactive contamination en am to Hamilton Chicago M I polluted rivers James F risk of desertification Montréal Sudbury Columbia desert 4 Hud son B ay Vancouver I forest destroyed L abrador S ea Gulf of Alaska Hud son B ay Mi s s i s s i ppi Alabam a tropical forest son Nel B af f in B ay P A C risk of acid rain P A C national parks 2 O Environmental issues bauxite copper gold iron lead nickel phosphates silver uranium 3 B eaufor t S ea B e r ing S ea 1 oil field gas field coal field N EA O C A R C T I C B eaufor t S ea B e r ing S ea Mineral resources A T L A N T I C A R C T I C Z Caribbean Sea Caribbean Sea 8 A R C T I C Strait S ea B ay ge ac k zi tain s oun eM Hu d s on S Hud son B ay y Lo we li nd Gra Rio Ca fo Houston San Antonio Monterrey Gulf of Mexico ia E R N A E C IC T Tampa Mississippi Delta Miami e rn C Q N Jacksonville Austin r O P O ns ntai ou M Dallas El Paso N Guadalajara Havana 13 14 15 San Juan 16 Santo Domingo Yucatan Península Mexico City 12 cattle goats pigs poultry reindeer sheep bananas citrus fruits coffee corn cotton fishing fruit maple syrup peanuts rice shellfish soybeans sugar cane timber tobacco vineyards wheat AT L A Tucson n Co l Phoenix Ottawa ri ou s C Los Angeles San Diego s Boston Saint Paul Toronto Cape Cod Buffalo Minneapolis New York Milwaukee Detroit Cleveland Miss Toledo Philadelphia Chicago Pittsburgh Baltimore Washington DC Columbus Indianapolis io Cincinnati Kansas Oh Louisville City Saint Louis Ar ia Nashville ka Charlotte nsa s Tulsa Memphis Oklahoma City Atlanta i n s P l a i n I Albuquerque Québec Montréal ch t a F Denver ke la n I do ora t L a pa u C Sacramento Oakland San Jose Grea Ap t e a G r o P A Portland Winnipeg St L aw ren ce Calgary M Seattle ᭣ The Great Plains support large-scale arable farming throughout central North America. Corn is grown in a belt south and west of the Great Lakes, while farther west where the climate is drier, wheat is grown. O cropland forest ice cap mountain region pasture tundra wetland desert major conurbations k Vancouver 11 Using the land and sea Newfoundland A N S ea t Edmonton San Francisco ᭣ Sugar cane is Cuba’s main agricultural crop, and is grown and processed throughout the Caribbean. Fermented sugar is used to make rum. t rai 10 ᭡ In agriculturally marginal areas where the soil is either too poor, or the climate too dry for crops, cattle ranching proliferates – especially in Mexico and the western reaches of the Great Plains. L abrador c R o Using the land and sea enzie en Gulf of Alaska Abundant land and fertile soils stretch from the Canadian prairies to Texas creating North America’s agricultural heartland. Cereals and cattle ranching form the basis of the farming economy, with corn and soybeans also important. Fruit and vegetables are grown in California using irrigation, while Florida is a leading producer of citrus fruits. Caribbean and Central American countries depend on cash crops such as bananas, coffee, and sugar cane, often grown on large plantations. This reliance on a single crop can leave these countries vulnerable to fluctuating world crop prices. 9 Ma c k M Al e ut i a n R a ng e B af f in S ea an l d oo sR n n Br B eaufor t k B e r ing ip p i ring A E Miss i ss Be O C a ᭡ Wild bison graze in Yellowstone National Park, the world’s first national park. Designated in 1872, geothermal springs and boiling mud are among its natural spectacles, making it a major tourist attraction. G r e e N Caribbean Sea Guatemala City S T U 17 Managua X Y Z 7
  • 41. NORTH AMERICA F G H I J K d n E C I h t O Wha Ti Edzo Ellice Bu rn sid e W E R S I E Garry Lake Sl a Aylmer elon Lake ton-Colden Lake Clin S Hanbur y Dubawnt Lake Îutselk’e (Snowdrift) ak ve L Sn o d r i f t w e Fort Resolution Pine Point Taltso n t Gre a T Nonacho Lake Thoa A Wholdaia Lake Fort Smith Steen River Uranium City Ca rib ou Mo untai ns eace Fort Chipewyan P Peace ha ga ills Lake Athabasca Lake Claire h Birc tains n Mou D on att O O min nt a y Finla ou M Fort Vermilion Willi am Ma cFa rlan e High Leve l Aberdeen Lake Reliance Yellowknife Trutch H ar m Duba wnt T I Hay River Chinc ulf Th H Slave n Moun Fontas 2942m t Sylvia M au d G k i t Kasba Lake Selwyn Lake Phelps Lake Black Lake Wollaston Lake Cree T kn ife sto ne Porcu pin Pr in R Hay Ra mpa r ts M ou nt ain ER AM A) OF SK ES LA AT (A ST ED AT O LA C N E A IT UN G A Hy lan d Coal S U IC Ro ss R Bistcho Lake Fort N elson nd Sou eel ck ee n Back N t Trou Petitot Be to O R Fort Sim pson Fort Pro vidence Fort Lia rd t For na s M tn E Lac La M artre er av Be Y M i l L a r se n Sound i Pen Hood ne Lake rn Ho ain s ar Stikine Mou 2787 nt Edziz m a Mou Will nt 2515 War e m Sustu t Pea k 2470 m a K Co pp e Willowlak e Nels o Coron Kugluk (Copperm tuk ine) an y Cambridge Ba (Ikaluktutiak) Lind ny Jen Qu Island lf G u Kent la nsu n tio t Inle T Liard Moun Roose t 2972mvelt Stra it L ake Ec ho Bay Takijuq B ear N Tung sten ssi Sk ake Ca Tele g ra ph C reek Mou nt Un i on Hottah Lake h an Wats on L ake Lowe r Pos t at Vic tor ia Island A unt K T Mes zah e Pe Deas 2164ak De a m L se d Re Wrigle y So re nzie Macke Mo C Sim 2173pson Pea m k tain s o u n h Na ni ut eM wyn Atli Atlin n u Lake ak R 313 atz 6m zi Sel Wh 880 ite Pass m Keele Ch ine rm P en e Snak Bonnet Mou nt M ur Tesl 2162ray in m Fort (Rád Good Ho eyilik p óé) e Norm an W ell Délìn s e Tulit a Kee 2972le Peak m Mt H 2743unt m ee The majority of Canada’s agricultural land is found in the prairies, which cover 140 million acres (57 million ha) and support wheat and grain-fed cattle. More specialized crops, such as fruit and vegetables, are grown in pockets of agricultural land in the east and west. Of Canada’s many islands, only Prince Edward Island has notable farmland. Further north, boreal forests, exploited for timber, run in an almost unbroken arc, giving way to uncultivable tundra and ice sheets in the far north. 11 iteh ors e t a s C o Using the land and sea Teslin In recent years the road network has been expanded, especially links to remote areas. Meanwhile, for long-distance travel, air transportation now supersedes the declining rail network, which focuses mainly on east–west routes. R OM 1864 miles (3000 km) eak 2 190 Ais m hih ik L Car ake ma cks Far Yu o Klu ane Lak Lak e e La Ha berg t Jun ines e ns ctio n Wh ly Pel 8049 miles (12,995 km) Mo unt L 595 ogan 9m kon 10,500 miles (16,900 km) e ng Ra on g ws Nislin 10 309,019 miles (497,375 km) M YU ac Ken K O k oH TE il l N RR l Stewartume Ma Da I T yo Gle OR nlyo nP Y Da ws on Mountains Elias int Sa 9 Transportation network P A C I F I C aerospace car manufacture chemicals engineering food processing hi-tech industry hydroelectric power oil & gas mining timber processing capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas White Major industry and infrastructure IC N P f P ri n ce o Wa le s Is la n d Zeta Lake rst thu Ba T rt Ha Toronto ES OF AMERICA n D S TAT es P r in ce Al be r t Pe ni n su la Rae Hare Ind ian Resolute) ittuq (Qausu M Passage ount Point Vi s c Stefansson ait Island Peel Point Str Bluenose Lake C ITE Halifax Montréal OTTAWA o Yuk Thunder Bay Peel Hor ton Regina 8 Québec St. John Winnipeg I s l a Bathurst Island Pa r r y C h a n n e l Wollaston Peninsula lp hin & Paulatu k ath rnw Ca Vancouver er Arctic Red Riv Calgary Saskatoon Victoria e r ve Ri Eagle Edmonton Cir cle al ds nell Grin sula Penin e lv i l l e S o u n d Do St. John's O Porcu ld Cro pine w d Lougheed Island Melville Island C se Parr n G Wollastape Hol y on man ulf Frank lin Cap e Lyon Bay Prince Albert Sound aday Horn Hu d s on Bay Arc tic un Cape Tuk toya ktu k Eski Lak mo es Inu Ak l v avik ik For tM cPh Tsi erson (Ar igehtch ctic i Red c Riv er) Sachs (Ikaa Harbour huk) d Amun ss Ringned lan Is lin C A N A D A r S ea e Ba thur st e And rson do Ca Kelle pe tt Prince Gustaf Adolf Mackenzie Sea King Island M’C 16 Ban I s l a nk s d Am bra Her sch el Is Ma lan cke d Bay nzie Rich ard s o Mountain n s C PA C I F I OCEAN La Yellowknife 7 au f Se ort a Cap B ri ti sh s in Mo u nta Whitehorse UN Be Ellef Ringness Island E ay ley B Had n B ay Sverdrup Is lan it ffi Tliz r y P a r ra Thomsen Ba e C b rin Alfre ce d 5 A e e ᭣ Canada has one of the u Prince world’s highest rates of energy Q Patrick Land consumption per person. It is Island s End endowed with vast hydroelectric potential from which more M' than 60% of its electricity Cl ur Ca requirements are generated. eS P pe t Abundant energy in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, and hydroelectric power underpins Canadian industry. Over 75% of manufacturing is concentrated in the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence region, including prospering aerospace, transportation, and hi-tech industries. Across Canada as a whole, manufacturing has developed around a diversified, high-quality resource base and a wide range of metallic and nonmetallic minerals. IC CT AR AN CE O Rn A Transportation and industry 4 l Axe rg e ibe H an d Is l a I C Yello w 3 Cape y Stallworth W 2 O Canada is the second largest country in the world, and with only about onetenth of its land area inhabited, it is one of the most sparsely populated. Canada became a confederation in 1867, though Newfoundland did not join until 1949. As a founding member of the UN and of the Commonwealth, Canada has played an important role in international affairs. A constitutional crisis, focusing on the French-speaking Québécois, and Inuit, and Native American land rights, dominated politics in the 1990s. In 1999, part of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, became a self-governing homeland for the Inuit. 196 l a ᭣ The Selwyn Mountains in northwestern Canada form part of the Rocky Mountains. The highest point, Keele Peak, rises to 9750 ft (2972 m). s Canada 1 L N E s D A C of B ce A Wollaston Lake Ath Smo Beaver t T A sca P ri l AT L OC AN EA T N 30 40 50 60 70 80 Population density Total land area 9 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km) 90 3,559,294 sq miles (9,220,970 sq km) A B 100 cattle cereals fishing fruit timber capital cities major towns C D E F G H s UNIT E D S TAT E S O F ᭣ The climate and topography of the prairies makes them ideally suited to farming. Long summer days, moderate temperatures, limited rainfall, and flat plains provide excellent conditions for wheat farming. pasture cropland forest wetland mountain region barren tundra Calgary n 20 16 i 10 S N ntain s u Mo a ia I mb Ca lu A Co Edmonton Sa A S N U e a G r n ero U Vanco uver Land use and agricultural distribution rural 23% I C t ar 0 8 s urban 77% 17 Mtn The urban/rural population divide 16 Ca m eca ds 15 in s it Stra an PAC I F I C O C E A N 14 n s t a i u n M o e Hecat l te Is Qu N e e n C h ar l ot E A O C 13 s Nas Willis S A S K A T C H E WA N Fort C l e to Manning Takla Cap Reindeer Cree Lake Wa Lake n St.John e KnDixon r bas Lake Seve Lake wate Turnor Lake A L B ca ox Clear Entr n Sis basca Peak Prin anc a Peace E s 275 ters ce R e Terrac T A Fort Peace Rive R La Loche 5m u e r Mack Dawso Smit Gra Ma pert Desmarais McMurray enzie Churchill Lake hers s h High Uti Creek n ky IC eena H Isla am set Sentin Pinehouse Lake ill CT KitSk oust el Peak nd Prairie kuma Lake Peter Pond Buffalo AR AN imat on ch Grande Lesser Slave Lake Ba Narrows Missinipe Chur Fort S2515m CE Lake O ffi Valleyview Vand t.Jam Prairie Lac La Ronge n B Ootsa es erho Stu Slave Lake Prin La Ronge Mor Primrose Lake of ay Lake ce Prin Roy ss Isla esby Athabasca Swan Hills nd Deschambault Islan al B R I ce George Cold Lake Cold Lake d 192 Lake Westlock Ocea Grand Centre COL TISH Grande n Fa Barrhead Montreal Lake an lls King UM Meadow Lake w Cache Edson Spruce Morinville a Islan Whitehorse he Bell Que BI ab d Grove atc F r a s e A Quesnel Co o a Prince St.Walburg Ath Hin Char en Rivers In sk la ton La let lo Albert Plate r bra Lloydminster Leduc Soun tte Mount Sir Nipawin Rocky do au Mona d Camrose r S Wilfrid La rs Inlet 3533mrch Mounta Willia North Battleford urier 3505 Mountain iveM ea Wetaskiwin Wainwright bo le ms m C A N A D A Port R in House ount Melfort Tisda Battleford oM Cape H Wadd Lake Moun Lacombe ingto Scott ardy tns Martensville n ttle Kicking Queent Red Deer Unity 4016m Hu d s on Ba Bess Saskatoon yard Horse Pass 3313m Bay eer Lanigan Wyn Olds Biggar 1627m Red D C Clinto n Vanc ampbell Riv Wedg St. John's Drumheller Rosetown Outlook e Mou Lillooet ouve er Banff trous Wa Chase Edmonton Golden ntain Kindersley 2891m Ly tt Islan r Courte Oyen Vancouver Calgary Saskatoon on nay Squ K d Invermer Charlottetown Lake Diefenbaker Fort Qu'Appelle Victoria e Merriamloops amish tt Okotoks St. John North Lumsden High River Québec Vernon Winnipeg Travers Nana Regina Halifax Swift Current Vanco imo Kelown Thunder Bay Fort Reservoir uver Moose Jaw Crowsnest Pas Regina Montréal UN s Macleod OTTAWA Rich Redcliff Medicine Hat IC Penticto a m ITE Old Wives Lake Weyburn n Ki berley 1356m D S Esquim mond Lethbridge TAT alt ll s boia i Toronto Assini ES OF Castlegar Cran AMERICA n Cy press H brook Pincher Creek d MtRockglen Val Marie Victor Milk River Woo Cardston ia 12 I Scale 1:13,250,000 Km 0 25 50 0 25 100 50 150 200 100 250 150 300 350 200 250 300 350 Miles projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area J K L M
  • 42. pe Ca ecla H N O RT H A M E R I CA : CANADA P GREE ak Pe eau rb 6m Ba 61 2 r D A N) k ma A C Ice S T 196 of nce Pri ales d W fiel Ice S ou n d s De Is von on DevCap Ice n st ca ound er S g e nt e Re r deu Bro s u l a in Pe n inc d rar She Q B a f f i n i k den B or sula in Pe n rset S ome Is la n d X Y Top layer thaws in the summer 1 Marginal areas of permafrost thaw in summer Unfrozen ground where temperature is more moderate ᭡ Along the northeastern coast of Baffin Island the mountains rise to 8000 ft (2440 m). Glaciers move down through the valleys to the sea, eroding wide U-shaped valleys. Exposure to three phases of mountain-building and subsequent erosion over millions of years has molded the ancient Canadian Shield into a series of basins and ridges. Fertile prairies stretch The Mackenzie river, flowing north from the southern rim over the permafrost, forms a wide of the Canadian Shield, river channel with many tributaries. south into the US. Together with the Peel river it has created a long, narrow delta at its mouth. The entire river freezes during the winter. Great Bear Lake 2 3 i q t a B a y r ate pe K Ca enry H e a B af fin rd ffo Gi Davis St ra q m Ho Bay l u ch Hantzs Gu Pr pe Ca l an d In l e t La W nd Rowley es V Permanently d ior se F q) Gri usuitu (A n Jo U ᭤ Permanently frozen ground frozen ground known as permafrost is common in Canada’s northern tundra. It thickens farther north, becoming hundreds of yards deep in parts of the Arctic. Glaciers on islands in the Arctic Ocean are the last remnants of the ice sheet that once covered and shaped Canada. Hudson Bay is the center of the Canadian Shield, a huge, eroded plateau marked at its southern extremity by a string of lakes running southeastward from Great Bear Lake to the Great Lakes. In contrast to the rolling relief of the Shield and the central lowland region, the Rocky Mountains rise to peaks of over 13,000 ft (4000 m), stretching 500 miles (800 km) along the west coast. NL ere sm d le El slan I gassizap R The landscape en (to D ke La azen H Q k a pe ju d) Ca yer nd tar n iq sla ik n I rla la g D Q to be u n gh m in s irtu ou Br Cu e n angn ( P P it The Great Lakes lie on the Canada–US border. The basins they now occupy were fashioned by repeated ice advance. At one time, Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan formed a single large lake, Lake Nipissing. The Rocky Mountains were formed some 80 million years ago, when the Pacific plate was driven under the North American plate, forcing up the land. Is la lf The St. Lawrence River is 2350 miles (3782 km) nd Isla long. It flows from the western shore of Lake unk ley s M nd w Superior through the Great Lakes and on to Jen sla Ro I lik ce ot thi a o h the Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Cu m b e r l a n d S o Boo For e Iglo hi e ac und i n c l e s Air sland cle sula ll B Lemie the St. Lawrence Seaway freezes between a ir P r ar I Ha ux I e Pe n i n cC h nd yoakBay) Cap pman c ti sla Lake Ontario and Montréal. C la Talo nce Ar g nd Cha Is ak s llin ke e (Spe e tti dju l mitt Ne La al ula d ma e Com ay g ᭤ The Great Lakes are drained by Kin n A k M H ns aruk B La ille Kuga Bay) La cKeand ks the St. Lawrence River which William y elv ul a es ni an d (Pell Lo Wal nd M it wm s nd Pe lan flows down through a wide Isla Is in Bo ay alu ) Isla B Frob i s h e r Iq Bay Pe n ion Haven B ay tectonic depression. It forms a Gjoa lut er Me t a In c o tuuq) sh g nita ay ula (Uqsuq eso B broad estuary for much of its d r bi R ins ds nd ulse slan cheste ro t Pe n i n s u l a t an Isla Rep rt I (F Hay r course, the width varying from 1.2 Pen iru r) rse Isl itta pe Do es k oxe d Do ans on line mmbou F n V miles (1.9 km) in the upper reaches e t Ca pe Ki ar nc ut Kil sla Ca bur y Fox va B gI to 90 miles (145 km) at its mouth. eH is T Bi Ad ak eC Sal and es (L U han n op Isl tok V nel pto p H qtaq kpa d Wag m ur er Bay Ca ua A lan N A es tha rb o Q arl Is aq N U va Ch sland S o u Is l a n dCoraliH)a jju I am ck lu q Ba ga y ik al l ua s nghland i i s (S n le ov ott Is iq q’ nta in da kk U B a con Evan s N ng Na itu Na pe Ma ik ac S t ra i t l Ka L o jiv le H rfa s Ivu su a Gy land les Ge ake in ake Is euil Baker L é n gav ape Baker L aq) r C ll F P A w nittu ux da ape Lo Chest Un (Qama ca ne l erfie Ken C d’ La nse ld In Pay Ri er ND t Ma land ac ts let v iè k L Inle th iv Coand re à Is rfield or R LA la B Cheste N est nlet Isla alei kin I D OR W ne Ran Ka n ls ey ove UN AD al Vall Bay Lac c ale C aq) F d Wh arju ll y e Yathkyed lou lle FO BR awa oo Cani hi p os sia (Tikir vi Ott ands apisc Lake llw oir urc ap Go W ALittle M er Tas au Isl eca eff ma serv Ch H l NE & L h n tin S e t Sc to il a e Rivi o Poin R nto C hu r c h ng r Eskim Mi k r i ur iè k c at na ar rbo jua n) La r viat A b k H a au iko Ta Inu riso ke l’ E H At ac ar La eph cà La Tha-Anne L tH La ire Jos a ac ville Por ( er L en Cl ipi rn ok Thlewiaza e an e Bi Nueltin ti vièr Co Bro os ir d au shu e re e Ri ine q Lake vo Petit Bale lua tic ier ty M A Lak iki ser isc ois Ci t-P de la An Ré niap San ie ini Lake -S l C rador d’ Nejanil ow re Ca urchil sc Ch av Île b on r up Cape H aa gn iviè Seal E La an er Ga chill rande R pik Chur elchnds ara ine) es ir B a a jju le vo -Îl Lake e l ine Cabot B cocane Kuula-Ba er pt Tadoule Isl ser an y s d le rtm rti Se Ré ouag o atna e) deStrait e Ba Île ade Po nier s-Ca é Na ape T steorg ic e C c e M É Lac Ge (Po n la y qu asp an M c d rt M G ne to M lan t Ja G Se (Fo vern re d g Is on dian Lake South ibi t Se U au M 268m pé Sy e B thern In Lon For sas i e i Sou p d ca 1 s Ch CE D d et ssin om ina wn ar n Ca slan Ga ton raqu RIN AR sta Q -C s Op waka ga Eastmai to w dw Mi Waskaio n Baie ont ane e I Go ac ell Ca st P DW NDe E tte sgo ac ake L e L ds L r lo Lynn Lake pb E A c a s-M Mat n Gillam isk m hu m ISL Prinand har ids ua Gl Betsiamites e-de ert Win Leaf Rap no ke Ca on Bat atha w n Rup Isl C Split La Ma iski de h Ne An li Lake let m c r e C re Granville Thompson Ca id ia rst Aki nd Ste t-Joi viè Mt 0m Ri W I C K ers ShedAmhe o on k n Islaon 2 m ns M ous Ekwa skat n8 n ur x Eva lt d oo N E S WSum a r B u r nt w m pi sto Tr lifa Lake Lac Ri ChaIslan ganish ) n t-Je awa nd Ha au rout cS a rt fax Att s Lake e U N oncto cto n mu up am La imi Big T ask Rupe rd Lak God den o g o Nottaw t isk Oxfo ali Wabow t Ed ou -L lls B R Sachig For y W ort M omo t Joh sor Win e Hater Fa cou ère e-du e hib on (F y ton i an C Mols d K Lak Creigh Ha Lak on Or ain ind w Ch qui vièr Alb tor an r ri S W ict ge Lake uin Fac c Gr rn er id Jon Ri -Paul Go ose Br B A Island Lake e t Mo oir St-Mau red S F i T O erv rice ieam A e mi s Ba urg Rés M A N I tag y Lak aga rge Ma bo ake e Lake Sand Caribou Kes Lake The Pas Lake kat L andy c ivièresSt-Geo qu arles S Cedar Tu h North Lake Attawapis ébe R I O C La Poplar a bi os ir Grand k biti Am orand Qu Trois- ndville e rvo th go A R ran Lac A ése onga ou Rapids N O i r R ch rst p e Berens mo rm ine Co gam uyn d'O Cab Hea N T Ya no um up ls alRo g r V s O t Lake rc Ke c g me D g min Po Hil Swan River asin gla heTrou stron érô l d usk Tim 64 Lon Arm gat ts St-J ava ear Lake eph ville Kap -A Mon L isk ervoiris e ldy ypsum s Ba G Jo Ste esw L Rés ozo L ak Seul St. e Canora Mountain Ne d Lake n D awa ed Lak lls Lac and R l o 831m n a kout ale e t irk in ur y Kip Ot Ear F Nipig Eriksd Gimli atho eye K x Loo unta rok esb t Lac ay Siou Fol gon Mar Top Mo Yorkton Dauphin mb wk e awa ma Nipi th B issing Pe Ha Tip m Lak i yden oga r Dr G Riding m Selkirk No e Nip es 640 a 's aga Lac d s Lacs rr y Mountain Lake ra Waw g Tem Lak Ba y Bay ille hs Elevation Population innipe Keno Eagle e eine Mille y Minnedosa Prairie Hali ckv nder Ba Smit lls W bach bur to Thu bur Bro ola Lak Portage la n Highla Fa Stein n 1 million to 5 million ault arie Sud Espan Burk’sls okan Rainy S .M nd s Atik d sto al le Brandon Carman n g F Carly Ste ey Winkler Su p e r i o r Sou e 6000m / 19,686ft Kin 500,000 to 1 million n ods Killarn ke ian Parr y mco ouli the WoRainy River Fortnces Melita org e Si o iver nit La Lake of Fra 100,000 to 500,000 d R Ma Island Ge Bay Lak h a ari 4000m / 13,124ft g haw nt Blin and l ou s Mid od L ak O ke O 50,000 to 100,000 bor wo Peter m 3000m / 9843ft e La ing a l 10,000 to 50,000 Col alls rkh ra F Mapton 2000m / 6562ft aga ie below 10,000 Ni m r rt E Braner 1000m / 3281ft n Fo he of Bo 6 n I Be lle Ca ee rL Ta b I C IA OT SC N B ay of h Ground al og La A ke Ma nit ob T L A 14 Map key 15 S a WA TA T 13 T VA Fu n d y St.La wre Gatineau Mi ssin aib i D d Pé nin su le Lau nce ap Alb an y t ta i ni é ntr Mo O O C E A N M ti ren L Péribonca an La G K in S i itib Ab eW H I l Bel Pip eston e w ap i s k at i sk au Sa chi go Se v Sha mattawa Faw n Sev ern Hay es Nelson a d ou E ay L ak N es am y J Ba a an N A of ce lf en Gu w r La t. S ic an Nel son al Ch ur ch ill D A nt s 58 le Ve 7 Gr rte C m Mou Ne a nt w au han Bu Fall nd ain f xB n s ou cha as el-P Bu ST qu o rg n d ns G eo M PI es rt l a G ander C IQ ER M U R ap (to E E ar n d and eF ys Fr LO & er to ree an N wn ls Bo ce Cl Gr ) na ar Ba an vi en St sta nk d .Jo Ca v i l rb le h on Pl n’s ac St. ear Ca en Joh tia pe n’s Ra ce D ou n ai G Sa Ro St.A pe B sle ak 808 ros M un dd a n e m o ick tho uld Ba de rn ny rs to ie e n Strait of Bell e Isle a ir i kt o Koksoa k A e Kazan n s o d H u y B a NO Riv iè re a ux Feu ère illes au xM élè zes La ke M elv ill e na ud S E A Po rt n Riviere de Pu vir La b ra d o r ge or er S trait q i Fis h Roes Welcome Sound Quoich l a v i K l L A B R A D O R t i Hudson Stra Ca Ri pe go H Mealy let ar r is Moun tains on Ca Eagle rt wr ig ht Simpson Peninsula Rae Strait d t o e xe Fo sin Ba O P dso ton Wineaming 16 E 16 500m / 1640ft ri 250m / 820ft e St. 100m / 328ft La nia Sar r ai t.Cl eS Lak r ilto am HThomas ke c Kit n do Lon s N e n ᭤ Isolated pillars, known as hoodos near Red Deer river in the badlands of Alberta are a product of wind and water erosion, especially flash floods. The badlands lie in the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains, which creates a semiarid climate. o ont Tor ro L a k e Mi c hi g an Great L ak Hu CA AMERI 17 sea level L Q R S T U V W X Y Z 9
  • 43. Sn ak s Ross R iver Pe lly nt e n ai ns Mount H 2743m unt n s nd l ay M Ca m ero O Williston La ke n ass M o a u U u n t N St ha ko u n t it F ra se r Ki ng a i n Fraser P la te a u s of ait Str ia org Ge N d UN I OF TED AM ST E R AT E IC S A Fi n Sikanni Chief Pink Mountai n Wonowon Sustut Peak 2470m A A Trutch Great Snow Mo untain f 2896m hi e Si k anni C o Stra RIC s Ware a e c i n O m ns M d lan t Is Pit Hecate Vancouver S E F AM U N I T E D S TAT E S O in Mount Lloyd George 2972m E n Winnipeg Regina Mount Roos evelt 2972m Mount Sylvi a 2942m Prophet River ta s wa 10 Ontario Thompson Saskatoon Calgary C Churchill Vancouver Victoria ut che kat Kamloops Edmonton n av Manitoba S as CEAN IC O Alberta Prince George Nu t h w e s t Te r r i t o r i e s Fort McMurray nd sla eI CIF British Columbia ott PA Nor arl Whitehorse The transportation network of the western provinces is dominated by east–west routes that weave through mountain passes and spread across the plains. Access to some northern areas is restricted to air travel. O Yukon Territory None h nC Dawson 24,041 miles (38,694 km) Quee T OR A major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas aerospace chemicals coal engineering food processing hydroelectric power mining oil & gas timber processing 6459 miles (10,401 km) C Major industry and infrastructure BE AU SE F 82,438 miles (135,145 km) Nelso Hudson's Ho pe Cranber ry Junction S ke e n Kitwanga Hazelto Takla n New Haz Lake Seven Sist Pine Pass elton Dixon ers Peaks 869m Entran Mackenzie Granisle Babine 27 ce P McLeod a Cape K Terrace 55m nox Smithers Lake rince R Lake i upert Masse n Sentinel Peak Telkwa t s 2515m Porcher Graha ee na Houston Port Ed Sk m Island Stuart ward Fort St.Jam Island es Douglas Kitimat Burns Lake Lake Port C ua Channel le rt Queen ments Fraser Lake Charlo Sin tte Ootsa Lake Vanderhoof clair Mills Sandsp it Banks Kemano Moresb Prince c Island Ne Eutsuk La Island y George ke Princess Royal Island Aristaza bal Barkerville Nazko Island Quesnel Ocean Fa Hagensb org lls Likely Anahim La d Bella Coo ke Ma Cape St. an Bella Bel la rguerite James Isl Burke la Channel Mount Queen Williams Sa Alexis Cree Namu 2908m ugstad Charlott Lake Kleena Klee k Monarch M e Dawsons L ne ou anding R Rivers Inlet 3533m ntain Tatla Lake Sound Hanceville ivers Inle 192 t Cape Cau Mount Wad 100 Mile House tion dington Que 4016m en Mount Queen Ch Cape Sc Bess arl 3313m ott Knight ott Clinton Port eS Winter Inlet Mount Gilbe Harbou Hardy tra rt r Cache Creek 3109m Port it Port Alice McNeill Bute Inlet Cape Coo Sa Lillooet k Ashcroft Vancouve yward Pemberton r Campb ell River Whistler Wedge Ly tton Island Mountain Gold Riv er 2891m Tahsis Powell Rive Comox r Bosto ᭣ Much of the Yukon Territory Squamish n Bar Courtenay n North is uninhabited tundra. Industry ou Sechelt aS Vancouver Ho Port Parksville No o t k pe Gibs is based on the extraction of Tofino Alberni Rich ons mineral resources, and to a Nanaimo mond Burnaby Ucluelet Vancouver La lesser extent, on the scattered Ch nd Bamdysmith La field Lake Cowicngley Abboilliwack Sou tsford han forests of the south. ley Duncan Bark tr ait Victoria o f J Esquimalt uan d e Fu c a Portlan d Inlet I The western provinces contain a wealth of mineral resources. Alberta holds the bulk of Canada’s fossil fuels; the other provinces contain reserves of metallic ores, such as zinc, lead, and silver. Isolation from markets has slowed the development of manufacturing, restricting it to the large cities like Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Calgary. Hydroelectric power is widely exploited, although there is increasing concern about potential ecological damage. ai Transportation network Fo rt BRITI SH COLU MBIA Meziadin Ju Stewart nction s Nas Transportation & industry nt 1,230,547 sq miles (3,187,120 sq km) N Mount Pa tt 2729m ullo F ᭡ Large, highly-mechanized and often very specialized farms, requiring huge investment but little labor, characterize modern farming in the prairies. 100 t 8 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km) 90 n r n Muncho La ke Fort Nelson ka 80 ou 70 hi Kec M 60 Total land area M a 50 s 40 u Mount W 2515m ill Bronlund Peak 2594m e en aStikine 30 o Y o 20 I 10 Population density ake Creek tik S in e Mount 2787m Edziza Sk Liard Rive r ar K C Telegra ph Coal River ea se Dease L ve a D Be si Cas Teslin Go o d H ope La Cassiar ke Mesza 2164mh Peak Moun ra 3136m t Ratz T Watson Lake Lower Po st C 2173m Nakin a Mount M urra 2162m y Upper Li ard Atlin Simpson Peak Atlin L ak e S al Hy la Teslin d Liar ai O nt nsons Jakes Crossin Carcro Corner g ss Chilko ot Pas 1067ms E R ou Co M Fi n l a y y White hor Joh se C 0 W ll li Tes L ak e L ak Laberg e e Cham pagne Ro s j a Faro Pe Aishih ik ou Al se k H R in D on Keele Pe 2972m ak l an Glenly 2190m on Peak e s ns R T tai a i n un Mo nt yn ou Selw ie M enz ITE e cMil Gleno rural 17% O lu m Hess Ma ko n Carm acks g St e w a r t ssing Pelly M A ᭡ Established in 1907, Jasper National Park lies in the heart of the Rocky Mountains. It is noted for its spectacular alpine scenery and contains part of the large Columbia Icefield. t ek Yu n Hain Juncti es on e et P r Ha on s o UN N nn Wind M e Cre Stewa rt Cro k Ta The urban/rural population divide urban 83% Mack Bo ie k Yu UN I OF TED AM ST E R AT E IC S A l Pee O g i lv l Nis s F A U N I T E D S TAT E S O IC MER Keno H ill Mayo rt te wa A Victoria cier nt a P n Vancouver ou ek White 880m Pass pasture cropland forest wetland barren tundra Regina Calgary Ogilv ie major towns Winnipeg Saskatoon Kamloops ia Manitoba wa Edmonton Prince George Thompson che kat Alberta Ontario S as CEAN IC O British Columbia rd Gla El CIF Fort McMurray S e wa Plain Peel n Klua L ak e n e Moun 5959mt Logan cattle cereals fishing fruit timber Churchill Eagle Minto t Nu h w e s t Te r r i t o r i e s Burw ash L andin g in PA Nor t Coffe g ek agricultural distribution ut n av w D a T OR A Whitehorse Koid ern Sa Wheat farming is the economic mainstay of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, which contain 82% of farmland in Canada. Cattle are also raised on the prairies. Forestry and fishing are the most prominent resource-based industries in British Columbia. Despite the mountainous terrain, fruit and specialized grains can be grown Dawson in the Okanagan and Fraser valleys. Yukon Land use and BE AU SE F Territory it e Using the land and sea p YUK ON in s TERR I TO R Y S ek u rc Po ᭡ The Fraser River valley is a major area of settlement in British Columbia. Railroads cross the Rocky Mountains via this valley. Glenb oyle Stewa rt Riv er Beav er Cr e zie Bay O g i lv i e Clinto n Cre Wh 16 Old C row Porcupine Arcti c Cir cle Daw son Ma ck e n ountains son M The mountains of the west coast, incorporating British Columbia and the Yukon Territory, descend into the vast, flat prairies of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The empty lands and fertile soils of the prairie provinces attracted migrants, and the descendants of early European immigrants still make up a large proportion of the population. The mechanization of agriculture has reduced the need for labor, and rural population densities remain low. The majority of the people live within 100 miles (160 km) of the southern Canada–US border, and in British Columbia, one of the leading Canadian provinces in terms of economic wealth. The Yukon Territory, in the far north, remains a relatively unspoiled wilderness, containing large, untapped mineral reserves. This province has a significant population of Native American people, many of whom maintain a traditional lifestyle. t S a hard Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, S a s k a t c h e w a n , Yu k o n Te r r i t o r y British Moun tains in WESTERN PROVINCES for e Hersch el Islan d E ag l e Canada: au Ric D S TA TE (AL S O AS F A KA ME ) RIC A Be Lia rd NORTH AMERICA U
  • 44. N O RT H A M E R I CA : CANADA – WE ST E R N PROVI N CE S The landscape The Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains is the source of two major rivers, the Athabasca and the North Saskatchewan. Mount Logan rises 19,551 ft (5959 m). It is the highest peak in Canada. The massive Rocky Mountains form a continental divide between rivers flowing eastward and westward. The interior plains lie east of the mountains, stretching from the Arctic Circle south into the US. Covered with glacial deposits from the last Ice Age, these are interspersed with hilly regions and long, steep escarpments. Vegetated island Bar River flow is diverted by deposited sediments Sand flat ᭡ Braided rivers are shallow and fast-flowing. The interlaced branches are formed when excess sediments, which can no longer be transported, are deposited. The sediments collect in the river channel forming bars and sand flats. Islands form when the bars are colonized by vegetation. The badlands of Alberta were created when east-flowing rivers, swollen by meltwater at the end of the last Ice Age, cut deep, wide canyons producing eroded, barren landscapes. ᭡ Across the tundra of northern Manitoba, widespread permafrost inhibits water from permeating the soil. This causes rivers like the Churchill to flow in many channels, which can be frozen for up to six months during the winter. South Saskatchewan River The Nelson and Churchill rivers drain northward across the Canadian Shield to Hudson Bay. The shield covers three-fifths of Saskatchewan. Map key Population Setting Lake The Rocky Mountain Trench is the longest linear fault in the world. It has formed a straight, flat-bottomed valley between 2–9 miles (4–15 km) wide, and up to 3280 ft (1000 m) deep. 1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million 100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 10,000 to 50,000 below 10,000 Hundreds of islands dot the fjord-indented coast of British Columbia; the largest is Vancouver Island. Elevation 6000m / 19,686ft The Alberta and Saskatchewan plains bear strong testament to past glaciations. The Assiniboine, Saskatchewan and Qu’Appelle rivers occupy flat-bottomed, steep-sided valleys eroded during the last Ice Age by glacial meltwater. Three major passes cut through the Rocky Mountains: Yellowhead, Kicking Horse, and Crowsnest. They are all used as transportation routes through the mountains. 4000m / 13,124ft 3000m / 9843ft 2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft The Cypress Hills rise to 4806 ft (1465 m) above the surrounding plain. Having escaped the last glaciation they contain unique plant and animal life. The silvery lupine, bunchberry, and lodgepole pine all grow in the cool, moist climate of the hills. Scale 1:7,500,000 500m / 1640ft Km 0 250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft 50 25 25 0 150 100 50 250 200 200 150 100 ᭡ Ancient granite outcrops, part of the Canadian Shield, rise above the surface of Setting Lake, which was initially formed by meltwater from the last Ice Age. The lowlands of Manitoba are a basin that once held the vast post-glacial Lake Agassiz, remnants of which include Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Manitoba. 250 Miles sea level Cl Tur nor Lake Frobisher Lake Loche La ke Macoun La Ch ur ch il l S e al Fox Mine Hone C ap e ids Leaf Rap le Lake Granv il d n Nels o Hay es C hu tle Lit Gillam ak e Split L Kelsey o wo iver Weir R Go a attaw Sham Ilford A TOB I MAN House Nelson t Thomp son k Sipiwes T N H ab O eg up in e tc h Ba t Por c I m S ou th S P lu Saskatc North an o A Edmonton a sk a r ip n se asca ill s in W T C Ha ye s l ke t m La oky a B e av e r e E WA N Nelson Nipi n r Athabas ca ee r agan House Churchill Lake Pukataw Oxford Peace River Taylor Peace e Grimshaw rows Pinehouse Lake r rd Lak Pete Buffalo Nar Desmarais Fairview Oxfo ake Charles issi ssing Missinipe i l Utikuma Lake Lake Gods L s k L ak e Pond Spirit River K w Go d s C h u r c h Sandy Bay Rycroft Sipiwes abowden Lake L ak e Narro W Donnelly Gift Lake Sandy Lake Chetwynd Dawson Creek Île-à-la-Crosse ting s ke Conklin a Falher Set e arrow Snow Lake Lac La McLennan Cross L Tupper Pelikan N L ak Lesser Slave Lake High Prairie Ronge L ak e Hythe Sexsmith e Kinuso Creighton erry Portage Ponton Beauval La Ronge n L ak Island Beaverlodge Slave Lake ranb C Molso Calling Lake Faust Flin Grande Valleyview Wembley Smith ant Flon Primrose Prairie Wallace Tumbler Ridge ult House Hondo Cormor Amisk Mountain Lake Deschamba ke Norway Lake La 1259m ti Doré Lake Boyle Lac La Biche pi Cold Lake Little Smoky Wa Swan Hills Cold Lake Montreal se Athabasca and Hou Pierceland The Pas Moose Lake Lake Green Lake Fox Creek Cumberl Grand Centre chewan ay ke Mount Sir Alexander Bonnyville Westlock S t t l e Sm o k y Smoky Lake Waskesiu La le Lake Meadow Lake kat tr ake s Wes 3274m Li Cedar L Cand St.Paul Sa ke Whitecourt Barrhead Big River Redwater Tobin Laceland Elk Point Rapids Poplar Morinville Fort oi t don Nort Grand Mayerthorpe Ch Willing ille Grande Cache Carro Fr h Sa St.Walburg St.Albert Saskatchewan Easterv a Meath Park Two Hills sk a s ipawin ot River uia N iver Sherwood Edson Spruce Grove tch Rapid Marwayne iritwood rens R rr Sp rt Be Evansburg ew Turtleford Grand Park Mundare ille sq h Prince Albe Ca McBride Barrows Vegrev Little B e re n s PaHudson At Stony Plain Vermilion s GlaslynShellbrook Mount Robson Birch Hill elfort Devon s Hinton Drayton Valley ck M Mannville Bay 3954m il l Tofield Blaine Duke ewan iver Lloydminstere Lashburn North wan H Yellowhead Pass River Birch R Lake he Edmonton Leduc Camrose Viking Tisdale Lake La Tête Jaune Ca tl Maidstone St.Louis egosis Dauphin ay e mb i n a che 1131m Jasper Battleford ock P Duck B onas Winnip Daysland Wainwright Reser ve Cut Wetaskiwin Wakaw iddle rd Rosthern Pine D ville it Haffo Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier M Naicam ypsum Swan MinCowan G Marsden Knife Battleford Waldheim 3505m Valemount Rimbey Ponoka Killam Lake vington Jasper kownan r er el S Riv Rive Hardisty Borden Aberdeen Watson K Bashaw B Benito National Park Nordegg Unity Fisher Wilkie egosis lle Bentley at t l Lacombe gan Winnip Martensville Preecevi Provost Kinbasket Car iboo Duckntain e Humboldt ll Lakes anch Manigota Sylvan Lake Stettler Wadena orquay Qui Saskatoon Rocky Mountain House Lake her Br Macklin ou ert Mountain s M Castor Ashern Fis Ethelnt skatoon lan LaniganWynyard N a s Kamsack Baldy Moub ain Mica Mount Columbia Sa Coronation Red Deer Al ton ach Blue River Biggar hin Creek u Lac River Arborg 3741m in Canor Young Kerrobert Delburne Delisle ria Be Innisfail lin 831m Daup Ste.Rose d ib Victo oe am Lake Co alls oi Rob Consort le Columbia Clearwater Trochu Dundurn Watrous Daf Fo Theodore Sundre Olds ne lu Pine F ch Smiley riksda li dview reary E R Grange Icefield McC d Deer Raymore ountain Hanna Gim Yorktonats Three Hills Rosetown Outlook net eg Bea Youngstown Re brid Little Fort Kicking Lake innip ac du Bon int Last M Jasmin Morrin Didsbury Kindersley Saltco Church ssell Riding Davidson L Horse Pass oba Oak Po Teulon W Ru rn a a Lake Crossfield Carstairs Drumheller Pinuw Alsask Rogers Pass 1627m Rossbu in Manit Melville genburg y t r uthe alcarres Lan y all Eston Elrose Elbow Beiseker uren Re ta Barrière Lake Louise Airdrie Oyen Eatonia 1327m Strasbourg So B Esterhaz Mounhoal Lake a St.Ladstone Stonew lkirk Beausejo ennie dD Golden Banff Cochrane S Calgary ren Appelle e wan aker Chamberlain Neepaw Gla ie Warren eg Se n g R Glacier at c h Craven Fort Qu' Head Foxwar Lake Diefenburst Strathmore e Revelstoke S a sk innip Canmore ach Prair dian renfell Qu’Appell Minnedosa nnipe e FLaalco sden W or In la Lum Riverh Wi Ste.Ann ke Regina Be G Chase Mount Assiniboine Leader ortage a reg Bassano Me cG he iota s P err y lgonie Whitewood wart Valley lin Tuxford Regina ch 3618m lp Sicamous Salmon Arm Ba a Cabri Ste Okotoks o in min Ham iver Carb t.Ado Chap Steinb Turner Valley Black Diamond e Enderby Jaw Regina SedleylingMoosoLangbank en R ndon Assinib CarmanS rris Brooks Fox Valley e of th Kamloop Armstrong Radium Hot Springs High River rbert Moose alo Lak Woods Kip Bra Logan Lake s Vird Swift Current He Hodgeville Old Wives Lake Mo kler St.M Invermere and Nanton Vulcan Bow City Coldstream Nakusp Holl Souris ne Yellow Grass Kisbey lyle erson ou Win ins Vern Ardill Tompk Em Milesto Suffield Pilot Manit Travers Reservoir Merritt on Okanagan Gull Lake elbourg Weyburn ton Car Reston vain en New d Medicine Hat Grav Pangman Moun al Mord Altona Kelowna Lake Redcliff Stough Vauxhall Denver Redvers Melita Boisse Elkford Claresholm Ponteix Maple Creek Cr yst Radville Oxbow Kaslo siniboia dillac Walsh Peachland Wes ine illarney che Crowsnest Pass As Ca Lafle Taber City tbank Delora K Balfour Kimberley Sparwood 1356m Fort Coaldale Tribune Bienfait Bow Island ll s Shaunavon Willow Bunch Horizon ff Lethbridge ss Hi Macleod Princeton Summerland ta Carndu Crawford BayFernie Foremost Cy pre Minton Pincher Creek Estevan Eastend Manko ood Mountain Coleman W Nelson Penticton Magrath Raymond Coronach Robsart Cranbrook Castlegar Rockglen Grand Oliver Milk River Climax Val Marie Cardston Creston Forks Osoyoos Trail Wild Horse Kingsgate Roosville Rossland S A S K AT C H m Tatna rchi l l ll C hurc hi e dian Lak South In askaiowaka W L ak e Lynn Lake ay mer Herch n Souther Indian ake L Southend B I O Foster Lakes ear water ke o Kinoosa n R Fort McMurray e a ie G Fort MacKay A L B E RTA G Cree Lake o A h South Brochet nd Rei r Hills Fort Clea St.John Hine s Creek rc et Nel son Peace n Manning Bi o Lac Broch s Cape hill Churc hill Churc y Lampre L ak e n to M t un s on Co Wollaston Lake ke Wollaston La Pasfield Lake e ik s ga ch a in Ch s ca at a Wab Be Twin Lakes n ai ard c du-La Fond- Tadoule n ra ch d ds Beatton River Ath aba s ca R i ch Black Lake Phelps Lake Bu r ne Lake Claire Fort Vermilion y Neja u L ak e ake Caribou nilini L rL Ha Rainbow Lake Fort Chipewyan ce ke Wi l li am Fontas a Pe High Level La Mountains Hay Fond-du-Lac Stony Rapids ca abas Ath Peace Point Caribou Selwyn Lake Uranium City Hay Meander River Nueltin S e al ve Sl a Bistcho Lake Indian Cabins Steen River Petitot E I R O T I S Reindee R H U T N AV N U Cr ee R a c Fa r l a E M T projection: Lambert Conformal Conic b As l N r ve ut h So Red River e n tains oun lM s s O k an ag Columbia Ri i er S l rce Pu n tai un i n s n t a o u Mo Kootenay M irk a a bi m er iv Selk i a Calgary an N I T E D S T A T E S O F A I C R M E A 16 11
  • 45. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J K Canada: EASTERN PROVINCES N e w B r u n s w i c k , N e w f o u n d l a n d & L a b r a d o r, N o v a S c o t i a , O n t a r i o , Pri n ce E dwa rd I s l a n d , Q u é b e c , St Pi e rre & M iq u e lo n (to Fra n ce) N U N AV U T Ivujivik 2 8 Colonized by both the English and the French during the 16th century, Canada’s eastern provinces are still marked by their dual influences. They contain the last fragment of once-sizeable French territories, the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. French remains Canada’s second official language and Québec’s first language. The population of the eastern provinces is highly concentrated in the south, especially along the border with the US. A recent decline in fishing in the Atlantic provinces has encouraged a steady flow of westerly migration to more prosperous regions. The north, around Hudson Bay, remains snow-covered for most of the year and the indigenous Inuit people make up the bulk of its sparse population. n Salluit S Déception Mansel Island Péninsule Cape Smith Smith Island t Kangiqsujuaq irnituq’ e Puv Lac Nantais Akpatok Island Lac Klotz d’ Ungava Puvirnituq Ottawa Islands Ri v ière Ko ga uk aud Kangirs Arn U Lac Payne Gyrfalcon Islands luk Lac aux Feuilles Scale 1:7,000,000 Inukjuak (Port Harrison) Km 0 50 25 5 25 0 150 100 50 200 Ri v i è re 200 150 100 au e xF Tasiujaq u uc King George Islands k kD k Nis North Belcher Islands ib i S e ve r a aw ha o h se op i an y ng m at t se oo mi M i ag am s St o ig we he As r I Kinu s e es s Réservoir Cabonga hog Grou nd s s ag i t n o M Gatineau Na Mi ssi t 12 Réser voir Dozois Montréal Kitch uga To rborough Guelph Burlin ronto gton Cambridge L a k e O nt ar Fo Woodstock Ham Hamilto Sarnia rest ilton London Brantford St.n tharines Ca Strathroy Tillsonburg Niagara Falls Wallac St.Thomas Simcoe Nanticoke Fort Erie Lake St.Clai eburg West Port Burwell Windsor rChatham Lorne ie L ak e Er Leamington UN IT ED i o higan Lake Mic OTTAWA Stratford ener S Essex B Lac St-Jean St-Félicien Alma Chicoutimi Roberval Les Escoumins St Hérbertville Jonquière La Baie Tadoussac ce Rivière-du-Loup La Malbaie St-Pascal La Tuque Baie-St-Paul Lac Kempt La Pocatière n-Port-Joli St-Jea Montmagny Malartic Val-d'Or Réservoir Ville-Marie Decelles Lac Kipawa s ia mi te s Réservoir Baskatong Charlesbourg Su Québec Lévis St-Ignace-du-Lac Grand-Mère Elliot Lakedbur y Mont-Laurier Donnacona Blind River Sturgeon Falls North Bay Shawinigan Espa Nor Maniwaki Mattawa Cap-de-la-Madeleine th Channel Massey nola Lake Gore Bay St-Félix-de-Valois Trois-Rivières Thetford-Mines Nipissing Powassan Callander Ottaw a Deep River Ste-Agathe-des-Monts rges Manitoulin Little Current Sorel Victoriaville St-Geo South River Petawawa Joliette Island Manitowaning Drummondville Fort-Coulonge St-Jérôme Pembroke Burk’s Falls Repentigny os Asbest Mirabel Georgian Parry Sou Barr y's Bay Renfrew Buckingham Lac-Mégantic Lachute St-Hyacinthe Tobermor y Gatineau nd Hawkesbury Laval o Ma Arnprior Hull Sherbrooke Huntsville n daw Ottawa Châteauguay Granby Nepean Bay Bracebridge Haliburton H aska Magog St-Jean i g Carleton Place Cowansville h l a Perth Wiarton Bancroft Cornwall Midland Gravenhurst Smiths Falls e nds Owen Sound c Lake en Collingwood Orillia Brockville wr Simcoe Tweed Kincardine La Barrie Lindsay . Peterborough St Ha Alliston Gananoque Napanee Newmarket Mount Forest nover Trenton Orangeville Belleville Kingston Wingham Markham Cobourg Lest Goderich Bram er B. Pearson Port pto Oshawa Hope Clinton Mississa n Sca Pelee Island A es sea level Larder Lake Réservoir Pipmuacan aur i 100m / 328ft 17 Thessalon Rouyn-Noranda u Dolbeau-Mistassini Réservoir Gouin t 250m / 820ft Lake Temagami Capreol Lebel-sur-Quévillon Lac Abitibi Amos ur 500m / 1640ft Gogama Englehart Gowganda New Liskeard Cobalt L a e n r lib Elevation Chapleau Chapais Ha below 10,000 Lac Manouane Mistissini (Baie-du-Poste) Lac Péribonca Chibougamau u ro n ke H 10,000 to 50,000 Lac Albanel Normétal La Sarre La 50,000 to 100,000 Foleyet Wawa Timmins Kirkland Lake Matachewan Sault Ste.M arie ERICA OF AM 100,000 to 500,000 Lac Mistassini Matagami Be Cochrane Michipico ten Island ES 500,000 to 1 million Lac Evans aw a Smooth Rock Falls Iroquois Falls Lac Plétipi Be e Super ior AT 1 million to 5 million 16 Hornepayn Kapuskasing e Manitouw adge Terrace Bay St. Ignace Island Maratho n ST Population 15 Hearst tish -M D Map key Kesagami Lake ts O on M u re de R pe Riv iè rd uta E 16 14 Nott M ibi s s in a a ag Mi att Tip Top M ountain 640m L ak Mont Yapeitso 1135m xO T Thunde r Bay de Gran Rivièr e La ll a Falls Réservoir de Caniapiscau u re a Nipigon co w iè Riv Mille L acs Lac Bienville ps a au rt Lac des Kakabek B al e in e y eine Atikok an 13 Waskaganish (Fort Rupert) Moose Factor y g Lac d'Iberville Eastmain Eastmain Moosonee e nt Longlac e la e Q U É B E C Réservoir Opinaca Fort Albany Charlton Island ze Lac Nichicun Lac Naococane Opinaca Akimiski Island u b Al a Kenog mi l a B a l e in Lac Sakami Wemindji a L ak e I Ka p i s k a South Twin Island élè Lacs des Loups Marins Chisasibi La Gra nde Riv ière (Fort George) ux Radisson Rése r voir la Grande De North Twin Island Swan can Fort F rance s L ak e Nipigon Geral dton Little Cur ed Ka n Bay s rri Ha 12 n Lake Ignace Rainy N Ogoki L ake Armstro ng Ri v i è r e d e James t api ska Attawapiskat Missisa La ke Peti te Kuujjuarapik (Poste-de-la-Baleine) G ra n d e R i v i è r bi Abiti U okout Sturgeo L ak e the W of oods Attawap iskat Lak e Lansdow House ne taw Lake St. Joseph S av a n O g ok i t L ak e ul Dr yde n ak e i Ear Fa Sioux Lo R Slate Fal ls lls Lac Se At O N T A R I O Red L ake River skwin Oto ge Ekwan ne Pickle L ake Al bany d Lac Guillaume-Delisle ère aux M Lac à l’ Eau Claire Long Island on ak e S Winisk La ke ak e Cat Lak e Trout L n t Su to n tt ribou L P i p e s to s Wi n i s k Shibogam a Wunnum Lake min Lake L ak e North C a B e re n w Fa Big Tro ut Lake Big Trou t Lake S a n dy Kenor a Keew atin Eagle L e Sachigo Lake Sachigo Lak e Sandy Lake MA Wa s pa Winisk S ac o hi g vi Ri Lac Minto Belcher Islands Peawanuc k Su N ak e k u sca Stull L so a i ap O T A B Sanikiluaq ok ni Ca n 7 Rainy n H u d s o B a y Fort Seve rn 10 poka Islands Nasta Sleeper Islands P é r ib o n c a projection: Lambert Conformal Conic K Miles Bl a c n g Lac Tassialouc ᭣ Rocher Percé, is 290 ft (88 m) high. Lying off the southeastern coast of Québec, it is a sanctuary for sea birds. 6 r Cap Hopes Advance Quaqtaq es 4 196 ill 3 M H u d s Charles Island o Riv ier ed 1 L ST I S TE A J OF ER AM CA I 16 K L M
  • 46. N O RT H A M E R I CA : CANADA – E AST E R N PROVI N CE S N O P Q R S The landscape a U V W X Y ᭤ Labrador’s indented coast is a product of past glaciations, which caused sea level change, and wave erosion. There are countless offshore islands, fjords, and exposed headlands. The Péninsule d’Ungava is littered with erratics – isolated rocks which were carried by glaciers and deposited away from their place of origin when the glacier melted. Much of eastern Canada is part of the Canadian Shield. Glaciers have scoured the land leaving deposits that have dammed and diverted streams, to create a rocky landscape strewn with lakes and swamps. Much of the ground is subject to permafrost, which further impedes drainage. The uplands in the far east are the most northerly extension of the Appalachian mountain chain. i t T 1 2 The eroded highlands of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland are part of the Appalachian mountain chain, formed over 400 million years ago. ds Button Islan Lake Superior is the world’s largest expanse of fresh water, covering 32,150 sq miles (83,270 sq km). It is crossed by the Canada–US border. L t ga rn A Hebron Laurentides Park A s Cod Island nds Okak Isla D Ge e à le R atsivik South Aul Island Nain re Ba ᭡ At the Bay of Fundy, incoming waves are funneled down the long, narrow, steep-sided bay. These topographical features cause fast-flowing tides which can rise 70 ft (21 m). Transportation & industry in Me to fB el O Str maine Ro ashquan Nat ère La Tabati ur ton Harbo Harring ove Sally's C n Manicouaga Corner le aerospace vehicle manufacture chemicals fish processing food processing hi-tech industry hydroelectric power mining timber processing SE Hudson Bay Schefferville New fou nd land & L abr ador Ont ar io Québec le Belle Is Is le St. John's Thunder Bay auld Cape B ony St.Anth New Br unsw ick Pr i nce E dward Island E Québec Nova Scot ia O C Sault Ste. Marie Halifax Montréal OTTAWA Toronto kton Roddic rey Islands G ders UNI ICA aun T E D S TAT E S O F A M E R Port S y Ba e it B ay land erte me Fogo Is Baie V Da re t No orne Gros M 808m e Deer Lak Brook R A A TL N TI 8 9 capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas C Transportation network 10 84,522 miles (136,325 km) h in a t-Paul Rivière-S ugustin St-A osti Île d’Antic Port-Menier Hong ued Major industry and infrastructure A y Red Ba Forteau a M pson ope Sim Port H Natashquan Mingan re Havre-St-Pier Longue-Pointe Moisie Détroit de Jacques-Cartier AD l ob H BR e nt it M aly ou Litt l Lac-Allard Port-Cartier ns In on ai ilt LA right Cartw Ea g lle am e an rl 7 W Atikonak Lac Ashuanipi Lake Sept-Îles Rigolet ND UNDLA NEWFO AD OR R & LAB est River North W lls Bay Churchill Fa y-Goose lle Happy Va Ch urc hil l Petit Lac Manicouagan x ro u l ts G on Manicouagan o Lake Melvi Moi sie t i d t k i n s n t a Réser voir o u Manicouagan M a n M ᭡ The tides at the Bay of Fundy are among the highest in the world. At low tide the tree-topped rocks have been likened to flowerpots. k to ir i ecat eM Gagnon on ai Mont Wright 899m a arris Cape H Lo M on g R a un tai nge ns Labrador City r A Lake Joseph Makkovik Reservoir Shabogamo Lake A Hopedale Kan a Schefferville Petitsikapau Lake Smallwood E nds Lac aux Goéla ikamagen Lake b S L a 6 Both Québec and Ontario have a diversified manufacturing sector located in the south. Across the rest of the region, industry is largely based around local resources, which accounts for the large number of fish and timber processing plants and mines. Many of the fast-flowing rivers are also gradually being harnessed for hydroelectric power. e ualok Tunungay Island Kogaluk Lac Champdoré Att 5 O or g Ri v i è la 4 The bay is 94 miles (151 km) long Tidal waters are channeled down the bay ᭤ The forested Laurentides Park incorporates part of the Laurentian Mountains. Within its boundaries are over 1600 lakes. R n ai nt ou Kuujjuaq Lac le Moy ne Bay of Fundy B M jjuaq Kangiqsualu Saglek Bay 3 Steep cliffs bound the bay N a B a v a To y Port Burwell 1858 miles (2998 km) 20,602 miles (33,159 km) ista Gander nder Bonav Ga ay vista Bona B L ak e s Grand nd Fall s Gra Buchan e ian Lak Red Ind 11 376 miles (606 km) nville Clare dland ewfoun N B ay ia nt 14 S P A E it an 16 A N T C M I 15 ob O C Q R Sault Ste.Marie capital cities major towns ᭤ Prince Edward Island is the only Atlantic province with notable agricultural land. The island is Canada’s leading producer of potatoes. pasture cropland forest tundra S T U Nova Scot ia Montréal OTTAWA Toronto Halifax A UN V W ITED E S TAT E S O F A M X RIC A TL N T E A N IA C L 64 O 13 O T Using the land & sea N of N A OV T CO y A 12 ce la Gu N EW B RU N S W IC K N Trinity y aw of S L t. Ba e ce lf La nc Ba . St e wr n re Ba y o P as Baie-Trinité The majority of Canada’s large sa ville ande-Vallée ge Stephen onear Mont-Louis Gr ᭡ Fish processing is a major Godbout Carb ports lie in the east. Since the onts ’s eau eorge e Baie-Com Ste-Anne-des-M chville .John ape St.G industry in the Atlantic provinces. e g L ak C St Murdo 1960s the region’s rail network Hauterive Meelpa ’s Gaspé Cap-Chat St.John 's iamites r Fogo Island, off Newfoundland, Bets -Cartie e has been steadily reduced; Matane Mont Jacques rg Percé 1268m Forestville eo has barely a thousand inhabitants Newfoundland recently lost tia a s p é Rocher Percé G Mont-Joli Burgeo Placen St . e s u l e d e G Grande-Rivière ntain but it is able to sustain a its last remaining line, the ou Table M Breton Amqui Avalon la m é n i nw-Richmond Chandler arbour Long-Cross Island line. town ay 587m number of cod canneries. s H a P Ne Cape R Peninsu ape Race Mar y el-Port Rimouski Îles de la C y Chann ques e a C D Dalhousi rand Madeleine x Bas rB G ab au Campbellton aleu Caraquet TroisBank P e ot Ch Pistoles r Shippagan Str Cabano t Kedgwick ait RRE & Tracadie Cape Bathurst o Edmundston ST PIE LON North E With thin soils restricting farming to the south, the Neguac PR IN C E N MIQU nce) Mount Carleton each B St.Léonard 820m nd Ingonish p Chatham Tignish ED WA R D (to Fra forests that grow in vast unbroken tracts across eastern reton Isla Chéticam astle wc Cape B ines Grand Falls Ne IS LA N D ard Island Plaster Rock Sydney M Bay Richibucto Canada provide an important source of revenue. rince Edw Souris P Glace s The urban/rural population divide Invernes e Sydney Kensington Doaktown Summersid Coastal communities rely heavily on the rich fishing wn Charlotteto Shediac No r urban 84% rural 16% thu grounds of the Atlantic Ocean, although foreign Hartland mbe rland y ur rview St ra Hawkesb Moncton Rive it Minto Woodstock S ow Port herst t . Jo h n competition and overfishing have resulted in strict New Glasg o B ay ville Am Sack bu ct h Antigonis C he da Fredericton Oromocto ssex 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 policies to conserve stocks. Su Canso ghill Sprin Truro LA Hampton McAdam B a s in Population density Total land area BR n Mi n a s Saint Joh A St.Stephen D Kentville t Harbour 21 people per sq mile 1,076,227 sq miles ee O Halifax Sh or R Winds (8 people per sq km) (2,787,431 sq km) Grand Manan d y SE n Middleton outh Island Dartm u A F Hudson Bay Halifax a Island Sable Digby nburg Lune Land use and New fou nd land Bridgewater Lake agricultural distribution & L abr ador Rossignol Liverpool Québec cattle St.John's Shelburne Ontar io Yarmouth cereals New fishing Thunder Bay Cape Sable Br unsw ick Pr i nce fruit E dward timber Québec Island IC 17 A Y Z 13
  • 47. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J Southeastern Canada The southern parts of Québec and Ontario form the economic heart of Canada. The two provinces are divided by their language and culture; in Québec, French is the main language, whereas English is spoken in Ontario. Separatist sentiment in Québec has led to a provincial referendum on the question of a sovereignty association with Canada. The region contains Canada’s capital, Ottawa, and its two largest cities: Toronto, the center of commerce, and Montréal, the cultural and administrative heart of French Canada. The cities of southern Québec and Ontario, and their hinterlands, form the heart of Canadian manufacturing industry. Toronto is Canada’s leading financial center, and Ontario’s motor and aerospace industries have developed around the city. A major center for nickel mining lies to the north of Toronto. Most of Québec’s industry is located in Montréal, the oldest port in North America. Chemicals, paper manufacture, and the construction of transportation equipment are leading industrial activities. ᭡ The port at Montréal is situated on the St. Lawrence Seaway. A network of 16 locks allows oceangoing vessels access to routes once plied by fur-trappers and early settlers. Gaspé Sault Ste.Marie Major industry and infrastructure ᭤ Niagara Falls lies on the border between Canada and the US. It comprises a system of two falls: American Falls, in New York, is separated from Horseshoe Falls, in Ontario, by Goat Island. Horseshoe Falls, seen here, plunges 184 ft (56 m) and is 2500 ft (762 m) wide. 4 car manufacture chemicals engineering finance food processing hi-tech industry mining iron & steel 5 is s K apuskasing M Fire River Oba Lake Québec North Bay textiles paper industry timber processing capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas Ont ar io Montréal OTTAWA Toronto ario Lake Ont rie Lake E TE D inai bi ou pi z in ta No oi r e Gatineau u lo n l on st Cou nge E Dum r Co eg e a Fild taw oin issi du R L i iviè èv re re us Mississagi É N re viè Ri Ot rg x S a bl es M Ba oc ch Cho ebegon We n ta ou er Ott ek M attagami e ho Bell Gr a gose Neme Chaple ndhog I va nh a nd gpie Ma i U r ss a g rt l Q O re au eo s rg e a k Oxt o ur Ka ib ton Hig ia hlan Gatineau d y irt an Th d Isl n usa al za ge South H Tho L G OTTAWA ds Ba Y n ver Ri Gran Lak e Ontario St So Ri Moi ra Bur O go sto ne Co le ha Th a en C l air St. ra Nor th ga e E r i Nia River ED S AM TATES ER ICA Toronto Ni OF ent a IT m carp a Es Sou UN S c u gog a Niagar w as ag le tta Black River S Saugeen Mo ir a nt River d io n y H u r o n L a k e 14 oua re a i ve iv er Riviè I nR R ilio A rm T Ve N Sp ani s h R r O itei ap rio 17 A Ch nt pe 16 ERIC Transportation network Mo Su 15 AM o is jév ke Ag aw a La 14 F S O WabatongushPeterbell e i Elsas Lake Porcupine a Missanabie Miss Dog skw inaibi Timmins Kabenung Puka Lake Lake u Ramore Lake Night Hawk Manitowik La Foleyet Hawk Junctio ke n Kenogamissi Lake Whitefish Michipicoten Lake Windermere River Ho Rouyn-Noranda Racine Lake rwood Wawa Lake Kirkland Lake Lake Lac Cadillac La Lac Lac Langlade Lac Tessier Michipicote Nemegosenda ke Virginiatown Beauchastel n de Montigny Tiblemont Anjigami Island Lake Kenogami Lake Larder K in Monet Malartic Lake Lac Guéguen Paradis Lake o Oskélanéo Lac Chapleau Kek Mattagami Lac I v an Lac Opasatica Tarzwell Fournière Matachewan Val-d'Or Lac Capitachouane Rush Lake Borden Lake Louvicourt Matchi-Manitou Lake Lac Rapide-Deux Lac Lac Barrière Rollet Lac Villebon Rice Lake Englehart Kormak Lac Péronne awaRéservoir Sabourin Lac Opeepeesway Lac Yser ane Lac des M on t real Gogama Elk Lake i Lac Rémigny Lac Gowganda e Decelles Granet ou F o r t Dix Milles Lac Minisinakwa Sultan Lake Earlton an Échouani ch Agawa wa Lac des tta Mesomikenda Simard Lake O Wenebegon Camachigama Quinze Shining Tree Gowganda Bay Frater Wakami Lake New Liskeard Lake Winneway a Lake Lake Lac des wa n Montreal Makobe Biscotasi Westree ch a Angliers t Augustines River Lac Grand-Lac-Victoria Lake Lake Haileybury Ba Lac Lake Réservoir Belleterre Bay Biscotasing Wan Mitchinamécus Lady Evelyn Grand Cabonga Latchford Cobalt Timiskaming Lac McLennan Ramsey Lake lac Victoria Lake Ville Batchawana Lac Lac Anima Nipissing -Marie Lac à la Truite Bay Réservoir Obabika Lenôtre Lac Lecointre Lake Lac Dozois Ranger Lake Lac Lake Douaire Lake Temagami Saseginaga Lac p Ogascanane Wa Goulais Rive Wabos Ranger Lake Temagami Notawassi Rocky Island r Lac Lac aux Lac Lake ssi Lac des Chiniguchi de l’ Écorce Lac Onaping Rabbit Foins wa n Byrd Lake Lac rde Dumoine Lake Lac Kondiaronk Lake Polonais Lac Sault Ste.Mar Kirkpatrick La Ga Echo Kikwissi Lac Brûlé ke ie Capreol Lake Kipawa Lac Piscatosine Wakomata Cartier Lac Marten River Lac Delahey Ste-Anne-du-Lac Wicksteed Lake Wanapitei Lake te RiverQuirke Dix Milles Lac Rock Lake W hi Réservoir Mont Réservoir Lake Thorne Témiscaming Lac Bleu Chavannes tl e Lake Stu River Vall Chelmsford Kiamika Lit Lac Desbarats ey Tilden Lake Baskatong Sir-Wilfrid Garson Lac 783m Elliot Lake eo Beauchêne Lac du Fils Agnew Nilgaut Sudbury Tomiko Lake n Grand-Remous Hagar Iron BridgMatinenda Lake Lac Désert Hilton Beach Lake Lac e Lac Ste-Véronique Balsam Creek Verner Mont-Laurier Thess Estaire Stur Maganasipi Bryson St. Joseph's alon Spanish geon Falls Lac North Bay Lake Maniwaki Panache West Arm an Espanola Island Nominingue Blind River d Masse Talon Mattawa Lac Lac Lake Nor Lake Nipissing Lac Great La Cloche y L’Annonciation th Ch tt a wa Ma St-Patrice Duval Whitefish Falls Pythonga Notre-Dameannel Callander Alban Monetville Deux Island Meldrum Bay Rolphton Lake NosbonsinRivieresStonec Bigwood de-Pontmain Wolseley Bay Little Current g liffe Lac Cockburn Restoule Powassan ch River Gore Bay a Pickere Gracefield River Killarney Fren des Sables Lake Schy Island l Cedar Lake DeepP Manitou Lac Lost Channel Lac du Loring Lac Dumont eta Lake Burntroot McGillivray Squaw Island wa Evansville West Bay Kazabazua Chevreuil Danford Lake Lake wa Lac Kawigamog Lake Petawawa Lake Wikwemikong Britt South River a FortRéservoir Great Duck Ma gn eta Simon az u Providence Bay Manitowaning Lavieille b Barr on Île des Coulonge wan Sundridge Bern Big l’ Escalier Bo Island ard Lac Allumettes Opeongo nne Pembroke Trout Ardbeg St-André-Avellin Lake chere South Baymouth Heney Île du Lake Lonely Island Dunchurch Burk’s Falls Lake Bonnechere Montebello Fitzwilliam Island Cobden Grand Calumet Round Lake Ahmic Canoe Aylen Shawanaga Thurso Shawville Lake Eganville Lake Rock Lake Barry’s Bear Lake Buckingham a Lake nnel aw ha Bay Golden Lake Renfrew Manitouwabing Novar Gatineau Whitney Bark Rockland Ott Main C ve Isla ue Co Parry Lake Huntsville nd ng Hull Tobermory Arnprior Sound Lake Vernon Aylmer Hay Lake 16 M Cabot Head Cape Hurd Calabogie a Parry Rosseau Casselman Nepean Lake Lake of Bays Lake Latchford Bridge d a w a Ottawa Bruce White Lake Island ska Maynooth ork Joseph Dorset Lake Almonte or Peninsula astMonkland M Baptiste Centennial Lion's Head Norcan Rosseau Baysville Carnarvon Richmond C oon Carleton Lake Winchester Cape Croker Lake de Bala Place Mississippi Lake y Lake Bracebridge Upper Haliburton Cl Griffith Bancroft eau Lake Weslemkoon Canada Muskoka S Mar Minden eve at Village Island dChristian Lake Crotch n rn Gravenhurst Island Perth Smiths Falls uth N Ormsby Wiarton iss is si pp i ou Penetang le Lake M nda Population Morrisburg uishene Norland Iro nS Cloyne Chand Cape Rich Washago Big Gull Lake Jasper Cardinal Sauble Beach Boat we ce K a Catchacoma Lake os Coldwater Midland 1 million to 5 million Lake Lingham Big Rideau Lake en Dalrymple Meaford Nottawasaga Elm wa s Alvanley Sharbot Lake vale wr Lake Prescott Lake Balsam Laker t h a L a k e 500,000 to 1 million Orillia Owen Sound Bay La Bobs Lake . Kasshabog Wasaga Beach Crosby Forthton Port Elgin Fenelon Falls Kaladar No au Collingwood Lake 100,000 to 500,000 Brockville b Bobcaygeon Lake Madoc Stony Verona Markdale Stayner Charleston Lake Simcoe Beaverton Bridgenorth Lake Havelo Marmor Tweed 50,000 to 100,000 ck Tiverton a Chesley Angus Lansdowne Barrie Kincardine Lindsay Gananoque Campbellford Durham Pefferlaw 10,000 to 50,000 Dundalk Hanover Cookstown Peterborough Trent Sau Keswick Point Lake geen Foxboro Alliston Clark Tee Uxbridge below 10,000 Scugog Millbrook Frankford Kingston Mildmay Shelburne Napanee swater Bradford Newmarket Lucknow Mount Forest Belleville Port Perry Rice Wolfe Island Port Albert Aurora Ma Trenton Amherst Lake itla Elevation Luther Orangeville Wingham Brighton Picton Richmond Hill Newcastle nd Island Lake Bolton Cobourg Palmerston Goderich Whitby Long Point Wellington Port Hope Arthur Caledon Markham Oshawa th Listowel Pickering Salmon Point Fergus Lester B. Pearson 500m / 1640ft M Point Petre Clinton d Scarborough 16 Brampton Seaforthi t l a n d Elmira Ba 250m / 820ft Waterloo Guelph Hensall yfield Mitchell Mississauga Kitchener Milton New Hamburg 100m / 328ft Grand Bend Oakville Cambridge Exeter Stratford t St.Marys Kettle Point h sea level Dundas Burlington Lucan Parkhill Brantford Hamilton Forest Woodstock Hamilton Ausab St.Catharines Sarnia London Caledonia Grimsby Ingersoll W Thorold Wa e l l a Niagara Strathroy Norwich Grand Corunna Petrolia tford Dorchester Falls Niagara Falls nd Mount Brydges Hagersville am CayugaWelland Tillsonburg m enh Jarvis d Fort Erie Sy St.Thomas Glencoe Dunnville Simcoe ᭤ Montréal, on the banks of the Port Colborne Syd Nanticoke Welland Dutton Aylmer Rutherford St. Lawrence River, is Québec’s Canal Port Wallaceburg Dresden Port Burwell Long Point Stanley s leading metropolitan center and one Bay me ThamesvilleWest Lorne Lake of Canada’s two largest cities – St.Clair Windsor Long P Ridgetown oint Stoney PointChatham Toronto is the other. Montréal clearly Blenheim La Salle reflects French culture and traditions. Staples Tilbury Amherstburg Essex Pointe aux Pins Wheatley Kingsville Leamington A H I J K L M Pigeon Point Pelee Bay Map key 13 ST E AT The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 finally allowed oceangoing ships (up to 24,000 tons [tonnes]) access to the interior of Canada, creating a vital trading route. Manitoulin Island 12 New Brunswick Québec Lake Huron I UN Esnagi La Amyot ke Lake Negwaz u Dubreuilville M Transportation & industry Southern Ontario, Southern Québec 3 L Ca 1 K U N
  • 48. N O RT H A M E R I CA : SOU T H E AST E R N CANADA S Using the land & sea T V Sault Ste.Marie Québec Lake Huron Ont ar io Montréal OTTAWA Toronto ario Lake Ont rie Lake E TE D ST F S O ERIC AM A Lac de La Blache s tsi uc To uln Pi u st Be Réservoir Pipmuacan st sto amite ku u 214,230 sq miles (555,000 sq km) lnu Iso 64 people per sq mile (25 people per sq km) Lacs Nouvel Lac au Brochet Réservoir Go Manic Deux Fra n ᭡ Pumpkins are just one of the crops grown in the Niagara “fruit belt.” The mild climate, moderated by the lakes, allows the cultivation of a wide range of fruit and vegetables, including cherries, apples, peaches, grapes, and asparagus. Fruit and vegetable growing is confined to southern Canada, due to the colder climate and short growing season of the northern regions. M s Lac Walker e st c 100 90 ou 80 anis 70 To u 60 Total land area ac 50 2 Lac Pentecôte erite 40 pasture cropland forest gu 30 Ou ô te 20 Lac SteAnne tec 10 Population density Réservoir Manic Trois Réservoir Outardes Quatre Pen 0 12 rural 13% 1 ar The urban/rural population divide mon Sch s Rivière aux Rocher u s t o uc I UN E AT Y capital cities major towns cattle fish cereals fruit maple syrup timber tobacco New Brunswick Québec X Land use and agricultural distribution Gaspé The productive Niagara “fruit belt” on the shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario is a major farming region, although available farmland is being challenged by urban expansion. Québec is Canada’s leading producer of maple syrup and dairy products. In the north, farmland gives way to extensive areas of forest, partly used for commercial logging. Fishing occurs in Atlantic waters and in the Great Lakes. urban 87% W Moi sie Q ur P P a te O Godbou t Est N 3 Sept-Îles Moisie Clarke City -Marguerite Pointe Ste Port-Cartier 4 Pointe Sproule ais Pointe-aux-Angl h Bouc ca aw rib on Al rc co e r oup o W BR SW UN ICK 8 9 n oh t.J re ntè Li e iè r ud 10 The landscape 11 ç oi ha s M E R I C A s t n o M au A Rivi ran 7 N Jac - Ste w e r c t-F NE R iv i è re d Rivièr du Gou e ffr n d es N ei ges Ri vi è re qu es -Cartie r uL s Bost o Batiscan uri ce St -Ma La iè r Ni u Ya mas ka t xÉ e au Croc ta R iv iè r he betchouane e rrich Pi e eV ièr Ri v é ull o Bo eR i èr ia Riv 6 Est et d e dia Jam éd velle u édia Esc ap s ud vid a Di abl sca s P Nou i ti in - Est ai M ontmorency Da Ou R i vièr e du Ca M e ar s Malb i Québec 12 Sa Montréal e v t ur e Bo na e n ip s h Pé l e ri t ed u t im d n a r o a l e s u p é i n a s G é n H all onc a r ib Pé ex te Ri vi è r a va C Peti th - ièr ico e igo tio L u en t an i M m D - R iviè re à M ch in d u r ic e C E t ia du B ets ièr i st as s ib i W Ma S t- B ou e li n o is es c ar d an Ou t ina Riv M Wa ba no ta n u i 5 qu ux Pap couag a db v Lac Renouard er re an i Ri M Honguedo Pas e Cap de la sa ge c Baie-Trinité Madeleine n Godbout Mont-Louis Grande-Vallée e on Franquelin ix St-Yv Pointe à la Cro r Petit-Cap Marsoui D a rt m Lac Labrieville h ou Baie-Comeau onts Portneuf w Cap-Chat Ste-Anne-des-M Lac a d e lei n e hville Hauterive M Murdoc a Chute-auxVola t Itomamo Péninsule de Mont e e n Outardes Jacques-Cartier Lac Manicouagan L é Yo Gaspé . Grosses-Roches Sa Cap de Gasp rk o c s 1268m hiway rette Onatc Notre-Dame-de-Lo t mites c-Ch ult Mi Betsiamites L sta ss s Chi S Matane a uxt Barachois ini As Pointe Verte G ra nde R Mon oc hu Colombier Percé ne iv i ho Lac Poulin apm St-René-de-Mata é ère ns us h Por Dolbeau-Mistassini h e es Rocher Perc S de Courval Baie-des-Sabl Lac M a t a n tneuf ua Forestville ir Péribonka p n St ère Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire Cap d’ Espo Matapédia e-M Ri Grande-Rivi oli abec Say Mont-J v ar Lac Delisle ntegu Chandler Amqui Baie-des- Pointe au PoiPère e Trenche St-Ambroise Lac auSt-Félicien Ma s Escou Bacon Boisvert Causapscal Alma ers -N Stet Rimouski Ste-Blandine m ng St-Jean Ma or A d d LacRoberval Île du Bic Jonquière New-Richmon rt-Daniel Pointe de l’ Ouest ChicoutimiSa rguerite m Po gue n Chambord inac Nouvelle Lac Humqui ay Les Escoumins St-Fabien ur ierville tville Hérber Supérie Routh Carleton es La Baie Paspébiac Pata Lac eronnes Lac-Bouchette Tr Bonaventure Laterrière pé L’Anse-St-Jean Grandes-Berg en Restigouche Kénogami ay St - J ean Réservoir Ch La Trinité-des-Monts Chaleur B e ussac istoles Tado Trois-P Boilleau h Gouin uc Lac des Sagard igo Rist Lac Ha! Ha! Commissaires e Baie-des-Rochers M an St-Arsène ub Parent R Mont-Apica Van Bruyssel St-Siméon St-Hubert Lac Rivière-du-Loup Rapide-Blanc Témiscouata e ais Sanmaur Lac Casey nn Notre-Damet Clermon Windigo St-Alexandre Niverville ano e Cab du-Lac La Malbaie Lac-Édouard Flaman Dégelis Lac Croche La St-Hilarion on Lac Pohénégamook Réservoir St-Pascal il l Manouane Blanc erm Rivière-Bleue Île aux 12 La Tuque Baie-St-Paul Coudres St-Pacôme Lac Petite-Rivière- La Pocatière Kempt ançois St-Fr Lac L’Islet St-Jean- de l’ Est Île aux Port-Joli Ste-Perpétue-de-l'Islet Beaupré Oies Lac Île d’Montmagny Mékinac Lac St-Pamphile Rivière-à-Pierre e Orléans Devenyns ug ᭤ In contrast to the boreal forest Lac-St-Charles M at Charlesbourg awin St-Raymond which spans northern Canada, the St-Raphaël Ste-Apolline ne Lac Ste-Thècle Lévis Réservoir Gaspé Peninsula (Péninsule de An Cap-Rouge Antique Charny Taureau St-Tite St-Casimir Gaspé) is covered with a band of E tche St-Michel-des-Saints mi Daaquam Donnacona St-Ignace-du-Lac Grand-Mère n mixed coniferous-deciduous e C Ste-Claire Shawinigan r e n c Ste-Croix woodland, including sugar and red St-Agapit ha Riv Ste-Marie ièr St-Alexis- ShawiniganL’ Ass S maple, cedar, and eastern hemlock. e du Chêne om . des-Monts Sud p S tManseau St-Joseph-de-Beauce Trois-Rivières Cap-de-la-Madeleine our Palme St-Donat c Labelle Louiseville St-Prosper can East-Broughton Mont Daveluyville Bé Lac Tremblant St-Georges St-Félix-de-Valois Plessisville 968m St-Pierre Nicolet Thetford-Mines St-Jovite St-Léonard Pierreville rea Victoriaville Ste-AgatheSorel St-Fra eloupe Lac La Guad nço Disraeli des-Monts The heart of southeastern Canada is the lowland area Tracy is Warwick ol e St-François Joliette et Ste-Adèle St-Gédéon Lavaltrie Drummondville Lafontaine Laurentides surrounding the St. Lawrence River, the principal outlet for L'Assomption Asbestos St-Jérôme St-GermainLac Aylmer Pine Hill Weedon de-Grantham the Great Lakes. The lowlands are bordered to the east by Mascouche Repentigny Centre Varennes C Lachute Mirabel Terrebonne Richmond St-Hyacinthe Lac-Mégantic ale an extension of the Appalachian mountain chain and to the èr Windsor Mont-St-Hilairee Acton-V Mont e Hawkesbury Laval East Angus S vièr Noire Mégantic Vankleek Hill Ri north by the Canadian Shield. The Champlain Sea, which 1105m Woburn Roxton-Sud Dorval t Sherbrooke Verdun ᭡ The wooded Gaspé Granby Valcour Ri gau d mo flooded the area during the last glacial period, deposited n Waterloo Vaudreuil Châteauguay Rock Forest ton St-Luc Peninsula (Péninsule de Gaspé) Eastman Chartierville Mercier Alexandria includes the Notre Dame and clay over much of the area. St-Jean Cowansville Magog Salaberry-deLancaster ts Valleyfield Napierville Shickshock mountains (Monts Dunham Coaticook Raisin onton Lac M ut Lac Mont Chic-Chocs). These are a Ormstown In 1971, large quantities of Cornwall Memphrémagog Hereford 841m Champlain S Dundee northerly outcrop of the marine clay liquefied and iè F u Ea O S S T A T E I T E D The Laurentide Scarp, along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, is a 2000 ft (610 m) escarpment, marking the rim of the Canadian Shield. 13 Appalachian mountain chain. flowed into the Saguenay River, killing 30 people. Large landslides often occur on waterlogged slopes. The flat plains of the St. Lawrence Valley were formed when the area was inundated by the Champlain Sea during the last glacial period. 14 Scale 1:3,000,000 Km 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 15 0 5 10 30 20 40 50 60 70 River bank or bluff Miles projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Earthflow Sand Lake Superior Clay River Lake Huron ᭣ Point Pelee is a worldfamous site for bird migration. Over 250 species of bird have been sighted on the sandspit which forms the southern tip of the Canadian mainland. N O P Q Lake Erie R S Lake Ontario T The Great Lakes moderate the climate of the area surrounding the St. Lawrence River. Their water, which cools more slowly than the land, acts as a reservoir for warmth, extending the growing season into the early fall. U V Mount Royal, around which the city of Montréal has developed, is the result of an igneous intrusion which occurred between 135 and 65 million years ago. W X 16 ᭡ In the lowlands around the St. Lawrence, earthflows have developed along gentle river banks where sand overlies clay, making the surface layers very unstable. When the slope’s natural equilibrium is disturbed, an earthflow can occur. Y 17 Z 15
  • 49. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J The United States of America 1 C O T E R M I N O U S U S ( F O R A L A S K A A N D H AWA I I S E E PA G E S 3 8 - 3 9 ) The US’s progression from frontier territory to economic and political superpower has taken less than 200 years. The 48 coterminous states, along with the outlying states of Alaska and Hawaii, are part of a federal union, held together by the guiding principles of the US Constitution, which embodies the ideals of democracy and liberty for all. Abundant fertile land and a rich resource base fueled and sustained US economic development. With the spread of agriculture and the growth of trade and industry came the need for a larger workforce, which was supplied by millions of immigrants, many seeking an escape from poverty and political or religious persecution. Immigration continues today, particularly from Central America and Asia. 3 ᭡ Washington DC was established as the site for the nation’s capital in 1790. It is home to the seat of national government, on Capitol Hill, as well as the President’s official residence, the White House. ᭤ The clear waters of Niagara Falls cascade 190 ft (58 m) into the gorge below. It is one of America’s most famous spectacles and a leading tourist attraction. The falls are slowly receding and the gorge may one day stretch from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. Scale 1:11,450,000 O gh dlan Little M ds Ri ver ur isso i River Hardin n or r Ba Miles City Devils Lake Minot Lake eyenne River Sakakawea Sh Grand Forks N OR T H DA KO TA e ton ws Glendive llo Ye rR ive Ca ny on ll s Bl tone River ws Riv er n a R d e a c s Mussels ck Rugby Williston Dickinson Jamestown Bismarck Bowman e wd Broadus Po Devils Towe r Sheridan 1558m Mobridge Lake of the Woods Upper Red Lake Crookston Lower Red Lake Leech Lake Valley City Fargo MINNES Brainerd Fergus Falls Wahpeton Morris Saint Cloud Aberdeen Lake Oahe R Yellowston e Lake R Lake iver hel l R Billings Y Missouri River Wolf Point Fort Pe Sidney ANA K a Glasgow G Bozem an Dillon A Bottineau Lewistown Bi an Ri ver e g R a n g e s s t a 400 iver es R Jam o 350 Red River MONT Anaco Helena nda Butte C C 300 D r Misso ula Borah Pe 3859m ak Boise I D A H Malta Mi s Great Fal sour i Rive ls Range oka sar Ab Malhe Lake ur Sal on Riv m e S almo n Rive Mo u n r tain s Caldw ell Burn s ns O Harn ey Basin Uppe Lake r Klamath 250 Havre R GON Range ORE He w is o M u e Baker Bend Kalisp ell Flathea Lake d ang e Rose burg Pass Ashla nd Yrek a un nt Euge ne Clear Moun water tains r Cres cent Cit Moun 3199mt Jefferson 400 A Cut Ban k Shelby o ot R A Ca Blan pe co Gra nts Herm Walla Wa P iston lla Dalle endleto n s s La Gr n ande tai ai te r r s Ba y The Mosc ow Lewis ton Bit Co o Salem akim a Rich Snake River land K Co enne lumbia wick River L Pend ake Oreille Coeu r d'A lene ou Long view Port land Spo WAS ee kane H I NG TON Y 350 200 150 100 N Libby t M P 7 Mou Rain nt ie 4392 r m Wena tch Fr D.Roo anklin iver sevelt Lake S andp oint ne 6 Taco ma ralia g 300 Miles bi Asto ria ᭡ Mount Rainier is a dormant volcano in the Cascade Range, Washington. This 14,090 ft (4392 m) peak is flanked by the most extensive glacier outside Alaska. Cent o an Ok 50 250 200 projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Le 5 Ev Seatterett le 150 100 25 0 A Ca Olym pia Mou Vern nt on 0 25 50 8 ell o Belli ngha m P Mou ort Ang nt O lymp eles 2428 us m Seattle -Taco ma Km C Colu mbi aR Cap e Fla tter y 4 nd iver s er T Flint Hill s in Green Riv er Co A Colora Riverdo L KANSAS O T G n lica P N I Canadian A River NA OKL AHO MA N I N NEW MEX IC O Phoen ix n ca o do S Rio Gra nd e N C n Co lora do R iv x River Big Siou A Sacram ento Rive r E tns ie M am ar S T A T E S U sla iego IO NEBRASKA O te in r Pa e s e D lI 13 tte River Pla ey ne A ARIZO an Transportation & industry th Nor n ll Va es Ch Los A ngele s San D COLOR AD ins unta Mo an Ju an D e at h ey E 12 ING U N I T verE D Den Colorad P l a t e a uo ll Va g an st R IA hor n Big nt ain s u Mo ui n Coa e W hit ai n s t Mo u n q Joa C F OR N SO UT H DA KO TA M A DA U TA H a a d S an O CALI r Rive NEV Y Gree m C 11 Hu I 10 Range Wasatch e v a N y S i e r r le Va l ral Cent F 9 W YO M n ce e pe nde Ind untains Mo I Coast Ranges C 8 Klam Falls ath bi lu m e R CoSnak Cody Willmar Namp Ketc Redfield Watertown a hum Hyndman Peak Belle Fourche 3681m exburg Buffalo Gille Moun Spearfish tte tain H a Lake l Grand Te o ive a P view Marshall Bla ck Shosho me Thermopol r la r P Idah Lake 4197m ton Rapid City ne Pierre is te a Hi o ive Eure Brookings New Ulm Newcastle lls Sharpe Cody Moun Falls Gannett Peak Goose u ka ke R Sn a Men Cape Lake 4316mt Shasta Twin F 4207m Pocatell docin alls Mitchell Hot Springs Fairmont eR o ver o nn a White Ri Fremont Burley eye l Peak Riverton Casp Winner Worthington Redd Ch ad Sioux Falls Bear er B Pine Ridge ing 4189m Winn Douglas Lake emuc L Yankton ca Spencer Susan Chadron Gre at Valentine Brigham Logan iver ville n Great Divid Great S ra R City Missouri R e bra alt Sioux City b o l d t R i ve r iv Nio Winne Basin Pyram Poin O’Neill Wheatland Lake Ogden Chic Green Riv id t Are Rawlins Alliance Elko Lake mucca o er Rock Batt na Lake Salt La Springs Norfolk Evanston Fl No Scottsbluff ke City B a s ile Mountain Yuba Reno Carroll rth aming Gor n Cit Sa Pla S an d Hi Reservoir ge tte Laramie Tooele Fallo Sant crame y lls Riv Fremont n a nto er Council Car Columbus Ros Kim Ogallala Nort Uinta Mountains h Platte Lake son City Fort er Utah La Bluffs Cheyenne ball San F Ber a Riv ke Austi Provo Tahoe Collins te Omaha n Vernal W Grand Island ranc keley S at Creston hi Nephi Pl Lexington Walke isco tock R ivete Sterling r Lak Hastings ton Ely r Delta Lincoln Haw th e Price Glenwood Roan orne Wheele San J Oa k land Mono r Peak Springs Plateau Lake Denver ose Mod 3981m Sant Repu Tonop esto River a Cr Sevier b Green R Boun ah Aurora ado uz dary P iver lor Aspen Merc Saint Joseph Lake 4005m eak Mon Richfiel ed Colby terey d Limon Burlington Grand Mount Elbert 192 Salin River Moab Ju as Smoky Hil Mount Pe nction Calien 4399m Delano ls Manhattan Kansas City Fresn ale Colorado Sp Smoky te Hill 3710m Peak rings o 3877m Hays Salina River Alam Montrose Topeka Lawrence Canon City o Uncompahg Cedar Visali re Peak City Moun a Pueblo Saint G t Whit McPherson 4361m ney Great Bend eorge Owen4418m S Emporia Lamar San L s iver uis O Garden City Hutchinson Lake Bl in R Newton Cortez bisp La Junta Arkansas River Las Ve Page Virg Monumen uff o gas Durango t Pratt Dodge City Lake Fort Scott Valley Hend Sant Mead Kayenta erson a Ma d Canyo Hills Wichita Wheeler Pe Trinidad Shiprock ria an Black Mesa Bake ed ak r G Sant rsfiel 4011m Liberal R a Bar 1516m rand Arkansas City Coffeyville Joplin Farmingt Raton d Moj on bar a Canyon ave Guymon Humph Ponca City Beaver Ri Barsto D e reys Peak Miami Clayton ver Woodwar sert w d Bartlesville Los Alam 3851m Kin os Gallup Dalhart Enid Needle gman Tulsa t d Lake H s Santa Fe San B Flagsta Long avasu ernar ff Dumas B e ac Muskogee dino City dian River Grants h Presco ana Rivers tt ide Holbroo Amarillo C Pampa Clinton El Reno Santa Oklahoma City er Wickenb k Ocea Albuquerq Ana urg nside ue Bly Norman er Fort Smith Tucumcari Chickasha Saint John ds Salton the Escon s Canadian Riv Wichita Canyon Sky Har Sea dido bor McAlester Mountains Hereford Clovis El Cajo Ada Scottsd Baldy Peak Duncan Socorro n El Cen ale Childress Lawton Plainview 3476m tro Gi Globe Mesa la Sonoran Ardmore Sierra Blan Vernon Riv Durant Hugo ca er Yuma Peak Casa G rande Wichita Falls 3649m r Desert Roswell L l a Rive Silver Safford Lubbock a Tularosa t Paris Sherman Red City The US has been the industrial powerhouse Es Brownfield Denton Tucson Alamogordo Artesia of the world since the Second World War, Dallas-Fort Worth Mount Lamesa Deming Snyder Las Cruce Hobbs Pleasant s Carls Fort Worth Green Va Chiricahu bad pioneering mass-production and the consumer Abilene lley Big Spring 2986m a Peak Arlington Longview Nogales El Paso Stephenville Douglas Tyler lifestyle. Initially, heavy engineering and manufacturing in the Guadalupe Peak Co y S Dallas wa sP l at e O C E A Detroit Buffalo Fredericksburg A EX IC O Houston New Orleans N EA OC 148,308 miles (235,238 km) 25,467 miles (41,009 km) aerospace car manufacture chemicals coal electronics engineering food processing hi-tech industry oil & gas C TI N M LA AT Dallas Birmingham 17 Major industry and infrastructure Jacksonville Orlando Transportation in the US is dominated by the car which, with the extensive Interstate Highway system, allows great personal mobility. Today, internal air flights between major cities provide the most rapid cross-country travel. Bay City Beeville u e c e s Ri v research & development textiles tourism capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas Galveston Freeport Port Lavaca Aransas Pass Corpus Christi Kingsville Laredo re Is l a n d Raleigh Nashville Atlanta 52,388 miles (84,361 km) Victoria Eagle Pass Pasadena Pa d Greensboro Saint Louis Los Angeles 3,875,040 miles (6,240,000 km) San Antonio Uvalde O Bryan oR iv Seguin N Cincinnati Kansas City New Braunfels Del Rio nde Denver Phoenix Transportation network Lufkin Huntsville Hearne Austin Col ora Houston d au a Gr Cleveland New York Philadelphia WASHINGTON DC Pittsburgh Killeen Ri o Chicago San Diego C Nacogdoches er I Milwaukee S Temple Brady rd Emory Peak 2385m Boston Minneapolis 16 Fort Stockton AB Waco er N Alpine C A N A D A Portland San Francisco C I F I C P A X 40 ver X Brownwood r Rive zos ra Rio E lora Midland do Odessa Ri San Angelo Ed E Pecos Peco Van Horn s Ri r ve M Seattle T 2667m ande Gr northeast led the economy. Today, heavy industry has declined and the US economy is driven by service and financial industries, with the most important being defense, hi-tech, and electronics. 14 G F UL McAllen Harlin gen Brownsville Tampa Gulf of Mexico Miami F G H I J K L M
  • 50. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U N I T E D S TAT E S O F A M E R I C A N O P Q R The landscape S T Mount Rainier U V W Great Plains X Y The Great Lakes The high, rugged mountain ranges of the west are about 80 million years old, geologically young compared to the old, eroded, Appalachian mountain chain, which dates from when North America and Europe were joined together as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, 400 million years ago. In contrast, the Great Plains and Mississippi Basin have a low relief and fertile soils. 2 Barrier beaches, bars and spits are typical of the Atlantic coast. These sand formations around Cape Hatteras stretch along the coast for 200 miles (320 km). Death Valley, California, 282 ft (86 m) below sea level, is the lowest point in the western hemisphere, and one of the hottest places on Earth. Temperatures of 135° F (57° C) have been recorded here. Monument Valley’s striking sandstone spires and pillars (buttes) have been formed by the action of wind, water, heat, and cold. r B ay iga L ake Mich sa Mount Plea Sheboygan Wate Roch Bay City nt s ra Fall Niaga Saginaw on Port Hur Sy racuse Saint Joh nR iv Y O R K ton N E W Bingham lo Buffa P HAM NE r MAI Bango le l er vi Wat sta ugu A n isto Lew nswick Bru d SH I R E n ortla P eford Bidd outh rtsm Po r Ha CONNEC ISLAND TIC n urgh U ren mestow Corning Newb New en T Madison ilwaukee sing Pontiac War Lake Saint Clair i e Erie Ja rd M av amfo H St Lan Mason City it E r Warren esville Racine NISAanton Island Jan g A Detro e son Ann Arbor er Newk Lon Pater rk NSYLV ort cr Waukegan Dubuque Cedar Falls Hillsdale Kalamazoo a k eland PEN Williamsp College or Waterloo Rockford Newa O’Hare ledo L ClevWarren n Y To w WA own State Elgin Chicago Elkhart Allento renton Youngstastle Cedar Rapids Aurora Bowling Akron T Ames rg New C ter Green hia South Bend ancas Davenport Joliet h Harrisbu City L Iowa Gary iladelp Y ittsburg Findlay O H I O ton P ton Ph W J E R S E ayne stown es g Can Des Moin Fort W John Rock Island Kankakee Wilmin DE NE d Mansfield wn LA g n Ottumwa Galesburg Unionto Cumberland De Wheelin Vinela sM IN DIA NA re Peoria ge imo La Crosse i ippi R Mississ Albert Lea Grand Rapids Flint bor Har in e 5 ᭡ The massive drainage basin of the Mississippi covers 1,250,000 sq miles (3,200,000 sq km). It includes all areas drained by the Mississippi and its chief tributaries, the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, and drains the entire region from the Appalachians to the Rockies. 6 Map key Elevation Population 7 above 5 million 1 million to 5 million 4000m / 13,124ft 500,000 to 1 million 3000m / 9843ft 100,000 to 500,000 2000m / 6562ft 50,000 to 100,000 1000m / 3281ft 10,000 to 50,000 8 500m / 1640ft below 10,000 n Muskegon Bar is este ord Manch Conc n well y Lo BostoCape Cod Alban sfield itt ETTS idence rd S P o ineyard ACHU Prov Bedf MASS New ar tha’s V Island M E d D ucket R HO rtfor Nant R nt a r i o Oswego Mohawka iver L a k eeO r Utic ste ron Appleton ndack Adiro ins nd Rutla nta rtown Mou Hu Rochester Oshkosh Tomah ty Traverse Ci Cadillac Ludington sburg Ogden e Point Green Bay A N NSIN Minneapolis WISCO Wausau Saint Paul Stevens IG Lake plain port Cham New ONTrlin RM Be burgh VE Platts ngton lier Burli pe Mont non Leba NEW D k aw H La g in IC n M 8 A Sa M isq OTA A N a Houghton Apostle Islands Red Wing Owatonna hdin t Kata Moun 1605m a oln Cal Linc Keweenaw Peninsula th Marquette Dulu Marie Sault Sainte wood Iron Cloquet Ashland Saint Ignace gan Iron Mille Lacs Cheboy Mountain Lake Petoskey Escanaba lander Rhine Rice Lake Alpena Grand Rapids ue PresqIsle lton Hou Gulf o fM Lake Superio lls Hi Mississippi River Mississippi Delta er New Eng lan d Virginia ah u 4 Ohio River t a i n s International Falls The Everglades are a vast area of sawgrass swamp covering 4000 sq miles (10,300 sq km) of southern Florida. Missouri River A Saganaga Lake 3 The Great Smoky Mountains, part of the ancient Appalachian mountain chain, formed a natural barrier to early settlers attempting to penetrate the country’s interior. Most of the US is drained by the great Mississippi River system. At its mouth, where levées are breached, floodwaters are carried to the swamps through a series of channels. This region is known as the bayou. The deep gullies of South Dakota’s badlands are created by periodic, torrential rainfall, which erodes the soft soils and rocks. Their form has been greatly affected by changes in land use. ᭣ Devils Tower, in Wyoming is a 1280 ft (390 m) intrusion of basalt rock, which cooled to form octagonal pillars. In 1906 it became the first US National Monument. C Namakan Lake 1 Niagara Falls 250m / 820ft ID A ee Kissimm rt Pierce Largo Fo Tampa Lake tersburg Saint Pe ee lm Beach sota keechob O Sara West Pa O B Miami Miami rgo Key La ey s P Milwaukee Q R r Flo K ida S i tra ts Detroit Denver Kansas City EAN New York Philadelphia Cleveland Pittsburgh Cincinnati WASHINGTON DC Chicago San Francisco Buffalo Saint Louis Greensboro Los Angeles San Diego Birmingham Dallas M Jacksonville EX IC New Orleans Houston O Tampa 14 Orlando Gulf of Mexico Land use and agricultural distribution cattle pigs poultry citrus fruits cotton fishing fruit corn peanuts shellfish soybeans timber tobacco wheat Raleigh Nashville Atlanta Phoenix Miami capital cities major towns pasture cropland forest wetland desert mountain region 15 The urban/rural population divide urban 76% 0 10 20 30 40 rural 24% 50 60 70 80 Population density 100 Total land area 98 people per sq mile (38 people per sq km) 90 2,959,045 sq miles (7,663,631 sq km) 16 ᭣ Farming on the Great Plains and in the Midwest is characterized by large-scale, mechanized wheat farms. o f Cape Sable Key West aton le uderda Fort La each ida h la e des Boca R or rs Fort Mye ss Big Cypre Swamp Naples Trg Ev e Fl lotte Port Char Charlotte Harbor ᭤ Fakahatchee Strand is part of the extensive subtropical swamps in the Florida Everglades. The swamps support a wide variety of animal life, including many rare birds, fish, alligators, and crocodiles. Boston Minneapolis OC L T O A Portland A L D IC N A p F R ICO MEX OF N C A N A Seattle I t n SOUTH INA CAROL 11 AT LOUISIANA Cape ras Hatte Flin tR iv Ala bam a River MISSISSIPPI hic alac ola River Ap ta A L A BA M A IA G E ORG m Ri ah nn va O Mississippi P o 10 NT n Over half of the US is used for agriculture, typified by the large cereal grain farms and cattle ranches of the Great Plains and Midwest prairie regions. Although wheat and corn are still primary crops, a diverse range of fruits and vegetables are grown in the fertile areas, particularly near the east and west coasts. Despite the abundance of cultivable land, inadequate soil management has resulted in a third of the topsoil being lost through wind and water erosion. LA er New B ville Fayette Using the land and sea C LIN d boro Greens aleigh m R Durha A O H CAR N O R T harlotte d ie O Danv O C E A N n Winstom Sale A Riv er ARKANSAS C E A n a id o un e R ia Virgin Beach C F I C C I P A p u Bl N P m Pa le sonvil C Jack burg Bay Bostonins Laurin ta Onslow Moun gton lle ga ce Wilmin ar Greenvi Chattanoo Floren e Memphis Tenne e R West n Cape F Conway Memphis s s e iv e r Anderso Scottsboro Russellville Corinth ood ia Beach esville Greenw Lake Florence Myrtle Columb Huntsville Gain Little Rock Holly Decatur n Rome arietta Athens Ouachita Ark s an rgetow M Spring Cullm Geo Aiken Riv ansa Hot er s Gadsden Springs Tupelo Atlanta Hamilton Augusta Clarksdale Pine Sa Arkadelphia Bluff Griffin Birmingham Anniston ston Winona Camden uac Charle Columbus La Grange Ri hi sa ver e Greenvill Tuscaloo Macon ublin D Texarkana Opelika El Dorado o ver Statesbor bus ah Demopolis Phenix Colum Altama Savann ha t Monroe Shrevepor City ian Selma Riv Cordele Vicksburg Merid 64 er tgomer y Troy Mon Albany on Jesup Bossier Ruston Tallulah Jackson Tift City r nswick e s Bru Laurel Waycros Natchitoches Natchez Andalusia Dothan Valdosta Brookhaven ille ew ton Hattiesburg kefenokee Br O McComb Jacksonv Bainbridge Swamp Toledo Crestview dria Bend Reservoir Alexan Mobile e Lake City gustine Fort Walton De Ridder Tallahasse Saint Au Baton Rouge Biloxi Beach Opelousas Pensacola Panama City esville Gulfport Gain a Beach Lafayette Lake Day ton Apalachee New Orleans Lake Charles San Blas ay B Cape New Orleans Metairie New George Deltona Beaumont Iberia l o Houma Morgan OrlandCape Canavera City rne Mississippi Melbou River Delta d Lakelan Lake TENNESSEE 9 M a Bowlin Lake Paducah Lake Cape Girardeau au Kingsport Green Sikeston y Barkley Cumberland ok Poplar Kentucky arksville Cl m s Bluff t S in Lake Cookeville e a nt a Gr ou Nashville Mountain Pocahontas Knoxville M Home Blytheville Dyersburg Asheville Watts Jonesboro urg Jackson Spartanb Bar Lake Cu mb erl an dP lat e i h KY K E N T U C Somerset g yn L e t News Roanok Newpor uth rtsmo ski Po Pula ille c Lexington wn Elizabethto oS Owensboro ond INIA VIRGhburg Richm rg orfolk u c etersb T e Poto COLU MAR ma cR sburg ive derick r Fre ton Charles Beckley Pikeville Bluefield D TON H I NG D WAS YLAN IC DISTR MBIA Dover Dulles ton Arling T OF li c Vernon r on Huntingt Frankfort a a u ington Farm Columbus iver oR Louisville Evansville EST th W Portsmou IRGINIA V Spruce Knob 1482m ge te Mi ssis si i River pp a Springfield P l r k West z a Plains O Vincennes Saint Louisunt Mo on Wilmingt Athens i Cincinnat Terre Haute Bloomington Oh io R iv Jefferson City Rolla Effingham Lambert-Saint Louis Sedalia MIS SOU RI In IL LI N O IS l Columbia Springfield Ohi Illinois River ver Ri Moberly Day ton Balt town Morgan burg Parkers E Hannibal souri Mis Cambrid AR W es O F A E R I C Columbus A M dianapolis Burlington Keokuk Quincy sea level N o u v Riv oin er 100m / 328ft 64 U Y 17 Z 17
  • 51. NORTH AMERICA G H I J K L USA: NORTHEASTERN STATES Map key Population above 5 million 1 million to 5 million C o n n e c t i c u t , M a i n e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , N e w H a m p s h i r e , N e w J e r s e y, N e w Yo r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a , R h o d e I s l a n d , V e r m o n t 100,000 to 500,000 The indented coast and vast woodlands of the northeastern states were the original core area for European expansion. The rustic character of New England prevails after nearly four centuries, while the great cities of the Atlantic seaboard have formed an almost continuous urban region. Over 20 million immigrants entered New York from 1855 to 1924 and the northeast became the industrial center of the US. After the decline of mining and heavy manufacturing, economic dynamism has been restored with the growth of hi-tech and service industries. 12,872 miles (20,592 km) s t a i n r n e ett ss R i ve R a qu ou T D Whitehall Woodstock Poultney e e r r c R an ge Cre r kil Ta c oni ive r S ch oh ar i e Ri ve Riv e Hudson e Cre Ly c om h Ga wa re Wa ter a ing k c S a Riv a an n eh Su s q u ai nt ou A e aR s ive ca r Ri v M A R Y L A N D N M a or ar sc nn JERSEY en p p A il H l re au L Philadelphia ha e D E L AWA r ice Mau ver Ri GINIA VIR WEST T NEW ue Mononga PENNSYLVANIA sq 20 land New York L o n g I s Su l Al l e g h e n y M o u n l i 17 y W E ST V I RG I NIA MASSAC CONNECT A T L P e h k nc iv e r ee Cr ek ns Neversink River R re S Al l e g h o ai n aR yR gh Yo u R r p la Ch n i t la A ive r yR a Rive r ll e g Ti o g ne a nn re lM t un C at s h r O n S ese ve r iv e I li c R Ri Pi s Ots e e Ri r ve r ga n a S i n n e mC r e hen a in Ch ni o c to l ek Al l e g hela Rive am s N CA en ug h ho Al l Cre a i u v Ti o Co C M o t Ri F i n g e r e s a k L a sic N E W YO R K h ve r H Ad Medina l Er ie Cana t Oi Fre nc Ri O VERMONT Rutland oo rie 16 RE 18 r Newfane Lewiston t A ve Lake Pleasant ir Chelsea Ri a Schroon Lake Lake George Barre ite d H Indian Lake r Rive Boonville on Vergennes Mount Marcy Bristol 1629m Mount Moosalamoo 799m Vanderwhacker Mountain 1032m s on Moose River Montpelier Elizabethtown ud Salmon River Reservoir oo ski R i Camels Hump 1244m v e r Lake Placid Wh Blue Mountain ve r Stillwater Raquette 1146m Lake Reservoir Old Forge South Burlington Mountain 1483m ek Cre Adams Lowville Ninemile Point Pulaski Oswego Mexico A Tupper Lake Milton Mount Mansfield 1339m Burlington Whiteface O t te r Beaver Ri Rive Lake Champlain c rana n Rive r Carthage Watertown Sa Wallingford Lake George Sodus Camden Hilton Ludlow Fulton Point Springfield Glens Falls Hinckley Reservoir Greece Oneida Lake Webster Albion Niagara Falls Lockport Erie Rome Rochester Spencerport Baldwinsville Northville East Rochester Niagara Falls Manchester Canal Whitesboro Stratton Tonawanda Batavia Saratoga North Syracuse Canastota Fairport Oneida Little Great Sacandaga Lyons Mountain Schuylerville Springs Amherst Lake Falls Utica Ilion 1200m Palmyra Kenmore Syracuse Wampsville Fairmount Depew Newark Le Roy Putney Gloversville Manlius Auburn Mount Fonda Amsterdam Canandaigua Buffalo Richfield Lancaster Attic Waterville M Snow a Gene Avon Waterloo East Mechanicville H Lackawanna Springs seo Canandaig ua 1084m ha r Glenville Geneva East Aurora Orchard Park w k R i ve Warsaw Schenectady Lake Bennington Mount Morris Rotterdam Lake Erie Beach Cohoes er Hamburg Perr y Penn Yan Williamstown Latham Troy Cobleskill Silver Creek C Cayuga Homer North Turners Schoharie at Dansville Keuka Cooperstown Dunkirk Albany Adams ar Delmar Lake Falls Cortland Arcade au g u s Cre ek Lake Mount Greylock ek Seneca Rensselaer Springville 1063m Greenfield Fredonia Lake Gowanda Norwich Ravena Westfield Oneonta Pittsfield G Ca er North Amherst t sk Ithaca Mayville North Eas Oxford Ri v Bath il l Amherst Little Valley R Watkins Glen Presque Isle t nn a o Chautauqua Hornell Cr Alfred ng eh a ee Delhi Lake ani na iv e r squ Sidney k Erie Salamanca e u s te Black Dome y Belmont Horseheads o Holyoke Corning 1213m Jamestown R Walton n Great Catskill Wellsville Lakewood Johnson City Cannonsville e Hunter Mountain Allegheny Olean Elmira Barrington Chicopee Che Endicott u Reservoir 1232m Saugerties mun Mount gR Elkland Reservoir a Waverly Binghamton Pepacton Ashokan Frissell 725mSpringfield iv e Albion Downsville e Bradford Union City Warren r i ve r Reservoir Reservoir Cobb Hill qu e R Canaan Windsor Locks Sayre nes Tioga Slide Mountain a 782m Hancock ow 1274m Kingston Winsted Amenia Coudersport C Montrose Windsor Mansfield D e l aw n eg Meadville Wellsboro Torrington Hartford Liberty a Towanda h Hyde Park Elk Hill Mount Jewett e n y R i v e Kane Pymatuning New Paltz Galeton West Hartford East Blossburg Titusville Wyalusing 821m Reservoir Wilcox us Bristol Red Oaks Mill Ellenville eek Hartford qu Canton Cr Monticello k Tionesta Cr ehaFactoryville New Britain a Emporium Lake Wappingers Falls Carbondale Walden t ee Marienville Johnsonburg nn k Oil City Ti o n e s ee Wilhelm Lake Waterbury Meriden aR Orange Lake Cr k e i ve Clarks Summit Ralston Franklin Candlewood Cre Dushore ttle ck r Ridgway Ke ive r Middletown Newburgh Beacon Sharon l so Dunmore r i on R Mercer Goshen ya Cla Renovo Carmel Laporte Taylor Knox Port Jervis Hamden Lo ho North Farrell Scranton ek ni Clarion Brockway Danbury Shelton Haven Swoyersville High Point Jersey Williamsport qu e h Peekskill Grove City Weedville n g Brookville New Haven p 550m Monroe Milford Shore us East Du Bois Slipper y Rock Ridgefield West Haven Warwick Haven Nanticoke Muncy B ea Karthaus Dingmans Ferry ve r Milford Sussex New City Mount Kisco Wilkes Barre a New Castle ve r Lock Have k C Rey noldsville Clearfiel Montgomery n Br Bridgeport Lake Ossining Ringwood d k Re d b an e st Berwick Norwalk re e Spring Valley Newton Milton Punxsutawney Curwensville Arthur W S oun d C Grassflat i East Stroudsburg Ellwood City Bu Stamford Island Wanaque g le Lewisburg Mattituck tler v e r Bloomsburg Freeland Ea Beaver Falls Mifflinburg Wayne Mahoning White Plains Long Stroudsburg el a Yonkers ld Sound Beach Danville D Hopatcong Bellefonte Ba New Rochelle New Brighton Paterson Sunbury KittanningCreek Lake Jim Thorpe Bangor State College Hackensack Smithtown Selinsgrove Beaver Dover er Shamokin Lehighton Clifton Dixonville Morristown Tyrone Natrona Heights Aliquippa Am bridge i n Belvidere Bernardsville Brentwood Mastic La Guardia New Kensington Indiana Pottsville Coraopolis Etna t a Easton Phillipsburg Jersey City Levittown Penn Newark n u Pittsburgh Hills Somerville Ebensburg Mifflintown Fire Island John F Kennedy Plainfield Altoona Huntingdon ve Blairsville M o Allentown Bethlehem Monroeville a Ri r Millersburg Lykens Mount Lebanon Flemington Edison Staten Island Long Beach New i at Portage Hollidaysburg u e Mckeesport un Fleetwood Emmaus Bethel Park Bloomfield J New Brunswick Sayreville Sandy Hook Latrobe Johnstown B l Laureldale Quakertown n Hazlet Linglestown Lebanon Kendall Park Mount Union Monongahela Clairton Greensburg Westmont Princeton Reading Doylestown Harrisburg Middletown Raystown Washington Monessen Mount Palmyra Lambertville Pleasant Hershey Shillington Lake Windber Long Branch Pottstown Freehold New Cumberland Lansdale California Trenton Middletown Ephrata Asbury Park Scottdale Spring City Warminster Carlisle Lititz Elizabethtown io Neptune Norristown New Holland Shippensburg iv g h e Phoenixville Everett Levittown Lakewood er n Waynesburg Columbia Lancaster Bedford Point Pleasant Abington Willingboro Berlin Coatesville Silverton Uniontown Mount Holly Chambersburg McConnellsburg Toms River Camden Masontow Browns Mount Morris Upper York West Chester Point Marion Cherry Hill Mills Seaside Heights Darby Mount Davis n Red Lion Hyndman Kennett Square Chester Tu Gettysburg 979m Greencastle Island Hanover Oxford Philadelphia Beach New Freedom Mu Lindenwold Penns Grove l li Barnegat Pitman in Carneys Point P r Glassboro Manahawkin ar Pennsville Elmer Surf City r B Salem Buena Egg Harbor City Long Beach Vineland Island Mays Landing Bridgeton 64 Millville Brigantine Pleasantville Atlantic City Somers Point Ventnor City Port Norris Ocean City 22 Woodbine Delaware Cape May Court House Bay Villas Avalon North Wildwood North Cape May Cape May Cape May B C D E F G H L M E Lake 32 s o 10 Re g i Philadelphia Cranberry Lake i ve r 9 a hie ck R A us Sackets Harbor Galloo Island Stony Point O n t a r i o L a k e ho O s w e ga Bl a major towns chemicals international airports coal major roads defense major industrial area electronics engineering finance hi-tech industry iron & steel pharmaceuticals printing & publishing research & development textiles timber processing I nd Missisquoi Richford Bay Enosburg North Hero Falls Saint Albans Dannemora Plattsburgh L a Lyon Mountain moille R i v e r Johnson 1167m Champlain Carry Falls Reservoir Saranac Lake tc Major industry and infrastructure int Potsdam Canton Black Lake Gouverneur Alexandria Bay ds slan Malone nta ins 14 Sa ve r M D el aware Ogdensburg A Ri r Wi L AT int Sa r ive e R Massena ck nd O C yla AN C 7 8 N E e nc wr La R ive r Mar TI D A N Philadelphia We s t Virg inia C sea level iv e r New Jerse y 100m / 328ft A Sa Harrisburg 250m / 820ft nR Pittsburgh 2108 miles (3389 km) New York’s commercial success is tied historically to its transportation connections. The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, opened up the Great Lakes and the interior to New York’s markets and carried a stream of immigrants into the Midwest. A 6 4813 miles (7700 km) o lm Ohio 5 500m / 1640ft 340,090 miles (544,144 km) Mai ne A D A A N Elevation 1000m / 3281ft The principal seaboard cities grew up on trade and manufacturing. They are now global centers of commerce and corporate Ver mont Portland New administration, dominating the regional Hamp shi re Syracuse economy. Research and development facilities Albany Rochester support an expanding electronics and Buffalo Massachusett s New York communications sector throughout the region. Boston C on ne c t ic ut Pharmaceutical and chemical industries are Hartford Providence Pennsy lvania R ho de Island New York important in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. C below 10,000 Transportation network Transportation & industry 4 10,000 to 50,000 ᭡ Chelsea in Vermont, surrounded by trees in their fall foliage. Tourism and agriculture dominate the economy of this self-consciously rural state, where no town exceeds 30,000 people. Gra 3 50,000 to 100,000 Una Rivdilla er 2 500,000 to 1 million G 1 M u F o E M D n C an al B in C A I C
  • 52. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – N O R T H E A S T E R N S TAT E S P T nt Jo Long hn R Fort Lake Kent Beau Lake int Joh nR i Allag a sh Ri ve r Squa Pan Mountain Ashland 451m hia s River ve r Sa Mars Hill ok o o s to Saddleback Mountain Ri ac N C A o u n t a i n s r Limestone Caribou rn Washbu Fort Fairfield Presque Isle M 517m Ar ᭡ The Hancock Tower dominates the skyline of Boston’s business district. New England’s principal city has grown through land reclamation within Massachusetts Bay. Eagle Lake Fish River Lake Churchill Lake Eagle Lake Chamberlain Lake Houlton Mount Chase 744m W X Y 1 Pennsylvania has a large rural population and a major agribusiness sector dominated by livestock-raising. Fruit, vegetables, and nursery plants are grown throughout the region, with Mai ne fishing on the coast. Cranberries and maple syrup A NA D are traditional products in New England. CA Ver mont Large areas of cropland in the north were returned to forest New York New in the 20th century. Albany Hamp shi re ive Van Buren V Using the land & sea Sai Madawaska Dickey ve r U Rochester Buffalo 2 Massachusett s Boston 3 C on ne c t ic ut Pennsy lvania New York R ho de Island N O Ohio N a n A Ch l i an MAINE a an i dM an ch 6 c ot B ay 7 C o nn ec t i oR cut Sac River E en obs Kennebec n River g Gr an ut tic s 5 e ke A Ma h E d n M A e l a a p p A c D S a in t C r o i x R i v Pl C A er N 4 A D A Pittsburgh Island Falls Harrisburg C Patten Seboomook Chesuncook Mattawamkeag O Philadelphia t Katahdin Moun Lake Lake Lake New Jerse y IC 1605m Chiputneticook We s t man Mills 14 T Sher M N Virg i nia ar Lakes Moosehead Millinocket 12 yl LA Lake Lake an AT Delaware Danforth d Millinocket Land use and Boundary Bald Mountain Pemadumcook Pe 1109m n ob s co Lake agricultural distribution Vanceboro t Ri Jackman v White Cap Mountain Big Squaw Mountain Mattawamkeag 974m 1111m cattle r Greenville West Moose Rive poultry The urban/rural population divide Grand Coburn Mountain Lincoln cranberries 1133m Lake Tumbledown Brownville Junction a s a n t R i v e r fishing Mountain r urban 83% rural 17% Milo Woodland Sebec Lake 1080m aff Lake ais Flagst Cal fodder Guildford Big Bay Bigelow Mountain fruit Aziscohos Lake 1265m l of maple syrup Lake Lake ne Fundy Stratton ec am 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Bingh n timber Eastport Memphremagog Milford Con Sugarloaf Mountain Town Old La Rangeley 1291m Population density Total land area Lubec major towns Sebasticook Gore Mountain Lead Mountain dner Lake Saddleback Mountain a s Gar Lake 466m 1015m Colebrook Bangor Rive r 1255m pasture Newport Madison 335 people per sq mile 162,258 sq miles Blue Mountain Brewer Mooselookmeguntic cropland (120 people per sq km) (420,232 sq km) Machias Island Pond 998m field Pitts Skowhegan Hampden Lake Graham Lake Barton forest Farmington Cross Island Bucksport Milbridge Jonesport Old Speck Mountain Groveton Oakland Wilton 1274m Ellsworth Winslow Great Wass Island r Rumford Searsport ᭤ Foreign competition and Guildhall Lancaster Blue Hill Rive Livermore Petit Manan Point in China Lake Lyndonville depletion of stocks in the gg Falls Bar Harbor Belfast Berlin An dros co Bethel Moore Augusta Mount Desert Atlantic fishing grounds caused a Reservoir Littleton Island Mount Washington decline in fishing in the seaboard Deer Isle Camden South Paris e 1917m Norway Swans Island it states. Recent years have seen a Gardiner hMount Lafayette Rockland P W Lewiston Waldoboro gradual recovery; Massachusetts Thomaston Lisbon 1600m i n s Auburn Isle au Haut Vinalhaven now annually ranks third or Woodsville t a Pleasant Mountain Bridgton 64 Wiscasset Island 612m North un fourth in the US in terms of the Seal Island Conway Mo Sebago Lisbon Matinicus Bath Falls value of fish landed. Conway Island Lake Brunswick Boothbay Ragged Island iv e r Squam North Windham Harbor Lake Lake Westbrook Plymouth Winnipesaukee Gorham Casco Bay Mount Lebanon 951m Cardigan Portland South Portland Meredith Wolfeboro Cape Elizabeth Saco Bristol Km Laconia Alfred 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sanford Biddeford Kennebunk Northfield Claremont Farmington Rochester Sunapee Lake 40 80 90 100 30 60 70 0 5 10 50 20 Miles Somersworth projection: Lambert Conformal Conic York Harbor Concord Charlestown Dover Henniker Suncook Kittery Hillsboro Newmarket Portsmouth Goffstown Exeter Hampton Manchester Keene ugh ᭤ The islands, inlets and Peterboro Amesbury Milford Newburyport promontories of Maine’s Haverhill Jaffrey coast extend 3500 miles Methuen Plum Island Nashua Winchester The marshy lowlands of the Atlantic Coastal Plain dwindle i v e r Lawrence (5630 km). The tidal range is Cape Ann Winchendon Lowell toward the north, giving way to the rocky coast of Maine. ester Glouc Athol particularly high, varying Danvers Fitchburg Leominster Salem Beverly between 12 and 24 ft Quabbin Uplifted over 400 million years ago, the Appalachian Woburn Lynn Reservoir (3.7–7.3 m). Medford Clinton Malden Mountains have since been carved into several discrete Logan International Barre Hudson Cambridge M The landscape 10 ck R Massachusetts Bay Boston ranges by the region’s main rivers and heavily denuded by successive glacial advances. This broad upland belt, with the younger Adirondack Mountains, is bounded by the Great Lakes in the northwest. Quincy Framingham Dedham Weymouth Stoughton Randolph Marshfield Auburn Palmer Race Provincetown Whitinsville Brockton Point Stafford Southbridge Mansfield Bridgewater Kingston Woonsocket Springs Plymouth Attleboro Cape Cod Cape Cod Taunton Putnam Greenville Pawtucket Orleans Bay Storrs Providence ence East Provid Buzzards Bay Cranston Danielson Somerset Barnstable Nauset Beach Moosup Fall River Warwick South Yarmouth Fairhaven Jewett City Hyannis Tiverton New Bedford Island East Falmouth Monomoy Colchester y Rhode Norwich Ba Falmouth Island cket rds Nantu Kingston Newport zza Great Point Sound Bu Oak Bluffs New London d Edgartown Westerly Soun Rhode Island Groton nd Martha's ucket Isla Niantic Sound Vineyard Nant Nantucket ck Fishers Island Blo Island Block Island Gardiners Island Montauk Point Southold Montauk Sag Harbor ICUT 9 o r r ima N Scale 1:2,750,000 G u l f e Me H U S E T T SNewton Worcester 8 e f w NEW HAMPSHIRE a in The narrow Finger Lakes of northwestern New York State were formed by glaciers cutting into deep deposits of material from an earlier ice advance. R HOD E ISLA ND N E A C The lower Connecticut River has cut down into the flat, clay valley floor, which previously formed the bed of an ice-dammed lake. The Adirondack Mountains were formed when the deeply buried basement rocks were forced upward in a dome by as much as 2 miles (3 km). 12 Green Mountains Deposits of glacial till from the last Ice Age are up to 1000 ft (300 m) deep around Lake Ontario. The Genesee River in New York State has eroded a canyon 800 ft (240 m) deep through the Appalachians. The river continued to cut downward as the land was uplifted. 11 13 Southampton O 15 Softer rock is eroded more quickly Force of water continues to undercut cliffs ᭡ The Niagara Falls were created where the Niagara River reached an escarpment capped by hard limestone. This was gradually eroded, exposing softer rock strata. Plunging water continues to erode the softer strata causing the falls to recede upstream. N Lake Erie, receiving water flowing from the rest of the Great Lakes, drains via the Niagara Falls, into Lake Ontario, which lies 325 ft (99 m) below. River fed by water from the Great Lakes Resistant rock O Q Cape Cod, Long Island and the islands between them mark the top of a great terminal moraine, formed at the front of the ice sheet which once covered the land. This ridge of deposited material was subsequently flooded by rising seas. Dingmans Ferry ᭤ The waterfalls at Dingmans Ferry are typical of those found in villages on the “Fall-line,” where rivers drop from the Appalachians to the coastal lowlands. These locations provide waterpower and are often at the navigable head of the river. P 14 Cape Cod Niagara Falls The Atlantic Coastal Plain is part of the continental shelf, which extends several hundred miles out to sea, providing a rich environment for marine life. R S T U Rising sea levels have flooded river valleys along the coast, creating rias such as Long Island Sound. V W X ᭡ At Provincetown, Cape Cod, complex and powerful ocean currents continue to modify the shoreline, washing away some 3 ft (1 m) of the lower cape each year, while extending the beaches in the north. Y 16 17 Z 19
  • 53. NORTH AMERICA C D E F G H USA: MID-EASTERN STATES 1 100,000 to 500,000 6000m / 19,686ft 50,000 to 100,000 4000m / 13,124ft 10,000 to 50,000 1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft 250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft Covington Newport sea level Cincinnati Florence Alexandria Independence Walton Warsaw Scale 1:3,000,000 0 30 20 5 10 20 40 50 30 60 80 70 40 50 60 Miles projection: Lambert Conformal Conic N A sville D I Loui I N 70 80 Valley Station A Falmouth Carrollton Williamstown Bedford Owenton River 30 Km capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas ng 5 ᭡ The Bluegrass region of Kentucky centers on the town of Lexington. This exceptionally fertile rolling plain is well known for its thoroughbred horse-breeding ranches. 2000m / 6562ft Major industry and infrastructure In the urbanized northeast, manufacturing remains important, alongside a burgeoning service sector. North Carolina is a major center for industrial research and development. Traditional industries include Tennessee whiskey and textiles in South Carolina. The decline of open-pit coal mining in the Appalachians has been hastened by environmental controls, although adventure-tourism is a flourishing new industry. 3000m / 9843ft below 10,000 adventure-tourism car manufacture coal electronics engineering finance food processing hi-tech industry mining research & development textiles M 500,000 to 1 million 0 5 10 Transportation & industry L Li cki 4 K Elevation Population Key events in American history took place in this diverse region, which became the front line between the North and the South during the Civil War of the 1860s. Strong regional contrasts exist between the fertile coastal plains, the isolated upcountry of the Appalachian Mountains, and the cotton-growing areas of the Mississippi lowlands to the west. While coal mining, a traditional industry in the Appalachians, has declined in recent years leaving much rural poverty, service industries elsewhere have increased, especially in Washington DC, the nation’s capital. 3 J Map key D e l a w a r e , D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a , Ke n t u c k y, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Te n n e s s e e , V i r g i n i a , W e s t V i r g i n i a 2 I River B io A Oh New Castle La Grange Cynthiana Eminence Shelbyville Frankfort Georgetown Paris Jeffersontow n S Ro K E N T U C K Y Ken UR I L IN L OI iver I Brandenburg Mount Washington Taylorsville Versailles Lexington Lawrenceburg Irvington Shepherdsville Salt River Henderson Hawesville Lebanon Nicholasville Cloverport Radcliff Junction Owensboro Wilmore Uniontown Bardstown Vine Grove Morganfield Hardinsburg Whitesville Harrodsburg Richmond Elizabethtown Gre Herrington Springfield Fordsville Rough River en SturgisSebree Riv lli Lake ough R Danville Lake Lancaster R ng Dixon Calhoun er 6 Leitchfield Hodgenville F ork Lebanon Livermore Berea Stanford iver Providence io R Hartford Madisonville Oh Upton Marion Earlington Munfordville Campbellsville Central City Morgantown Mount Green River Liberty Smithland Greensburg Vernon Brownsville Paducah Cal Dawson SpringsGreenville Lake Horse Cave vert City Princeton Green River 26 Eddyville Pennsy lvan ia Cave City Columbia Russell Springs Wickliffe Smiths Grove Crofton Maryland Baltimore Glasgow Somerset Cadiz Ohio Jamestown Bowling Hopkinsville Bardwell Benton 7 Indiana Burnside Auburn Edmonton Green Lake WASHINGTON DC Delaware Lake Barren Cumberland Charleston Monticello Russellville Elkton Louisville Barkley River Illinois Mayfield Clinton W.Virginia Virginia Lake Burkesville Franklin Murray Hickman Scottsville Kentucky Tompkinsville Albany Whitley City Richmond Missouri Fulton Clarksville Portland Union City Stearns South Fulton Nashville Springfield Celina Puryear Tiptonville Reelfoot Lake Arkansas Lafayette Martin Dover Oneida Tennessee Dale Hollow Raleigh Paris Ridgely Ob Memphis North Dresden Gallatin Hartsville Huntsville ion Lake Goodlettsville Carolina Erin Old Hickory Lake Mississippi Livingston Jamestown River Ashland nd Alabama Georgia bionNe Greenfield Gainesboro O Hendersonville Charlotte R i v City wbern Jacksboro Carthage Sunbright e McKenzie Dyersburg Lebanon Dyer McEwen Camden Cookeville Algood White Bluff Nashville Lake City Trenton South Columbia Huntingdon Monterey r Waverly r R Dickson Nashville Bruceton d Dee ive Carolina ive Center Hill Forke Wartburg Smyrna C Milan Franklin Halls Lake O Oak Ridge Sparta Smithville Alamo IC Humboldt Harriman Crossville Murfreesboro Kingston NT Du Hatchie Ripley Rockwood Bells LA Ri Bro Woodbury Centerville AT wnsville 9 Lexington Parsons R iv Lenoir City Spencer er Spring Hill Linden Jackson Transportation network Loudon Covington Columbia Munford Chapel Hill McMinnville Spring City Watts Bar Hohenwald Decaturville Lake Pikeville 452,218 miles 5737 miles Mount Millington Henderson iver Shelbyville Buffalo Ri Sweetwater R (723,548 km) (8267 km) Pleasant ee Dayton Arlin Whiteville Madisonville Manchester Lewisburg Waynesboro Bartlett gton Tullahoma Altamont Memphis Adamsville Somerville Tims Ford Athens Tellico Dunlap 18,336 miles 4404 miles Bolivar Tracy Germantown Lawrenceburg Lake Plains Savannah (29,503 km) (7081 km) Memphis Chickamauga Monteagle City Soddy Daisy Moscow Collinwood Middleton Selmer Lynchburg a Etowah Lake Pulaski Collierville 10 H i w s se e R i v e r Grand Junction Whitwell Winchester Iron City Elkton Benton Tennessee’s rivers are part of an important inland iver Fayetteville Saint Joseph Elk R Jasper Cleveland Hiwassee Ardmore South Pittsburg bulk transportation network. Memphis connects Chattanooga Ducktown Lake with New Orleans in the south, and with cities as SO la M ber IS Cum tu ck y La k e M is siss i ck ve C AN u r SA S pp iR E A N r r TENNESSEE R K Ten ne ss v er A distant as Minneapolis, Sioux City, Chicago, and Pittsburgh, via the Mississippi and its tributaries. MISSISSIPP 26 11 22 The landscape The eastern tributaries of the Mississippi drain the interior lowlands. The Cumberland Plateau and the parallel ranges of the Appalachians have been successively uplifted and eroded over time, with the eastern side reduced to a series of foothills known as the Piedmont. The broad coastal plain gradually falls away into salt marshes, lagoons, and offshore bars, broken by flooded estuaries along the shores of the Atlantic. 12 13 East Ridge A L A B A M A I Natural Bridge in eastern Kentucky is an arch 78 ft (26 m) long and 65 ft (20 m) high. It has been shaped from resistant sandstone by gradual weathering processes, which removed the softer rock lying underneath. ᭣ Farmland on the eastern shores of Chesapeake Bay is sustained by artificial drainage. The area also provides refuge for a variety of waterfowl. The Allegheny Mountains form the northwestern edge of the Appalachian mountain chain. Continuous folding has formed rich seams of bituminous coal. Appalachian Mountains The many inlets of Chesapeake Bay are the flooded tributaries of the main river valley, which have been inundated by rising sea levels. The Mammoth Cave is part of an extensive cave system in the limestone region of southwestern Kentucky. It stretches for over 300 miles (485 km) on five different levels and contains three rivers and three lakes. 14 Salt marshes such as Great Dismal Swamp, develop where the coast is sheltered. Vast areas of such marshland have been reclaimed for farmland and settlement. Cape Hatteras is the easternmost point of an offshore barrier island, a wave-deposited sand-bar which has become permanent, establishing its own vegetation. The Mississippi River and its tributary the Ohio River form the western border of the region. 15 Barrier islands The Cumberland Plateau is the most southwesterly part of the Appalachians. Big Black Mountain at 4180 ft (1274 m) is the highest point in the range. 16 A 20 B C D E F G Barrier island ᭡ Barrier islands are common along the coasts of North and South Carolina. As sea levels rise, wave action builds up ridges of sand and pebbles parallel to the coast, separated by lagoons or intertidal mud flats, which are flooded at high tide. The Blue Ridge mountains are a steep ridge, culminating in Mount Mitchell, the highest point in the Appalachians, at 6684 ft (2037 m). ᭣ The Great Smoky Mountains form the western escarpment of the Appalachians. The region is heavily forested, with over 130 species of tree. 17 Tidal inlet These intertidal mudflats become submerged at high tide H I J K L M
  • 54. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – M I D - E A S T E R N S TAT E S N O P Q T ᭣ Natural Bridge is one of Virginia’s most popular attractions. The unique 214 ft (65 m) high stone “bridge” stretches across a 200 ft (60 m) deep gorge. U V W X Y Chester New Cumberland 1 18 18 Weirton Wellsburg A PENNSYLVANI Wheeling Gunpowd eytown Hagerstown Tan stminster We Thurmont Cockeysville Boonsboro Claymont Wilmington Newark 2 NE Moundsville O 30 M B ra n ch o u Po to m n t ac Ri a i ver ns er r Riv ive tank hR oa Chop S. nR po ah Ca ca Ri ver do Nant Sh M er Riv ier s n br en on e n y ah a att M Riv er a e t rk l Yo e rk g Fo V IR G IN IA i h i er Tug n r aF g ve vis Ri Le ntuck A T L A N T I C ay pp R iv New R C oal r re ico ke an en MARYLAND eB eak o u n t a i n s k C esap Ch El DELAWARE WASHINGTON D Ra G nd v Ri i v er d an G u yR i ve Big Sa nd y Rive Ke l A y Ri v am es er u d R o i Ba R M Da t n ritu Alligator River o m und d o ck S e R A N O C E Cur Cho w a n Ri v er T a r Ri w v i iv e r N O R T H CA R O L I N A go ut iver So rR be tawba River hR iv er En Broa d Riv er Ra le R P Pun s iver Ha m eR p l c a il ver dR A p a hB n e au EY r an w ha R VIR GIN IA RS c eK O ma Littl WE ST JE to r H W ve I Po Hancock Elkton Ch New Cumberland ea Frostburg letown tR Berkeley Martinsville Morgantown Aberdeen Midd er Deep Creek i Springs Riv Fort Ashby Mannington er Lake Reisterstown er Sistersville ood od Kingw Smyrna Edgewo Middlebourne Frederick Towson Westernport R ve Keyser Martinsburg Fairmont io Baltimore Chesterertiown Dover Brunswick Ellicott City Oakland Romney Oh Saint Marys Shinnston n Grafto Riv Charles Town Dundalk Chest er Delaware Bay Columbia Vienna West Union Clarksburg Bridgeport Glen Burnie Camden Tygart Lake Winchester Gormania Gaithersburg Laurel Baltimore-Washington Parkersburg od Harrisville Salem Stonewo Centreville Berryville Thomas Philippi Leesburg Rockville da Silver Spring r Milford Parsons Moorefield ive Stephens City a g Park Bethes Denton en Sterlin Dulles tonDISTRICT OF Annapolis Henlopen Elizabeth Arling Belington Sh Milton Lewes Cape COLUMBIA Weston Mason Strasburg Petersburg Falls Church Buckhannon aw Elkins Glenville Front Royal Annandale ha Rehoboth Beach Easton R i v e r Grantsville Georgetown Woodstock Ravenswood Burnsville Adrian Alexandria Federalsburg Manassas Point Pleasant Kan Ripley Mount Jackson Prince Seaford a on Warrent ck Spruce Knob Woodbridge Frederick Hurlo Laurel Spencer 1482m ton Dale City Selbyville New Market Waldorf Cambridge Luray Washing Sutton Lake Sutton Broadway Triangle La Plata Delmar Franklin Stanley Culpeper Maysville Greenup Valley Head r Stafford Ocean City Mount Olivet Vanceburg Harrisonburg Shenandoah Clendenin Clay Rive Salisbury Berlin Madison Russell Ashland Hurricane Winfield Elkton River Webster Springs Nitro Flemingsburg Falmouth Leonardtown an Monterey Catlettsburg Princess Anne r South Charleston pid ll Bridgewate Huntington Snow Hi Ra Fredericksburg ington Park Grayson Carlisle Colonial Beach Lex Saint Assateague Summersville Charleston Hamlin Grottoes Churchville Orange Spotsylvania ille Marlinton Island Albans Olive Hill ey Belle Pocomoke City Wayne Elliott Knob Lake aul River Summersv oss Owingsville Montr Marmet Lake Bowling Morehead Staunton Gordonsville Crisfield 1360m Richwood a Ansted Louisa Anna Montgomery Green Cave Run P Craigsville Chincoteague Waynesboro Warsaw Grassy Knob mu Louisa Lake Seth Fayetteville Heathsville nk r ott 1332m Warm Springs ey Tappahannock e Mount Sterling Sandy Hook Fort Gay Tangier no Madison Charlottesville Hot Springs Rupert ck Island Covesville Riv G Palmyra Chapmanville Oak Hill Winchester Frenchburg West Liberty Lancaster Rainelle Accomac er er poni Kermit Jam White Sulphur Kilmarnock Ashland Ri Stanton Clifton Forge Inez v e r Lewisburg Springs Lovingston Hanover es River v Paintsville Cedar Island Onancock Mount Gay Logan King and Queen gton Lexin Beckley Ronceverte Salyersville Goochland King William Court House Natural Bridge nd Covington Eccles Exmore Amherstdale Parramore Isla a Vista Alderson Buen Saluda ond Irvine Nort Campton Lakeside Richm t Oceana New Ken h Fo Hinton Eagle Rock Glasgow Williamson Mathews Prestonsburg West Buckingham rk Powhatan Hog Island Beattyville Union Amherst Mullens Point Cumberland Pineville Fincastle Charles Gloucester Jackson Bluestone Buchanan Madison Heights City Toano Eastville Pikeville Amelia Court Chesterfield r New Castle Lake Welch g Cheste Booneville or Lynchbur House Williamsburg Hollins k ell ts Princeton Cape Charles Hopew Hindman Appomattox Farmville Colonial Heigh Pembroke rktown Yo es Salem War Bedford Prince George J Petersburg Poquoson Cape Charl Rustburg Grundy Narrows Blacksburg ry B lac Crewe Burkeville Hazard Bluefield Bluefield kwatSur Roanoke er River Dinwiddie Hampton Charlotte Manchester Smith Mountain Christiansburg iv e Whitesburg Court House Nottoway Blackstone Jenkins Vansant Lake r Newport News Altavista Waverly Smithfield N ottow Hyden Keysville Radford Cape Henry London uRichlands Tazewell Bland ay Brookneal Isle of Wight Riv Pulaski Roa ach McKenney a Rocky Mount Lake Claytor Cumberland no er Portsmouth NorfolkVirginia Be Sussex ni Wise Coeburn enburg Corbin Lun Wytheville k e Black Mountain Gretna s te Floyd Ferrum rR Barbourville t Lebanon Saltville 1274m Lawrenceville Courtland Chase City Norton iv Suffolk Chatham Harlan ver Big Stone Philpott Marion Halifax e r a er Saint Paul Franklin Lake South Hill Hillsville Great La Crosse Pineville d Ri Lake on Gap l v Emporia lan Boydton Lake Me Martinsville South Bost Ri Abingdon MountGlade Spring Boykins Drummond Dismal er Williamsburg mber Pennington he r v Rogers Bassett Galax Clarksville P linchGate City Gaston rin Ri Swamp Gap Currituck Damascus 1746m Independence Riv Cu John H. Kerr n C Sunbury er Stuart South Middlesboro Danville Bristol Jellico Reservoir Murfreesboro Roanoke lls d Kingsport Holston Lake Sparta South Mi Mount Airy Jackson Norlina Gatesville Eden Rapids Weldon Mountain City Winton Church Hill Blountville Yanceyville New Tazewell Tazewell n Sneedville r Bluff City Warrenton Dobson Pilot Mountain Halifax Ahoskie La Follette Elizabeth City aRogersville n Rive Roxboro Jefferson rd Oxfo Elizabethton Aulander Henderson Norris Lake l Reidsville t o Johnson City Walnut Hertford Rutledge H o l s Hampton Yadkin Ri Enfield Maynardville Cove Cherokee Lake Jonesboro Scotland Neck Boone nd North Elkin r Roan High Grandfather Franklinton Whitakers Edenton lbemarle Sou Butner Morristown Wilkesboro A Kernersville Erwin Knob 1915m Yadkinville Ro Burlington Mebane Hillsborough Louisburg Mountain 1818m Jefferson City Clinton e an Manteo Greeneville Columbia oke Windsor hville Wilkesboro White Pine Winston Graham b Tarboro Wake Forest Nas Bakersville Newland Blowing Rock R i ve r Greensboro B. Everett Durhamh-Durham Douglas Lake anoke Knoxville Salem mston Ro Willia Raleig Spruce Newport High Point Lenoir Taylorsville Plymouth Phelps Jordan Island Rocky Burnsville Pine Robersonville Mocksville Lake Sevierville French B Fort Thomasville Liberty iveReservoir y Raleigh Zebulon Mount Hawksbill Mountain Stony Point Lexington Bethel roa Marshall Car r Loudoun Lake 1225m Randleman Ramseur Siler City Lake Hickory Statesville er son Wil Mount Guyot et Alcoa Mars Hill er Granite Falls Greenville Pantego Belhaven Hickory Lake Mattamuske High Rock Spencer Apex Garn 2018m Maryville Kenly Pittsboro Farmville Mount Mitchell Washington ry Clayton Lake Engelhard Asheboro Gatlinburg Marion Morganton Newton Salisbu 2037m d in Chocowinity Pam ille Clingmans Dome Hatteras Islan ta d Lake Norman Mooresv lico R Black Mountain Ayden 2024m oun Asheville Swanquarter u n iver Davidson Cape Canton iv Great Smoky M Snow Hill o D eep R ive r Smithfield Lincolnton er S Sanford Benson Bryson City Grifton Badin Lake Hatteras Kannapolis Concord Waynesville Fletcher o La Grange Sylva Vanceboro Goldsboro Cherryville Lillington Robbins Haw Fontana Lake Hatteras Troy Hobucken l i c Albemarle Rutherfordton Kinston Dunn Forest City Knob Carthage Ne boro Biscoe m Bay Bessemer City Mount Holly Hendersonville use River 1668m Robbinsville Ocracoke Island Pa Lake Tillery Shelby Columbus Gastonia Brevard Southern Pines Mount Olive Andrews Pinehurst New Bern Kings Mountain Belmont Lake Franklin Spring Lake y Charlotte Aberdeen Ba Toxaway Trenton Ellerbe Landrum Murphy Chesnee Clinton Warsaw Clover Charlotte Pineville Lu Fayetteville Atlantic m igh Gaffney Hayesville Inman Kenansville Richlands boro Rose Marshville Havelock York Fort Mill Highlands Rockingham Travelers Rest Cowpens Ca Raeford Hope Mills Greer Monroe Wadesboro Rock Hill Hamlet Beaufort Lake Pickens Taylors Spartanburg Morehead City nville Jackso Red Springs Keowee Greenville Jonesville Harkers Island Garland Easley Laurinburg Pageland s Fort Saint Paul Maxton Wallace Walhalla Simpsonville Woodruff Ty Cape Lookout ger Union Lawn Chesterfield McColl Elizabethtown Piedmont Pembroke Ri Lancaster Westminster o 11 Chester Cheraw a y Bennettsville Seneca Clemson Fountain Inn r e e R Enoree ver ly Ridge berton Hol Lum B Great Falls Burgaw ive pe Hartwell Williamston Clio r Clarkton Wateree Kershaw Fe Carlisle Belton Laurens Rowland Lake o w ar Society Lake McBee 64 Whitmire Anderson Bolton Riv s l Hill Clinton er Dillon Honea Path n Castle Hayne Winnsboro Whiteville Hartsville Fair Bluff O Ware Shoals Cross Hill n Chadbour Wilmington Newberry Co Due West Lake Darlington Ridgeway Camden Mullins Wrightsville Beach Rivngar Nichols Tabor City Green Greenwood Bishopville Greenwood er e Lugoff Sa lu da Ri Swamp on Lamar Abbeville Florence Mari Carolina Beach le Six ver Ninety Timmonsvil Loris Irmo iv 12 Lake Murray Calhoun Falls Aynor Southport Mayesville Columbia Shallotte Bald Head Island Waccama Lexington Ri Saluda Cape Fear Cayce McCormick r ve r Sumter Little Rive Lake City Batesburg Conway Johnston Large areas of fertile soil and a mild Johnsonville Swansea Edgefield Hemingway y Myrtle Beach Clark Hill climate support the largest ouput of a s Manning Kingstree Saint Matthew Lake Bla Surfside Beach Summerton ck R B North Lake tobacco in the US and a broad range Aiken ive Elloree r Marion 13 Pawleys Island Andrews North Augusta Sa of vegetables, as well as soybeans, Orangeburg nte New Ellenton eR Williston Georgetown Holly Hill iv er peanuts, corn and small grains. The 22 Bamberg Denmark Lake North Island Moultrie Barnwell Branchville Kentucky Bluegrass around Lexington Sa Moncks Corner l ke McClellanville ha Saint George Ehrhardt Edi tch is a major horse- and cattle-rearing sto Cape Island ie Riv Summerville Ri Ruffin er Allendale Cape Romain ve region and poultry is important in Goose Creek Bull Island Cottageville Fairfax 14 Hanahan Hampton North Charleston Walterboro North and South Carolina. Cotton, Ca tP ea Gr ee che er Riv s L ittl g O n r ive rt R T L A I T N Land use and agricultural distribution C timber tobacco pigs cattle poultry cotton fishing fruit peanuts soybeans capital cities major towns pasture cropland forest The urban/rural population divide 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Population density Q R S 100 90 Tennessee 235,226 sq miles (609,212 sq km) T U W.Virginia Baltimore WASHINGTON DC Virginia 16 Richmond Alabama North Raleigh Carolina Georgia South Columbia Carolina V Delaware Nashville Memphis Mississippi Total land area 149 people per sq mile (59 people per sq km) Kentucky Missouri Maryland Charleston Louisville Illinois rural 36% 15 Pennsy lv an ia Ohio Indiana urban 64% 64 South Carolina’s traditional crop, has declined significantly but remains important in western Tennessee. Forestry is widespread in upland areas. W X AT 17 N R Po iver P Ba Folly Beach Edisto Island E Arkansas ᭡ North Carolina is the leading grower and processor of tobacco in the US. Europeans adopted the habit of smoking from the Native Americans, and tobacco became the main export crop for European colonists. O lls Mount Pleasant Charleston Ridgeland Saint Helena Sound Beaufort Port Royal oy al Hardeeville Soun d Hilton Head Island Hilton Head Island hR na A n O Bu er r I he e y er R iv G Sa va Yemassee Co mb a C N A L o Coo p R Estill A N A E er E CA RO LIN A Using the land and sea w R Lyn W atere e R iver e nnah G e Pee D e e River va ver e Ri De Sa SO UT H N LA TI C O C Z 21
  • 55. NORTH AMERICA B C D E F G H I J 26 l dw Bodc a Ta ll i ss i ss Yo c ka Ri n o o ve ve r unflower Ri ig S olo th au er Riv oo Ya z ou M a c on Riv er Bay Boeu fR ive r pi ip ss sR i sa Te n r r c k Rive ve Bl a u Rive r B ay o u N ezp i qu Ca e lca sie Ri ve r in e S ab Islands ss r Rive ui Lo oul a ssi Pascag Mi r ve r The Blue Ridge mountains in the north are skirted by the gentle hills of the Piedmont, whose rivers drain south on to the great flat expanse of the coastal plain. Sandy barrier beaches and islands dominate the sea shore, tracing round the swampy limestone arm of Florida. In the west, the Mississippi meanders toward its delta, crossing the thickly mantled alluvial plain of the interior lowlands. 22 Sandbars, deposited by waves breaking offshore, form barrier beaches along much of the coastline, creating sheltered lagoons and salt marshes behind them. Delta lobe The delta of the Mississippi over 5000 years ago The landscape B ek ᭡ In Providence Canyon, Georgia, the Chattahoochee River has cut straight down through the sandy bedrock, to leave sheer rock faces and pinnacles, which have been smoothed by subsequent weathering. Mississippi Delta Atchafalaya Bay A f Ri Wol sia f R iv e r T e x a s a Okretibbee C ek Lea er ᭡ The cypress swamps of the Mississippi Delta form in the backswamps behind the leveés of the river and in the multitude of subsiding delta basins. 17 Pe ar l Riv i M Brasstown Bald in the Blue Ridge mountains of Georgia is the region’s highest point, at 4784 ft (1458 m). 14 16 hi At De Soto Falls, Alabama, the Little River descends into the deepest canyon east of the Mississippi, with sheer cliff walls up to 700 ft (230 m) high. Piedmont 15 eC che f o ur Key West Cathedral Caverns near Huntsville in Alabama is a system of vast limestone caves, with a main opening 1000 ft (300 m) high and 150 ft (50 m) wide. The Mississippi is the world’s third longest river and moves over 1000 million tons (tonnes) of sediment a year, creating deep alluvial plains. Flooding is a constant threat in lowland areas. 13 Bog u La EAN Miami major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas rl River Pea ou The Yazoo River flows parallel to the Mississippi through a common floodplain. The confluence of the rivers is deferred downstream because flood deposition has built the Mississippi channel up above the level of the Yazoo. OC Melbourne oil textiles tourism aerospace car manufacture chemicals coal defense electronics engineering food processing 12 IC Major industry and infrastructure NT 11 Orlando ida Tampa Daytona Beach LA or Mexico Gulf of e Tallahassee Fl New Orleans AT Mobile Ta n g i p a h o a Ri v Savannah Jacksonville Baton Rouge r Georgia Montgomery Jackson ive Atlanta Alabama L O U I S I A N A At c h a f a l a y a R Huntsville Birmingham t h n a u i o ol r na pi a 10 ip olina Car S 24 r Atlanta’s Hartsfield International airport is one of the busiest in the world. A dramatic rise in the use of regional air transportation has helped to integrate the major cities of the southern states. N. Walthall Eupora Greenwood Indianola Winona Itta Bena Moorhead ny Starkville Vaiden ka Ackerman r Belzoni Tchula Lexington Louisville Kosciusko Durant MISSISSIPPI r 6179 miles (9942 km) C A s a s a n r k Hollandale r Ba e Riv Little T e n n e s s e e 9 ie Clarksdale ip p S A S N me w Leland i ve 16,597 miles (26,555 km) ᭣ The French Quarter is the traditional cultural center of New Orleans. The city, extensively damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, once thrived on the cotton trade but now relies mainly on tourism and on oil from the Gulf of Mexico. 8 ona R River 5116 miles (8186 km) O u a c hit a R d Re 441,625 miles (706,600 km) A S E X 7 Greenville T 6 Transportation network D ugd e m Florida’s tourist trade is only part of a flourishing service sector, which has swelled the principal cities of the south. Petroleum and mineral extraction has made the Gulf Coast a major industrial region. Traditional textile production remains important in Georgia, while advanced new industries have grown from the NASA Space Program. tch Batesville Yocona Rive Pontotoc r Water Valley Enid Lake Tutwiler Charleston Okolona Coffeeville Sumner Pittsboro M Mound Bayou Grenada r Lake Skuna Rive Rosedale Drew Y Houston sh a Calhoun City lobu Cleveland Ya iver Grenada Ruleville R Ba you Transportation & industry ha B Bayou D'Arbonne Cotton Valley ou Mayersville Bernice Lake Oak Grove ay Homer Farmerville B Rolling Lake Providence Lake Yazoo City Pickens Ri v e r Fork Lake Clai ar l Bastrop Shreveport Philadelphia Minden borne Pe Sterlington Providence Arcadia Carthage Bossier City Cross Lake ve r i West Monroe kR Canton Lake Grambling lac Ruston Rayville Wallace gB Driskill Mountain Delhi Bistineau Bi Monroe Ross Barnett Madison Lake Tallulah Ringgold 160m Reservoir Ridgeland Decatur Vicksburg Meridian Jackson Morton Forest Edwards Clinton Jonesboro Pelahatchie Winnsboro Newton Mansfield Raymond Brandon Black Lake Columbia Cou iv e Newellton Logansport shatta r Crystal Springs Raleigh Winnfield Clear Lake Paulding Quitman Saint Joseph Saline Lake Port Gibson Mendenhall Olla r Bay Springs Tullos ve Natchitoches Hazlehurst Harrisonburg ssi Heidelberg Magee Zwolle Clay ton Mi Jena Lake Iatt Many Lake Saint John Fayette Laurel Jonesville Ferriday Colfax Brookhaven Toledo Collins Vidalia Natchez Catahoula Prentiss Ellisville Bend Meadville Monticello Lake Boyce Reservoir Bude Oak Vale Alexandria Pineville Ver non Lake Ho m Ri Petal Re d Rive r o c hit to Leesville McComb Hattiesburg Gloster Newllano Columbia Marksville New Augusta Leaf Riv Lecompte Magnolia Woodville e Purvis Liberty Bunkie Simmespo Beaumont Tylertown Centreville rt De Ridder Lumberton Kentwood Clinton Re Merryville Oakdale Franklinton dC Wiggins Jackson Bogalusa re Ville Platte Saint Francisville Oberlin New Roads Zachary Mamou Ragley Amite t to Port Barre De Quincy Eunice Baker Livingston r Kinder Opelousas Basile Hammond Port Allen Ocean Denham Springs Sunset Church Moss Bluff Covington Picayune Sulphur Springs Ponchatoula Vinton Iowa Welsh Jennin Point Plaquemine Baton Rouge Gulfport gs Rayne Mandeville Breaux Bridge Gonzales Lake Bay Saint Louis Biloxi Lake Charles Long Beach Slidell Maurepas Crowley Lafayette Waveland Pass White Castle Lake Arthur Saint Martinville Broussard Christian s s i s s i p p i Lake Pontchartrain Mi Horn Donaldsonville Sabine Int ra Kaplan New Lake Laplace Kenne co a Calcasieu r Metairie Island Lake Abbeville Iberia Napoleonville Lutcher New Orleans Borgne sta Lake lW Hahnville Jeanerette Grand Lake at e r Luling New Orleans Six w ay Chandeleur Lac des Chalmette Mile Lake Allem Cameron ands n Baldwin Gretna Sound White Lake Lake Verret lio Franklin Lake Thib mi Morgan City odaux er Bay Pecan Island Salvador Raceland V Patterson Breton Sound Ba ssi y Larose Marsh Island Houma ssi Pointe a la Hache Cut Off Atchafalaya pp Port Sulphur Galliano C iR Shell Keys Bay Golden Meadow ive r Barataria 40 Point Au Fer Island Bay Mississippi Venice Timbalier River Delta Grand Isle Terrebonne Bay Isles Dernieres Bay West Bay Garden Timbalier Island East Island Bay Bay Caddo Lake Benton 5 Marks Olive Branch Ashland Hernando Holly Springs Arkabutla Lake Ripley Senatobia Sardis Lake New Albany Sardis iver Oxford R a z o o Ri v e r A A R K 4 iR ive r Co The South has maintained a separate identity and outlook throughout the history of the US. Defeat in the Civil War (1861–65) brought chronic poverty to the former confederate states, while the subsequent liberation of four million slaves began a struggle not resolved until the 1960s, when the Civil Rights movement achieved an end to legal racial segregation. Many parts of the South have experienced rapid change. Tourism and retirement communities, together with agriculture, have fueled growth in Florida, while defense-related industries have boosted the growth of cities such as Miami and Atlanta. Many people retain a strong attachment to their history and Springhill culture, evidenced by Creole-speaking Cajuns in Louisiania and Plain Dealing Haynesville Hispanic communities in South Florida. Vivian 3 Tunica at e r Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi Ri ve r USA: SOUTHERN STATES 1 ha nd eleu r A C D E Lake Okeechobee is actually a shallow, slow-moving river, 150 miles (240 km) long and 50 miles (80 km) wide. Present-day delta ᭡ Over the last 5,000 years the lower course of the Mississippi has moved back and forth over great distances. These changes, caused by varying sediment loads and human modification, have resulted in a “bird’s foot” delta with several lobes, each reflecting the river’s different historic position F G Across Florida the coastal plain is mostly less than 75 ft (25 m) above sea level. The land is underlain by limestone, pitted with hollows which have been filled by over 10,000 lakes. The Everglades lie in a limestone hollow formed over two million years ago, which has gradually become filled with swamp deposits. H I Florida Keys J K L M
  • 56. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – S O U T H E R N S TAT E S V Baldwyn k e a Moulton Hartselle ns u ai nt Calhoun Rainsville id Brasstown Bald 1458m ou Scottsboro Ten Cathedral n Ri esse Caverns ve r M Tennesse e W Tom te r w b i g b ay ee Booneville NO RT H CA RO LI NA e Summerville B Y 20 Scale 1:3,500,000 1 Km Rabun Bald 1431m 0 RClayton e lu g X 10 0 20 10 60 40 20 100 80 80 60 40 100 Miles Clarkesville Hartwell Mount Oglethorpe Cleveland Toccoa Lake 1002m Dahlonega Cornelia Lavonia Dawsonville projection: Lambert Conformal Conic 2 SO Bear Cree Sheffield Tuscumbia Leighton Wheeler Lake Russellville Decatur Rossville Nottely Lake Ringgold Blue Ridge Trenton Blue Ridge Lake Ellijay Dalton Chatsworth La Fayette iver Lake ah R ow Et Sidne y Lanier an Elk Woodall Wilson Lake Mountain Iuka Florence 246m Athens Pl at ea Bridgeport Stevenson Huntsville Guntersville Lake Ardmore Ri v Pickwick Lake 20 e r l a n d Corinth er TENNESSEE W Map key hi Fort Payne m i eR rk u he r sa rk Ri v e k oo r hR iv ee 5 ch e e Ri oc ho att a Ch Rive r osa or Oc Ri ve r ee ive r on P eR C a h a b a Ri v e r Black War ri r G E O R G I A i 4 NA ve anna Ri iv S av r Co o s a R i ve ve r LI ve Ri F li nt R d O o m R n Ocmulgee iver bee R big Tom Ri A ve la C Ri Cre e H at c T ee But t a h o ch t e ALABAMA 3 la pp r A pa C c a al Br b Guntersville Arab U Hartwell Gainesville Royston Fulton Canton Cumming Haleyville Albertville Rome Population Commerce Elberton Allatoona Lake Buford Boaz Tupelo ad O co n e Hamilton Mountain Park Weiss Lake Cullman e Ri v e 500,000 to 1 million Rive Centre Cartersville er ll r Double Springs Roswe v n Hanceville Attalla Winder Rockmart Amory Athens Lewis Smith Gadsden Cedartow Sandy Springs Lawrenceville 100,000 to 500,000 Guin Winfield Lake Richard B. Oneonta Marietta A Tucker Rainbow City Carbon Hill Smyrna Lexington Russell Lake Aberdeen 50,000 to 100,000 Stone Mountain Sulligent FoWarrior Jacksonville Buchanan 513m rr y Atlanta Decatur Monroe Washington Jasper Vernon Ashville lbe 10,000 to 50,000 Mu Conyers Fo East Point Cordova Anniston Bremen Clark Hill Martinez Madison Greensboro ust Gardendale ve r Loc Forest Park below 10,000 Fayette West Point Ri Lake Carrollton l li Tarrant Pell City C ee usta Hartsfield Atlanta Covington Oxford Heflin x ap a Aug h Thomson Fairburn Birmingham City Columbus Lu Jonesboro Leeds Logan Martin Cheaha Mountain Oconee t Gordon Lake For McDonough Bankhead Hueytown Lake Elevation Warrenton 734m Eatonton Reform Peachtree City Vestavia Hills Talladega Lake Lake Bessemer Newnan De Soto Falls Tuscaloosa Monticello Lake Sparta Wedowee Franklin Jackson Alabaster r Childersburg Griffin Wrens Sinclair Northport Carrollton Waynesboro West Point Ashland 4000m / 13,124ft Hogansville Columbiana Brooksville Aliceville Lake Milledgeville Sylacauga Barnesville isville Lou Tuscaloosa Calera Roanoke La Grange Macon Hardwick 3000m / 9843ft No Gray ey Alexander r Montevallo xu Sips Lay Lake Forsy th ve Greenville be Wadley Sandersville Millen City Ri e Gordon ston o Lafayette Centreville 2000m / 6562ft e r Thoma Ta l l a p Rockford Brent Macon Sylvania West Point Wrightsville Dadeville Eutaw Clanton Manchester Lanett Mitchell Knoxville Martin 1000m / 3281ft Greensboro Lake De Kalb Og Lake Lake Harding Talbotton er insboro Opelika 500m / 1640ft Oh Swa ns Warner Robi Fort Butler Dublin oo Livingston pe Statesboro Springfield Auburn Valley Demopolis Marion Metter Wetumpka Tallassee City Cochran Phenix Prattville 250m / 820ft Perry York Columbus Soperton Tuskegee Hawkinsville Buena Vista Montezuma r Selma ve Vidalia Lyons Claxton 100m / 328ft Al a b a a Ri ve Montgomery r Oglethorpe City an Linden Eastm Garden Ca m Cusseta Unadilla no Pembroke Ellaville Mount Vernon Savannah o ch Hayneville sea level Preston ee R Union Springs Reidsville iv Tybee Island Mcrae Richland Vienna Butler William Bill Dannelly Glennville Providence Americus Abbeville Sound Reservoir Ossabaw Hinesville Alta Canyon Ri Camden ma Fort Deposit Cordele ver Hazlehurst Lake Blackshear Eufaula h Georgetown Ossabaw Island Baxley a Ri Clayton o Thomasville Greenville C ve Saint Catherines Dawson Ludowici Walter F George at Island Troy illa Cuthbert Ashburn Fitzgerald Jesup Reservoir Grove Hill Waynesboro Sapelo Sound C Ocilla Luverne Brundidge Alma Fort Gaines Sapelo Island Douglas Albany till Monroeville r Abbeville Morgan Jackson Sylvester Darien Tifton A Sa a R r Ozark Blackshear Satilla Riv Elba Blakely Chatom a Saint Simons Island Evergreen Pe Pearson Newton er Andalusia Headland Nashville Waycross v Camilla Brunswick Nahunta Enterprise Daleville Colquitt Opp Jekyll Island cu Adel Moultrie Dothan Cone Leakesville Saint Andrew Sound Lakeland Homerville Pelham Brewton R Hartford w Geneva ᭡ Mangrove swamps and Donalsonville Citronelle Woodbine Atmore Florala Cumberland Island Banks islets merge across Bainbridge Kingsland Lucedale Folkston Lake Cairo Graceville Bay Minette Saint Mar ys Whitewater Bay, in the Okefenokee Saraland Quitman W Valdosta Lake Thomasville McDavid De Funiak Bonifay Chipley Marianna it h Fernandina Beach Swamp e r Big Creek Everglades National Park. Statenvill e lac Seminole Crestview Springs Amelia Island oo v Fargo Lake Lake Chattahoochee c Yulee Ri Alligators, crocodiles, Ri Prichard Mobile Milton r Iamonia ve r Quincy Nassau Sound Jasper Tillmans Rive endangered aquatic Monticello Lake llow Daphne Corner Hol m Greenville Valparaiso ille Ensley Ferry Pass Ye ksonvntic Beach Jackson Jac Atla mammals such as Fairhope Theodore Blountstown Choctawhatchee Crystal Lake Madison Moss Point ch West Pensacola Pensacola manatees, and a great Lake Tallahassee Macclenny Jacksonville Bea Bay c Bristol Bayou La Batre Foley Warrington ho Gulf Breeze Talquin Lakeside Destin variety of birds Fort C Live Oak Orange Park Pascagoula Mobile Lynn Haven Bay S inhabit the Dead Lake S oun d Santa Rosa Island Walton Beach Lake City Watertown Crawfordville Gulf Shores Perry Panama City Dauphin er Marks Panama City Beach Saint subtropical Lake Butl ay Parker Middleburg Island Mayo nt Augustine dre ws B Sai S a nt a sanctuary. Apalachee Saint An Wewahitchka Starke Fe R iv e er Saint J r i ve r Bay Anastasia Island Branford os e Carrabelle High Springs do Wal Alachua ay Port Saint Joe aB GainesvillePalatka col Dog Island Trenton Crescent Apalachicola lachi Flagler Beach Cape San Blas Lake Cross City Apa Saint George Island Vincent Island Saint Bunnell Orange Lake Crescent City Bronson Ormond Beach Lake Williston George Daytona Beach South Day tona Red Bay F li r i ve cu hR ee ne r ic an re ek re e eC ve Ri ve r Ri Flin tR i ive r h Ye l l o r ive aR ill Au c y Ba ol a sac Pen nne wa e Su Cre e es er n e e Riv Su B a n a n a R i ve r E r Rive l na sb or ve Carol City Hialeah mi Perrine Miami Beach i Miamcayne Bis Key Biscay ne Bay Cutler Ridge Homestead S T rB ay Cape Sable Key Largo Key Largo e of ys Florida Bay Islamorada U Dry Tortugas Marquesas Keys Key West Fl o d ri K s a it Duck Key Marathon Fl Whitewa te ida e Coral Ga Kendall Hallandale North Miami or es ad gl er Ev ui an al Fort Lauderdale Hollywood Mia Tamiami Canal bles EAN R rC OC Key West al Ri IC Th an l Big Cypress Swamp Marco Everglades City Cape Romano Ten Thousand Islands oC an a Lo N ka A ive r ll Hi mi C North Naples Naples ᭤ Duck Key is one of the chain of limestone and coral islands that form the Florida Keys. The Overseas Highway, completed in 1938, extends 100 miles (160 km) from the mainland to Key West along causeways and bridges. pasture cropland forest wetland Q ew hN ᭡ Cotton production, once an economic mainstay, has fallen by more than 50% since 1900. Soil erosion, pests, and new farming techniques have shifted cotton farming west toward Texas and California. Miami P C an R 253,046 sq miles (655,364 sq km) NT Orlando soybeans sugar cane timber major towns O 100 i Ind 90 e Rive r ta whatchee Ri ve r k w an C 80 Mi a ss I 70 rt No ssi T 60 simmee Ri Kis Mi N River 50 10 W Cedar Key acca De Land New Smyrna Bea Dunnellon Cedar Keys Ba sassa y 64 Deltona y Lake ando Lad Hern nt Mosquito Lagoon Fruitland Sai Jo Crystal River nt Eustis Moua Park Sanford Dor Crystal Bay Inverness Leesburg Merritt Island Apopka Tsala Apopka Lake Lake Har ris 11 Titusville onte Springs Winter Park n Altam Port Saint Joh Lake Apopka Brooksville Orlando Cape Canaveral ter Garden Win Pine Castle Cape Canaveral Orlando Cocoa Spring Hill Cocoa Beach Merritt Island Dade City immee Kiss Saint Cloud Satellite Beach Lake New Port Richey Zephyrhills Tohopekaliga Holiday Lutz Melbourne Keys Anclote Lake City Palm Bay Haines Tarpon Springs Tarpon Lakeland Winter Haven Lake Sebastian Plant City Kissimmee Tampa Lake Wales Brandon Clearwater Blue Cypress Largo Tampa Bartow Lake Gifford Pinellas Park Saint Petersburg Frostproof Vero Beach Treasure Island Gulfport k sburg Beach Tampa Avon Par Saint Peter Lakewood Park Bay Wauchula Sebring Fort Pierce ve Palmetto r Hutchinson Island Bradenton kpoga Jensen Beach Lake Isto Sarasota Stuart Longboat Key Saint Lucie Inlet Okeechobee Arcadia ak My Hobe Sound town Indian Ca Laurel e Lake S aint Luci Venice Port Charlotte North Port Okeechobee Moore Haven Riviera Beach Punta Gorda Pahokee e e Ri v e r West Palm Beach e h at c h Charlott sa Belle Glade 40 aloo La Belle Clewiston Lake Worth C Gasparilla Island Harbor South Bay Tice North Fort Myers Boynton Beach Fort Myers Delray Beach Pine Island Cape Coral Boca Raton ch Fort Myers Beach Immokalee Sanibel Island Deerfield Bea Sanibel Margate Bonita Springs Pompano Beach s hn 40 9 Port Orange n Inlet Ponce de Leo ch A sia iv e r Ok law o 30 149 people per sq mile (57 people per sq km) LA ida Land use and agricultural distribution I iver aR ah c 20 Total land area AT or Mexico Gulf of Jacksonville Fl Tallahassee O i 10 Population density Savannah Baton Rouge R D x 0 Georgia Montgomery ns R eR y Jackson cattle pigs poultry citrus cotton fishing peanuts shellfish rural 28% t h a u i n l o Atlanta Alabama t Joh ne Ba urban 72% r Birmingham ai n ko ph pi New Orleans e o na M olina Car S a ip f C s a s a n r k N. L A A T e Ri v e r lo c hico la Riv O ch Apalac R ive r O r y s R iv e r he C hi p o l a o L 8 Pe a c aR i ve id o The urban/rural population divide In recent years a wide variety of cash crops has been grown in lands once dominated by cotton. The semitropical Florida climate has made it a world leader in the growing of citrus fruit. Georgia has a similar reputation for peanuts; elsewhere soybeans, sugar cane, poultry, and cattle are important. Fishing takes place in Atlantic and Gulf waters, with shellfishing in the shallow Louisiana bayou. Te n n e s s e e nt Ma ve r Sai e Ri A Te nsaw Rive r laba m che rd Mobile River er r ho o E s c a mb i a Ri v e r Pe Using the land & sea A 7 R iv e r Chatta Little Riv e ah a r ive lap r k ve aw pa River F Ocala ᭣ New Orleans was devastated by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Around 1200 lives were lost across the region. Florida and the Gulf coast are prone to hurricanes every fall. Te x a s r S r Hu Bi g Ri Chickasawhay River er r lg mu i ve Oc nt R To m b i g b e e E s c at G u l f N 6 St ra 23
  • 57. NORTH AMERICA B C D E F G H I J K Kerrick Texline O USA: TEXAS Dalhart Hartley H i g h Dawn Hereford Enochs 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Population density Total land area 84 people per sq mile (33 people per sq km) 100 90 major towns Whiteface Levelland L Plains r Sp ri W D Monahans ie o rr u a n eja Vi t a Dr Alpine a i E Cathedral Mountain 2093m ito Cree k ss M Gla M ou Creek nt ain nde ra s s ain nt Emory Peak 2385m Big Bend National Park M ou Ch iso s as ll The Guadalupe Mountains lie in the southern Rocky Mountains. They incorporate Guadalupe Peak, the highest in Texas, rising 8749 ft (2667 m). Dryden vi o I O C Sabine River 13 Extensive forests of pine and cypress grow in the eastern corner of the coastal lowlands where the average rainfall is 45 inches (1145 mm) a year. This is higher than the rest of the state and over twice the average in the west. The Rio Grande flows from the Rocky Mountains through semi-arid land, supporting sparse vegetation. The river actually shrinks along its course, losing more water through evaporation and seepage than it gains from its tributaries and rainfall. 14 In the coastal lowlands of southeastern Texas the Earth’s crust is warping, causing the land to subside and allowing the sea to invade. Around Galveston, the rate of downward tilting is 6 inches (15 cm) per year. Erosion of the coast is also exacerbated by hurricanes. 15 Big Bend National Park Oil deposits Edwards Plateau is a limestone outcrop. It is part of the Great Plains, bounded to the southeast by the Balcones Escarpment, which marks the southerly limit of the plains. 16 17 A 24 B C D E Oil accumulates beneath impermeable cap rock Oil trapped by fault Impermeable rock strata Oil deposits migrate through reservoir rocks such as shale ᭣ Flowing through 1500 ft (450 m) high gorges, the shallow, muddy Rio Grande makes a 90˚ bend. This marks the southern border of Big Bend National Park, and gives it its name. The area is a mixture of forested mountains, deserts, and canyons. Laguna Madre in southern Texas has been almost completely cut off from the sea by Padre Island. This sand bank was created by wave action, carrying and depositing material along the coast. The process is known as longshore drift. Padre Island F G H I J Salt dome ᭡ Oil deposits are found beneath much of Texas. They collect as oil migrates upward through porous layers of rock until it is trapped, either by a cap of rock above a salt dome, or by a fault line which exposes impermeable rock through which the oil cannot rise. K nyon Sanderson ra e rlingua Creek Terlingua Big Ca Ma i X Redford ins ounta s nt ag Casa Piedra T Presidio Stockton Plateau Marathon n Sa a in Ch un o M Shafter Bakersfield Fort Stockton Fort Davis Marfa Crane Grandfalls Imperial McCamey Girvin aw M S Davis Mountains Valentine ta ti in s T Balmorhea Mount Livermore 2554m Royalty Coyano s Saragosa Candelaria Ruidosa Odessa Pecos raw Toyah de The Red River flows for 1300 miles (2090 km), marking most of the northern border of Texas. A dam and reservoir along its course provide vital irrigation and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. The Llano Estacado or Staked Plain in northern Texas is known for its harsh environment. In the north, freezing winds carrying ice and snow sweep down from the Rocky Mountains. To the south, sandstorms frequently blow up, scouring anything in their paths. Flash floods, in the wide, flat riverbeds that remain dry for most of the year, are another hazard. Penwell MentoWink ne Wickett G ns an M Ap ou ac nta he ins Van Horn Kent 40 ᭡ Cap Rock Escarpment juts out from the plains, running 200 miles (320 km) from north to south. Its height varies from 300 ft (90 m) rising to sheer cliffs up to 1000 ft (300 m). r Barstow tai Ri o M Gr oun Sierra Blanca t i ns McNary 2100m Sierra Blanca Esperanza The landscape ive S Fort Hancock Midland Kermit R Salt Flat ta Clint Fabens Tornillo Goldsmith c os San Elizario Guadalupe Mountains Red Bluff Reservo ir P Guadalupe Peak e Orla Salt Basin 2667m M are y law De k c R i or r a D i a b l o e MEXICO Andrews Sal El Paso M usta ng Dra w Dell City un Hueco Mo Canutillo El Paso 12 s Tokio ngs Denver City Wellman Dra Seagraves Welch Cedar Lake Seminole Alam Houston San Antonio 11 t Brownfield E N iana Austin 10 Ropesville ur Sundown Dr aw Meadow w uis Te x a s Texas is made up of a series of massive steps descending from the mountains and high plains of the west and northwest to the coastal lowlands in the southeast. Many of the state’s borders are delineated by water. The Rio Grande flows from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, marking the border with Mexico. ph E Lo Dallas New Mexico ᭡ The huge cattle ranches of Texas developed during the 19th century when land was plentiful and could be acquired cheaply. Today, more cattle and sheep are raised in Texas than in any other state. ul Sulphu Arkansas El Paso Draw Littlefield Anton Morton 261,797 sq miles (678,028 sq km) Oklahoma 7 at er l 0 gW n rural 20% Amarillo 9 nin a urban 80% cattle goats sheep cereals cotton S 6 E The urban/rural population divide pasture cropland forest barren 8 Dimmitt Run Springlake Muleshoe Earth Olton Sudan Amherst M 5 Friona Bovina 36 Land use and agricultural distribution Vega Wildorado I ᭡ Dallas was founded in 1841 as a prairie trading post and its development was stimulated by the arrival of railroads. Cotton and then oil funded the town’s early growth. Today, the modern, high rise skyline of Dallas reflects the city’s position as a leading center of banking, insurance, and the petroleum industry in the southwest. Farwell Cotton production and livestock-raising, particularly cattle, dominate farming, although crop failures and the demands of local markets have led to some diversification. Following the introduction of modern farming techniques, cotton production spread out from the east to the plains of western Texas. Cattle ranches are widespread, while sheep and goats are raised on the dry Edwards Plateau. n Ri ve r Adrian Using the land 4 Channing adia C an R io 3 C First explored by Spaniards moving north from Mexico in search of gold, Texas was controlled by Spain and then by Mexico, before becoming an independent republic in 1836, and joining the Union of States in 1845. During the 19th century, many migrants who came to Texas raised cattle on the abundant land; in the 20th century, they were joined by prospectors attracted by the promise of oil riches. Today, although natural resources, especially oil, still form the basis of its wealth, the diversified Texan economy includes thriving hi-tech and financial industries. The major urban centers, home to 80% of the population, lie in the south and east, and include Houston, the “oil-city,” and Dallas– Fort Worth. Hispanic influences remain strong, especially in southern and western Texas. X 1 o A L M
  • 58. NORTH AMERICA: USA – TEXAS 26 R d w ater Pa lo Spearman W ol f C re ek Lipscomb Higgins Morse V Sunray Pringle Dumas Stinnett W X Y Miami K kR P l a i n s e El Paso Te x a s Austin San Antonio 293,509 miles (496,614 km) d 845 miles (1359 km) 3 The sheer size of Texas promoted the development of an extensive road and rail network. The highway system, although well-developed, is concentrated in the east. 26 A M 3229 miles (5166 km) 10,681 miles (17,089 km) Corpus Christi O 2 Transportation network MEXICO A H major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas Houston L o E s c a r p m e n t Dallas Fort Worth iana Phillips Briscoe Pampa Mobeetie Skellytown Lake Meredith Lefors Wheeler White Deer North Fo r Panhandle M d Riv e r Amarillo Conway c C l el lan e e k McLean Cr Shamrock Alanreed Bushland Groom Claude lt For k R Sa Canyon Goodnight ed Ri ve r Clarendon Buffalo Lake Hedley Wellington Lelia Lake Happy Dodson Memphis Lakeview Nazareth Estelline Silverton Tulia Childress Hart Turkey Carey Kress Quanah Odell Tell Quitaque Fritch New Mexico 1 mining oil textiles chemicals defense engineering finance food processing gas hi-tech industry Arkansas uis Borger Oklahoma Industry in the 20th century was largely concentrated on the processing of local raw materials, especially oil – deposits were discovered under 65% of the state’s area. The technological demands of the oil industry and defense-related institutions, particularly NASA, have stimulated the development of numerous electronics and hi-tech firms which, alongside many national corporate headquarters, are based in Dallas– Fort Worth and Houston. Canadian Major industry and infrastructure Amarillo Lo Sanford Ca an River nadi Transportation & industry O Gruver Plainview U Cr Cr T Booker Follett Perryton Darrouzett ro Col k ee Du Stratford Conlen S eek Texhoma 4 Pease Chillicothe Oklaunion Ri Burkburnett Vernon ver d River Electra Re Margaret Harrold Crowell Iowa Park Petrolia ver Creek Paducah ea No Wichita Falls Roaring Springs River rth W Telephone W Henrietta ta ichita R Nocona hi Abernathy ive Denison Wi c r Holliday Ringgold Paris Blossom Truscott Clarksville Saint Jo Muenster Dundee Whitesboro Shallowater Ralls McAdoo 26 Detroit Avery Lake Arrowhead Bells Bonham Honey Grove i r c hi t a Ri v er t h W c h i t a R i v e Lake Kemp De Kalb Wi Guthrie Deport Scotland e Nash Gainesville Sherman Sou Montague Roxton Idalou Lorenzo Crosbyton ittl Bellevue L Bogata Lake Whitewright New Boston Bowie Dickens Howe Texarkana Benjamin Seymour Archer City Windthorst hur Lubbock Valley View Ray Roberts Van Alstyne Wolfe City Cooper Talco Sulp Rive Wright Patman Goree Spur Tioga Slaton We st Fo rk Tri Sunset Sanger Lake Knox City ak C reek nit White Munday Megargel Pilot Point Anna Leonard Olney y R Lake eO e Commerc Wilson River Alvord Whit Mount Pleasant iv Bridgeport Queen City Girard Naples Celina McKinney Rochester Lake Decatur Krum Southland Elbert Mount Vernon Jacksboro Jayton Atlanta Winfield Farmersville Denton Newcastle Post Tahoka ngerfield e Sulphur Springs Haskell Bridgeport Dai Rule Greenvill Clairemont Lake Lake Dallas Allen Linden Bryson nsboro Lake Throckmorton Aspermont Lewisville Lewisville hes Springs Plano Royse City Lone Oak Pickton Win Stamford razos Graham Justiceburg Poolville Pittsburg Hug Woodson Double Boyd B Perrin Lake Lake Fork lan O'donnell Quin Mo Eagle Richardson Carrollton r Graford un Lake South Bend Reservoir O' the os Rive Mountain Grapevine tai and Rockwall Jefferson raz Stamford Possum Fluvanna Tawakoni Lake Dallas-Fort Worth Garl n Fork B Quitman Ore City Pines Hubbard Eliasville Kingdom Whitt Alba Caddo Terrell Irving Gilmer Creek Rotan Hamlin Lueders Weatherford Edgewood Grand Saline Lake Big Lake Breckenridge Lake Anson Mineral Roby Grand Prairie Forney Lamesa Mineola Sandy Snyder Marshall ewater Worth Arlington Glad Albany Wells B Fort Sylvester Canton Caddo r az C olorado R Hermleigh Hawley Van Lindale Lancaster Kaufman Hallsville Santo Patricia o iver Longworth Sab m Strawn Winona Burleson Lake J B i n e Longview Wasko Midlothian Moran Kemp Lipan Palmer Thomas Vincent Sweetwater Gordon Merkel Abilene Ackerly De Berry Kilgore R i v e r Joshua Tatum Tyler Ranger Alvarado Waxahachie Cedar MabankChandler Granbury Loraine Baird Cisco Roscoe Beckville Knott Lake Eastland Overton Creek Clyde Cleburne Bluff Dale Colorado City Coahoma Ennis Tyler Putnam Carthage Reservoir Athens Nolan Stephenville Italy Troup son Lake Gorman Hender Tuscola Cottonwood Kerens Maryneal Itasca Big Spring Malakoff Blum 22 Palestine Gary Milford Joaquin De Leon Walnut Springs Cross Plains Forsan Frankston Bradshaw Rising Star Blackwell Lawn Jacksonville Mount Stanton Frost Blooming Corsicana Tenaha Toledo Hillsboro Enterprise A Morgan Dublin Proctor Burkett Cayuga Novice pson Grove Richland Tim Bend Hico E V Spence Proctor Center Lake Whitney May Lake Neches Cushing Garrison Winters Brownwood Reservoir Meridian Reservoir Rusk Robert Lee Hubbard Streetman Gustine Cranfills Whitney Lake Comanche Garden City Appleby s Shelbyville Wortham Bronte tine Sterling City Pales Aquilla West Coolidge Gap Coleman Blanket Alto No Talpa e Fairfield Mexia rth Elkhart Brownwood Hamilton Clifton Ballinger Nacogdoches San Augustine Co iv Bangs Valley Mills Bellmead Teague nc Priddy er Oakwood Grapeland Col o reno Miles ho Chi Midkiff Mullin rad Ri Waco Mart Groesbeck Wells Sam Rayburn Bronson Crawford ver oR Paint Rock mphill Latexo yo Evant iv Gatesville McGregor iver Rockwood Buffalo Star Thornton Lufkin Reservoiraddus He Kennard u er Bro iddle Concho River O C Fisher Lake Lake Pineland San Angelo Crockett M Goldthwaite Mercury Jewett ton Millersview Apple Springs Diboll Hunting Bruceville Marlin Limestone Knickerbocker Moody Twin Buttes Springs Kosse Centerville Adamsville Belton Brookeland Texon Best Lohn Richland Zavalla Leona Austonio San Saba Lometa Lake Troy Melvin Mertzon Reservoir Lott Bremond Big Lake Groveton Rankin Lovelady Rochelle Eden Brady Cr Copperas Cove Killeen n Corriga Temple Christoval eek Burkeville Normangee Weldon Franklin Lampasas L Brady Chester mesneil Jasper Barnhart Rosebud a m Kempner Col Newton Camden Madisonville Trinity Belton pa Calvert r Doucette Voca on s a s Salado Roganville Cherokee ive Lake Livingst Menard Iraan R i v e r Holland Rogers Buckholts North Zulch Hearne Camp San Saba Bon Wier ba R Riverside San Sa Woodville Bartlett Litt Kirbyville Briggs Livingston Cameron Pontotoc Lake Buchanan le Florence Burnet Eldorado River Bryan Fort McKavett Huntsville Sheffield Bertram Granger Mason Llano Goodrich Milano Coldspring London Llano Rockdale Ozona Warren Buchanan Dam R iv er College Station Georgetown Braz New Waverly Shepherd Leander Buna Marble Falls o Thorndale Anderson Hutto Kountze Taylor Co Lake Travis is Will lor Sonora Roosevelt Navasota Silsbee Junction Round Mountain Round Rock Lexington Cleveland a Lake Conroe Saratoga Mauriceville Manor Elgin Somerville r Courtney Conroe Splendora ive Ri Washington Lake Vidor Orange McDade Harper Fredericksburg ed e r na l e s R Magnolia ver Daisetta Sour Somerville P e Woodlands Pe Th Johnson City Giddings Beaumont Brenham Prairie View Lake co Dayton Mountain Home Port Neches Pandale Juno Dripping Bastrop Houston Spring Carmine Hempstead Nederland Cedar Groves Kerrville Blanco Springs Buda ble Hum Ingram Smithville Creek Kyle Port Arthur Bellville Rocksprings Mont Belvieu Winnie Dale Comfort Waring Anahuac Stowell Pumpville Grange La vi San Marcos Lockhart Center Point Gu ada l upe ls Fayetteville Sealy Brookshire River Carta Baytown R Langtry Canyon Cistern Martindale Valley Medina Pasadena Lake Hunter Flatonia Weimar Columbus Barksdale Leakey Boerne High Island Waelder Wallis Sugar Land souri City Galveston ls Mis New Braunfe Camp Luling Schulenburg Bandera Comstock Eagle Lake Pearland Bay Wood Richmond Moulton Schertz Seguin ue B Rock Island East Bernard Rosenberg nt League City Utopia Alvin ce a l c Gonzales Bolivar Peninsula Amistad sR ones Escarpme Garwood Hallettsville San Antonio ive Reservoir Port Bolivar Texas City Glen Flora r Concan lo r Leesville Shiner Del Rio Sweet Home Galveston Castroville ad o Wharton Hondo La Vernia Danbury R Brackettville Nixon Smiley Yoakum Knippal Sabinal Galveston Island Saspamco leton t Columbia po Ang Wes El Cam Stockdale Natalia Me Cline Lake Jackson Uvalde d Louise Sweeny Devine Floresville Cuero Spofford Danevang Clute Lav Gu Ganado Poteet a ad Moore Bay City Poth Yorktown eport Edna ay Fre Quemado Batesville Markham Lake Texana La Pryor Falls City Pleasanton rw Nordheim pe Thomaston e Nursery Blessing at Runge Jourdanton r Pearsall al W ria Victo st 64 Karnes City Kenedy Charlotte L eona R Vanderbilt Palacios tracoa Charco Fannin i ve r In Christine Matagorda Point Comfort Sa Eagle Pass Goliad nA Dilley Crystal City Lavaca er Bloomington Portca Matagorda r io Pettus n t o n i o R i v e r Lava R Big Wells Choke Canyon Mineral Matagorda Peninsula Berclair Bay Bay Lake Millett Carrizo Springs Port O’Connor Three Rivers Cotulla Tivoli ift e Fowlerton Beevill Seadr Tilden San Catarina George West Refugio Skidmore Woodsboro Antonio Bay Artesia Wells Matagorda Island Lake Corpus Copano ece Christi Mathis Bay Aransas s Rive Sinton Encinal 40 Rockport Bay San Jose Island Sandia Odem Taft Seven Sisters es Aransas Pass Orange Grove R i v e PortlandIngleside r Population Freer Robstown Corpus Port Aransas San Diego Alice 1 million to 5 million nd Corpus Christi Christi Mustang Island Bay e ll 500,000 to 1 million Bishop Drisco Benavides Chapman Ranch Kingsville Laredo 100,000 to 500,000 Flomot ARK Whiteflat Matador B a Lockney Aiken Floydada Petersburg c Hale Center te R NS hi iver iver O sR yac R iv elina Ri r ver R R i ve r a R iv s River che Ne asot wa init y Ri ver Ho Tr rd Draw er r sR Pl a t e a u do s ive d sR r Austin 8 9 S a b in e R i v e r Nav S A 7 S I A N A U I tto e Ang Nech ity a nR nB Tri n ca Leo Pe w a 6 L C Cle ar F ork a p er ver Ri Dallas X Ed E 5 AS r R o c k a A 10 ive r Co San Antonio i ive Bra tN Sabi na l River Wes iver zos River De Houston r in x r o 12 M ve sco Ri Ata i ve a lu ive ca R aR Nue ce s e c 11 r sa R i v F iver R i ve r f 13 r Nu M f o l Nue Map key c Gr u R io 14 G a E Realitos Premont Lo sO m l Mirando City Hebbronville Falfurrias San Ygnacio Agua Nueva Norias X Santa Elena Lopeno Linn Salineno ᭡ The Texas hill country is the most southerly extension of the Great Plains. Although farming is the primary source of income, the beautiful hills, valleys, and lakes are a major tourist attraction. N O P I Hargill Rio Grande City Raymondville Edinburg Elsa Edcouch Rio Hondo Grulla Mission Pharr Weslaco Harlingen McAllen Donna Mercedes San Benito Port Isabel 40 Q Lyford San Perlita C Los Fresnos Brownsville O 15 10,000 to 50,000 below 10,000 ᭡ Padre Island is a sand bank. It extends 113 miles (182 km) along the southern coast of Texas. Armstrong Guerra Falcon Reservoir Roma Los Saenz Encino 50,000 to 100,000 Riviera y Baffin Ba Sarita d Islan Padre re Mad Laguna Zapata o s Creek Elevation 2000m / 6562ft 16 1000m / 3281ft Scale 1:3,250,000 500m / 1640ft Km 0 20 10 10 0 40 20 60 80 100 60 40 250m / 820ft 80 100m / 328ft 100 Miles V W 17 sea level projection: Lambert Conformal Conic X Y Z 25
  • 59. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J K L M USA: SOUTH MIDWESTERN STATES 1 28 Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma b li pu e O A D no ado Colby Goodland S alin e Mount Sunflower 1231m Oakley Sharon Springs Sm ok is Leoti Scott City Ri o New Mexic ve Johnson Lake McKinne y Gard en City pi sip sis er R Mis Louisiana Beav ar ro n Rive Hooker Beaver Optima Lake Guymon B e av R e d Coldwater Ashland Buffalo er i an O K Ri rk dR Hobart Altus Lake Chickasha ive r Mount Scott 751m Wichita Mountains Tom Steed Reservoir Altus 500m / 1640ft Eldorado Snyder Cache Re d ve r Ri 100m / 328ft sea level Okarche Binger Minco Cordell Tuttle Fort Cobb Reservoir Wa shi Carnegie Anadarkota Rive r S a l t Fo r k R e d R i v e r Hollis Apache Lake Ellsworth Rush Springs Elgin Marlow Lawton Duncan Walters Comanche Frederick Davidson Grandfield Waurika Lake Waurika 24 Terral The Ozark Plateau is a wooded, hilly region of rivers and narrow, winding lakes. The Lake of the Ozarks was created by the damming of the Osage River in 1930. Scale 1:3,000,000 Km 0 5 10 Crowleys Ridge is a long, sandy ridge, rising from the Mississippi floodplain. It was formed over thousands of years by the deposition of sand blown eastward from the Great Plains. 0 5 20 10 30 20 40 50 30 60 70 40 50 60 70 Miles projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Underground water reserves NE CO KS NM MO OK 16 ᭢ Lake Ouachita, in Arkansas is one of a number of irregularlyshaped lakes found among the ridges of the Ouachita Mountains. Extent of the aquifer WY AR Kansas Red River Oklahoma TX ᭡ The Ogallala Aquifer, beneath the Great Plains, is the largest known source of underground water in the world. There is concern about the rapid depletion of this finite water supply by irrigation schemes. 17 A 26 B C Devil’s Den is a dry badland area. The rugged landscape, strewn with large boulders, is the eroded remnant of a spur extending from the Arbuckle Mountains to the west. D E k er Ri v ad Fo e Cre on rr an Kingfisher Watonga Clinton Weatherford El Reno Hinton Burns Flat Mangum 250m / 820ft hC Ri v n below 10,000 a di a s Erick Enid t Nor an n Sayre 10,000 to 50,000 a ey Cim Elk City 50,000 to 100,000 Re 15 Cleo Springs i 100,000 to 500,000 The Great Salt Plains of northern Oklahoma cover 45 sq miles (116 sq km). The arid, white flats were left by the gradual evaporation of an ancient salt lake. 14 Great Salt Plains Lake Thomas ve Hammon Foss Reservoir Geary r Arapaho Cheyenne 1000m / 3281ft Missouri River Ouachita Mountains F ᭡ The landscape of northeast Kansas is interlaced by rivers which have cut broad wooded valleys through the gentle hills. All the rivers in Kansas form part of the massive Missouri/Mississippi drainage basin. Mississippi River G H I er Fairview Seiling Canton Lake Okeene C Hennessey Taloga Canton Washita R Population ᭡ The Mississippi, North America’s longest river, is joined by the Missouri, its main tributary, on a flood plain which spreads south to the Gulf of Mexico. s k i a Ri v Medicine e r Lodge Harper Waynoka No r t h 13 C hi k a Ri v Anthony Woodward Vici Map key 1994 miles (3208 km) Kingman k Tur C Shattuck Arnett Elevation Flint Hills is the region’s easternmost major escarpment. Steep, grassy uplands are interspersed with rocky, wooded ravines and outcrops of limestone and chert. Stafford Cheney Reservoir a Wolf k re e r Collapsed limestone caverns led to the formation of Big Basin in Kansas; a depression 100 ft (33 m) deep and 1 mile (1.6 km) wide. re e k eC Alva Cherokee Leedey The landscape 12 ak Fort Supply 24 The Arkansas River and its tributaries allow access to over half of the US’s navigable inland waterways. A system of locks and dams along the river provides Tulsa, in Oklahoma, with a navigable water route to the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the region consists of high, treeless plains, which gradually descend east from the Rocky Mountains. Drainage follows this slope, with rivers flowing toward the alluvial lowlands of the Mississippi in the southeast. Between the plains and the lowlands lie various ranges of wooded hills, including the deeply incised Ozark Plateau. sn South Hutchinson Kiowa iv e 11 le at t Pratt Elmwood 4068 miles (6508 km) 16,185 miles (25,896 km) Hutchinson M l l s e di c in e Lod Hi ge e r Rive r T E X A S 380,307 miles (608,491 km) Lyons Sterling Ellinwood r Laverne Goodwell Kanopolis Lake r r Transportation network ive sR Greensburg Bucklin R m a ns ka Ar Saint John Fort Supply Lake oil vehicle manufacture ᭤ Agricultural produce from the plains is moved by barges along the Mississippi. The river now carries a far greater tonnage of freight than any other waterway system in the US. Larned Kinsley Minneola 36 major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas er Forgan Texhoma Major industry and infrastructure aerospace engineering finance food processing gas mining i ve Ci N l Te x a s 8 R iv La Crosse Jetmore Big Basin A Hoisington Walnut Creek Cheyenne Bottoms Great Bend Dodge City Liberal Keyes Boise City ee Cimarron Hugoton r Elkhart Smoky Hill River Ellsworth K Ness City Ulysses Black Mesa on D r y Ci m a r r 1516m NEW M E X IC O Dighton Pawn Syracuse Lakin Arka n sas Riv er S a li n e R i ve r P Little Rock Cedar Bluff Reservoir Lincoln Russell Wilson Lake Hays y Hi l l R i v e r Ladder Creek Tribune Hil ls Luray Wa Keeney Ellis Sublette Satanta Meade Tennessee Arkansas Rive r t li Color ve r Norton Oberlin ek Cre 36 Oklahoma City 10 cis Montezuma y Kentuck Tulsa Lovewell Reservoir Mankato Keith Sebelius Phillipsburg Cr e e k Lake Logan Kensington Smith Center Dog ri r i ive Kirwin Fo r k S o l o m o n R P ra Waconda No r t h Reservoir Downs Lake Stockton Osborne SolBeloit Hoxie S o l o m o n Ri v e r om th For k Ri v e o n Hill City Sou r Smoky Plainville Atwood ReSaint Fran a Il Missouri Oklahoma 9 or k Kansas Wichita 7 S F o ut h e The processing of agricultural products, such as brewing and meatpacking, has been traditionally important in these states. In Kansas and Oklahoma, diversified manufacturing now supplements income from fossil fuels; Wichita has become a world center for aeronautical Iowa Nebraska engineering, an industry which Kansas also employs many people in Topeka City Saint Louis neighboring Missouri. 6 N E B R r r Transportation & industry 5 ve G 4 n Ri B ea C O L O R 3 ca The expansion of the US focused on this region in the mid-19th century. Settlers spread from the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers up onto the Great Plains. This treeless expanse, which early explorers had called the Great American Desert was turned into one of the world’s richest agricultural regions. But periodic droughts, coupled with overintensive farming, led to the “dustbowl” soil erosion crisis of the 1930s, the abandonment of many farms, and a mass exodus to the west coast. The land has since recovered, although the mechanization of agriculture has led to a decline in the rural population. In recent years, suburban residential development has spread rapidly across the wooded Ozark Plateau in the east of the region. J K L M
  • 60. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – S O U T H M I D W E S T E R N S TAT E S O P Q R S Unionville Princeton Memphis Queen City No Green City sR ive r Kahoka r th F ab i Canton us Milan Ri Edina Monticello sville Y ᭤ Gateway Arch, in Saint Louis, Missouri, is 634 ft (192 m) high. The huge steel arch symbolizes the city’s historic role as the “Gateway to the West”. e Bethany Albany Stanberr y X o in sM Maryville W De Grant City Burlington Junction om Nodaway River V Lancaster Th A A S K U I O W A 28 Tarkio Rock Port T Nelsoon River N 1 ve r I Ri wa ela P l at t e R i v ve S e Ri C h ar ito n R ive r Creek Locust iv e r iv e r B lu lu e R 2 r nR ou tle Bi g B ve pso s Mi s Li t Kirk So Mound City La Grange ut Trenton hF King City Pattonsburg ab ri iu s Ri Oregon Savannah Rive r Gallatin ve r Linneus Sabetha Shelbyville Palmyra Maysville Seneca Hiawatha Chillicothe field Brook Belleville Troy Saint Joseph Shelbina Hannibal Gran Marysville Hamilton Bucklin Macon r d Washington Elwood Stewartsville River D Frankfort Marceline Thomas Hill Monroe City Kingston Waterville New London Horton alt Blue Rapids Concordia Reservoir Plattsburg Atchison Clyde Paris in Louisiana Mi Mark Twa Lathrop ssi Keytesville Huntsville Holton Dearborn Brunswick Lake ss i p Moberly Tuttle Creek Lawson Bowling Green Salisbury Platte City Clay Center Lake Westmoreland Nortonville Glasco or Springs Excelsi n Carrollton Vandalia Ri Kansas City Sturgeon Perry Leavenworth Riley Richmond v Slater Glasgow Liberty Miltonvale er Elsberr y Lake Wamego Lansing Centralia e Saint Marys Oskaloosa Fayette Mexico Wakefield Manhattan Waverly City GladstonCity Kansas Cu Marshall Lexington Kansas Minneapolis Milford sas River iv r Silver Lake Tonganoxie Kan Montgomery City Lake Independence Higginsville ater Ri Bonner Springs Troy Riv e r Saint Boonville ver Junction City Blue Springs kw Alma Topeka arles Overland Park ac rdia Raytown Conco O'Fallon Ch Solomon Abilene Lenexa r Columbia Sweet Florissant is Lawrence Leawood Lees Summit ive Eudora Warrenton Wentzville R Springs Lambert-Saint Lou Ashland Fulton Grandview Hi l l Clinton Lake Olathe Knob Noster Salina Sm ok y ty City River Hermann Hill 30 Pleasant ri Carbondale Universi Saint Louis Edgerton Belton Holts Sedalia i s s ou Clayton Council Grove Lake Warrensburg Baldwin City California Summit M New Haven Kirkwood Webster Groves Herington Holden Spring Hill Council Grove Lyndon Tipton rson City gton Harrisonville Jeffe Washin Ottawa Lindsborg Windsor Cole Arnold Garden City os Osage City Paola Union ho Pacific Ri Linn Camp Osawatomie Gerald ve Melvern Lake r Marion Lake er Pevely Owensville Stover Versailles McPherson Clinton Adrian R iv Lincoln Festus Hillsboro e use Eldon Marion Cottonwood Emporia Lebo ag rb e Hillsboro n Belle sC am Butler Crystal Os ou Sulliva er yg n B Falls Florence Garnett Vienna M Harry S Truman City John Redmond Warsaw es R Little A Pleasanton i ve Appleton Reser voir Reservoir r Osage Beach Burlington r Riv kan Hesston r e Mound City City Lake of the Peabody er Madison Cuba Sainte Geneviev Le Roy Ozarks O s ag Dixon Bonne Terre Rich Hill Potosi Camdenton e Rive r Osceola Halstead Newton Desloge Li t t l e O Hermitage la Steelville Rol Mi Ark s ag El Dorado Flat River e Rive r s Iola Moran El Dorado Pomme de Richland Riv a n s a Farmington Springs Yates Center e s Valley Center Lake Terre Lake Waynesville Bismarck Haven r Eureka Perryville Nevada El Dorado Fort Scott Humansville Park City Toronto Lake Humboldt Wichita Salem Fredericktown e Andover Lebanon Ironton Stockton rs Buffalo Goddard Chanute n Fall River Lake Taum Sauk Ho Bolivar Ni a Augusta Ne Mountain Nin Haysville Licking Liberal Stockton Lake kR os nes Arma 540m or Derby h c ah Fredonia Jackson Lamar Centerville Girard eF Ri v Cape Girardeau Mulvane er Howard Marble Hill Greenfield Fair Grove S ain t Fr an co i s Houston Pittsburg Neodesha Illmo Conway Golden City on Moline sto Marshfield Ellingt Scott City Parsons Willard Springs rR Burden Jasper Hartville ive r Chaffee Ash Grove Clearwater Piedmont Carl Cherryvale Strafford Benton ce Elk City Lake Eminen Advance Lake Wellington pello Junction Carthage Cabool Independence Oswego Springfield Winfield Spr ing River Republic Mo un ta in s Wappa Lake Sedan Altamont ac Cedar Vale Columbus Galena Webb City Battlefield Seymour Mountain Winona Mount kR Charleston Grove Ozark Caldwell Joplin Bloomfield Sikeston Coffeyville Chetopa Van Buren Sarcoxie Vernon Nixa ive Arkansas City Willow Mountain View Caney r Baxter Springs Ava Marionville Morehouse Springs Aurora Commerce Picher Dexter East Prairie Granby Monett Newkirk Poplar Bluff Welch Miami Bernie Neosho West Plains Purdy d Medford n Alto Blackwell Seneca Lilbourn New Madri Kaw Lake Bartlesville Dewey Galena Forsy th Malden Nowata Lamont Ponca City Doniphan le Cassville Gainesvil Anderson Branson Afton Campbell Oologah Pawhuska Gideon Pond Salt Fork Tonkawa Pineville Hollister Thayer Lake Arka Grove Barnsdall Creek Portageville Vinita n s a s Ri v e r Seligman Table Rock Lake Fairfax Chelsea Corning t Grand Lake O’ Noel Piggot Nor fork Lake Skiatook Ar The Cherokees Garber Salem Hayti Rector Hardy k a n s a s Hominy Lake Skiatook Berryville Bull Shoals Bl a c k B Pocahontas Rive Jay sville Riv Lake Lake Rogers Eureka e a r Cre e k Mountain Home Collinsville Kennett Caruther Bentonville er che r in Springs Green Hudson Kansas Ash Flat Cleveland Harrison Cotter Imboden Ca Claremore g Rive r ath Gentry Sen Pryor Pawnee Perry Beaver Lake Forest Turley Owasso Yellville Steele Locust Grove Walnut Ridge Springdale Calico Rock Keystone Lake Catoosa Paragould Hoxie Siloam ve r Stillwater iver Chouteau Gosnell Tulsa Ri Melbourne Leachville Fayetteville Huntsville Springs er Sand Springs on R Fort Gibson s v Broken ite arr Jasper Bu f fal o Ri Bly theville Monette Cave City Lake Arrow Manila Riv Cim Cushing Sapulpa Marshall er Prairie Grove Jenks Bixby Coweta Wagoner Lake City Perkins Drumright Jonesboro West Fork n View Mountai Guthrie Tahlequah Osceola Batesville Mounds Bristow Trumann Haskell Stilwell Tuckerman D e v il's Stroud Boston M Fort Gibson Lepanto Ferr y Greers ou Harrisburg rked Tree Muskogee Tenkiller Ferry D e n nt Newport Lake Ma Chandler Edmond ai Clinton r Lake Wellston Heber Springs D e e p F k Ri ve ns The Village Little R or Okmulgee Bradford Vian Sallisaw Clarksville Checotah Bethany Choctaw Prague Turrell Ozark Alma Midwest Muldrow Warner Okemah Henryetta Yukon McLoud Van Buren City er No Ri v Bald Knob Marion r t h C an a di an Fort Smith Oklahoma City Shawnee Earle Robert S Kerr 20 Arkoma Judsonia Lake Russellville Augusta McCrory Moore Barling Charleston Paris Reservoir Searcy Tecumseh Eufaula Wynne West Memphis Lake Spiro Pocola Greenwood Dardanelle Newcastle Plumerville Seminole Wetumka Atkins anelle Dard Stigler Thunderbird er Norman Wewoka Riv Magazine Eufaula Lake n Conway Arkansa s RivMorrilto Mountain 839m i an Noble Booneville Lake Conway Beebe Forrest City Quinton Holdenville ad yville er Perr Hughes Danville Ola n Mansfield Poteau Purcell Lexington Cabot Des Arc Ca Konawa Hartford Brinkley av e Ri v e r Lake Maumelle McAlester Krebs Waldron LaF Jacksonville Heavener e Lindsay Maumelle Marianna rc h Wilburton Mud Fou Stratford dy th Lon Hartshorne B Little Rock Norle Rockoke Carlisle Ada Clarendon Lake Ouachita Litt Pauls Valley Sardis Lake Kiowa Talihina Marvell West Helena Hot Springs Village Blue Mountain Wynnewood Rich Mountain Helena 799m England Mountain Pine Clayton 817m Mena ton ount ain s r Ben k McGee Coalgate Mount Ida Stuttgart ve er iv e se Cree hi M h or iv Ca Hot Springs r Creek Lake R ami c Sulphur e Wild ArbDavis Atoka Lake ddo iR Mounuckle Ki Altheimer Lake Hamilton Mo u 22 tain Malvern Witt nt ai n s Glenwood De Atoka s De Gray Pine Bluff ar Sheridan Broken Bow Arka ita Amity Lake Bo White Hall n sa o Healdton gg R i v e r Tishomingo Lake Sa s Ri yC li n Lake Greeson ver Gillett reek Antlers e Arkadelphia Lake Pine Creek Dickson Ringling Lone Lake Texoma Ardmore Dierks Caddo Murfreesboro Grove Ba Hugo Lake Wright City Madill Li t t yo De Queen Star City le Miss o u Rison Hugo Broken Bow B Dumas Durant Lockesburg Land use and Nashville Marietta ive Gurdon Litt Fordyce ver i r le ed R agricultural distribution Idabel Colbert R Millwood Lake ive Prescott r Bearden McGehee cattle Arkansas Monticello Ashdown City poultry Warren Hope Red River Hampton Dermott Camden cereals corn Stephens Smackover cotton Lake Village Lake Chicot Texarkana Stamps Waldo Ou e fodder Montrose Lewisville a ch lin Magnolia Hamburg it a Ri Sa rice Fouke ve r 24 North Crossett soybeans Dorado El Eudora Erling Crossett Lake Bradley Strong major towns L er re River ub Soldie p Re 3 pi a L R i ve r Creek li c r I e Bl N 4 O M I S S O U R I r Ri ve ec Ri ai s 5 S ve r I S Mar A Ne S Bi g R de ive KE NT ranci s nt F r S ai Ri v e r er er SE ge NN ive r Cache I e hit pp ssi t Me IS Ri th iR ar iver i ta R ac h ve r Ou ur olo me R SS w Rive r MI 13 14 pasture cropland forest L O U I S I A N A 15 Iowa Nebraska Kansas City Missouri 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Tulsa Oklahoma 100 Oklahoma City Total land area 54 people per sq mile (21 people per sq km) 271,436 sq miles (702,992 sq km) Little Rock T e x a s Louisiana Q R S T U Tennessee ssip Population density Arkansas pi New Mexic 0 ᭡ A combine harvester works the land on the great plains. A hundred years ago this region, also known as the prairies – the French word for pasture – was covered with tall, wild grasses. 16 y Kentuck o rural 35% is Kansas no Saint Louis Topeka Wichita urban 65% li The urban/rural population divide Il Colorado 22 V W X Y Missi e Miss i ou Cl Kiam 12 SI i ch i Ri B ay r P 11 PP W Creek Ri v h O 10 TE nci int Sa River River Fra ed L' A ng u i l sR l e R i ve r Bl a Crowleys ck Riv I l li er ES Rid i no h gy B lu e s Wa A S Using the land N E r Riv Lit tl eR t Poin Sp W og M o u n t a i n s The problems of a harsh continental climate, with severe winters and hot, dry summers, are partially offset by the rich soils of the plains. Kansas is a major cereal crop producer, ranking first in US production of wheat and sorghum. Rainfall increases toward the east, favoring the cultivation of soybeans, cotton, and rice, with corn concentrated in Missouri. Huge herds of cattle are raised in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. 20 Ri v E le ve n er A R K A N S A S c h i t a O u a Y Os Ca Bl eek nt r re Cu t Cr Br y a n ive r y Riv O L A H O M A T E X UCK ag eek ive r g ris R C an e a z k r er ive r gu Riv y Cr oR di Ve r P u a ive eek pi Cr s ip a Rive r si s Bi g P in e Fl in t H i l l s s sa e t a l 6 17 Z 27
  • 61. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J K L M USA: UPPER PLAINS STATES C Fortuna L ittl e M ud dy R A Creek N ll B North F Ludlow eR a la d n Wh G N M k Che ye n n Midland Y Hogback Mountain 1549m ive White River oir Li Merriman Valentine N i o brar a R iv e r Merritt Reservoir S nake Ri ver Hay Springs Go r don Cr eek North Loup Mid d le Lo up R Lakeside Scottsbluff Hyannis S a n d Nor Arthur th P latt eR eek Oshkosh iver J r Thedford Dismal H i l l s Bridgeport Rive i v er Mullen Wild Horse Hill 1281m Chimney Bayard Rock Sidney I Mission e ttl Cody Gordon Alliance C O L O r r ver le Cr ve Kadoka Interior R ite Ri Murdo s d Bad Philip Hemingford Gering e Riv er Lake Oahe Hayes Rushville Crawford Morrill Mitchell W Montan ree R iv e r N E B Tryon Stapleton Bear Hill 1175m Lake C. W. McConaughy Chappell So Ogallala t e R iv u th P la t North Platte Sutherland er Grant R Imperial Hayes Center Enders Reservoir K Curtis Stockville ek H yC Martin ᭣ In northeastern Iowa, the Mississippi and its tributaries have deeply incised the underlying bedrock creating a hilly terrain, with bluffs standing 300 ft (90 m) above the valley. G err Billsburg Chadron Harrison Mississippi River F Ch Cre E SOUTH ek llow D iver uR rea Mo La Plant Eagle Butte Wi C h ur Cre Timber Lake Red 28 B B n D O A en Angostura Reserv 16 Missouri River k Wall A Although it escaped the last glaciation, the limestone bedrock of southeastern Minnesota has been eroded by surface and subterranean streams, leaving a network of underground caverns and steepsided valleys. South Dakota Badlands 17 ree Pine Ridge Batesland Kimball Lodgepo ᭡ Chimney Rock is a remnant of an ancient land surface, eroded by the North Platte River. The tip of its spire stands 500 ft (150 m) above the plain. r Isabel eC New Underwood Hermosa Hot Springs er Niobrara Ri The Minnesota landscape contains many post-glacial features, including its numerous lakes, boulder-strewn hills, and mineral-rich deposits. ᭡ In the badlands of North and South Dakota, horizontal layers of sandstone have been eroded by rivers, leaving a landscape of narrow gullies, sharp crests and pinnacles. 15 utt iver iv Harrisburg 14 rB Dupree Faith Rapid City Box Butte Reservoir ᭡ Badlands are formed by stormwater run-off. This flows down the impermeable strata of the escarpment and saturates the permeable strata, leading to mudslides and the formation of gullies. North Dakota Badlands de Oelrichs O Ridge In permeable strata hollows are formed by small mudslides Sulp Box Elder Chey Ch e ye n Edgemont Water flowing into gullies erodes back the escarpment 13 ek un Howes Pringle major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas Missouri Escarpment Th Mount Rushmore 1745m Custer McLaughlin Gr and River Shadehill Reservoir eR Lincoln Harney Peak 2207m Selfridge McIntosh r Whitewood Black Blackhawk Hills Hill City r Carson ve Ri Ca ll nn onba hit Des Moines ive r Sturgi Terry Peak lle Deadwood s Fourche River 2153m Elk Crooks Tower Cre ek 2175m R Omaha coal engineering electronics finance food processing oil & gas mining Kansas These states straddle the Great Plains and the lowlands of the central US, with Minnesota lying in a transition zone between the eastern forests and the prairies. The region was shaped by repeated ice advances and retreats, leaving a flat relief, broken only by the numerous lakes and broad river networks that drain the prairies. ervoir Newell Fruitdale Lead Major industry and infrastructure ne inois Cedar Rapids Nebr aska Colorado Ill Iowa i ve Lemmon r Flasher Bison it Cre Belle Fourche Res I in Saint Paul Sioux Falls ns Wy o m i n g co Pierre is S out h D a kot a dR Be W ta Minneapolis The landscape 12 Duluth so 683 miles (1098 km) Nebraska’s central location has made it an important transportation artery for east–west traffic. Minnesota’s road network radiates out from the hub of the twin cities, Minneapolis–Saint Paul. 11 Fargo ne 3422 miles (5475 km) 16,940 miles (27,104 km) 10 in 504,522 miles (807,235 km) Bismarck M Transportation network erior Sup ke La ran Bismarck He ar t Ri ve Cedar Creek Mud Butte Spearfish New Salem Elgin Mott New Leipzig ve Moreau Ri a 9 Wilton Mandan Hea Glen Ullin rt R iv ork G Rabb Belle Fourche Center River Dickinson Reva ᭤ Water erosion along the Little Missouri River has carried away sedimentary deposits, creating rugged landscapes known as badlands. NOR Garrison Dam Riverdale Turtle Lake Underwood Zap Stanton Wash burn Beulah Hazen Richardton Hebron Sou th F ork Gr and R Buffalo Max W 357,212 sq miles (925,143 sq km) Food processing and the production of farm machinery are supported by the large agricultural sector. Mineral exploitation is also an important activity: gold is mined in the ore-rich Black Hills of South Dakota, and C A NA DA both North Dakota and Nebraska are emerging as major petroleum producers. Nor t h D a kot a Kn ife er Velva Garrison Reeder Bowman-Haley Lak e Hettinger Lit pasture cropland forest wetland Bowman t le Mi ss o u ri R i ver major towns Missouri Kansas Transportation & industry Riv Surrey Plaza Lake Tschida New England 32 8 en Minot Parshall Lake Sakakawea Little a d l a n d s A T Lincoln O Wy o m i n g Colorado Total land area 31 people per sq mile (12 people per sq km) 100 Gre White Butte 1069m Marmarth M Population density 90 N Montana 80 r 70 ve 60 Ri 50 er 40 Riv 30 inois 20 Des Moines e ri River issou M Killdeer Mountains Killdeer Grassy Butte Halliday eek Manning r Cr ve Amidon cattle pigs corn soybeans wheat Ill 7 10 Omaha r is in Iowa Cedar Rapids Nebraska 0 ns Saint Paul Pierre Land use and agricultural distribution co Minneapolis New Town Sentinel Butte Medora Belfield 1045m is South Dakota Sh Beach erior Sup ake W ta rural 36% L Burlington Berthold Alexander Bea so The urban/rural population divide urban 64% Bismarck cs Stanley Ray Williston Watford City C A NA DA North Dakota La Tioga Buford ne 6 i ve r er The popular image of these states as agricultural is entirely justified; prairies stretch uninterrupted across most of the area. Croplands fall into two regions: the wheat belt of the plains, and the corn belt of the central US. Cash crops, such as soybeans, are grown to supplement incomes. Livestock, particularly pigs and cattle, are raised throughout this region. in 5 Grenora ᭤ Dark, fertile prairie soils in the southeast provide Minnesota’s most productive farmland. Hot, humid summers create a long growing season for corn cultivation. Using the land M 4 Sherwood Westhope Bowbells Mohall Upper Des Lacs Lake Kenmare Powers Lake Lake Darling Des Noonan Lying at the very heart of the North American continent, much of this region was acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The area was largely bypassed by the early waves of westward migrants. When Europeans did settle, during the 19th century, they displaced the Native Americans who lived on the plains. The settlers planted arable crops and raised cattle on the immensely fertile prairie land, founding an agrarian tradition which flourishes today. Most of this region remains rural; of the five states, only in Minnesota has there been significant diversification away from agriculture and resource-based industries into the hi-tech and service sectors. 3 Crosby Columbus Portal S ou Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nor th Dakota, South Dakota iver 1 Hugh Butler Lake Culbertson Trenton Swanson Lake McCook Benkelman L M
  • 62. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – U P P E R P L A I N S S TAT E S N O P Q R S T U V W X ᭤ Along the shores of Lake Superior in Minnesota, the average number of frostfree days can be as few as 90, and frosts may occur in any month of the year. 10 A N A D A 8 Lake of the Woods Minto Fo re st Rive Devils Lake iver rk R Mud Lake Upper Red Lake le rk Ri ak Fo r Bagley Bemidji Cass Lake Bu Nome Horace Kindred i Grand Portage s Hill a h Eagle Mountain 701m Grand Marais Birch Lake Babbitt Tower ive sippi R ssis Menahga Pine River Whitefish Lake nt Lutsen k La eS e up rio r Cloquet Mi 5 Lou is Riv Floodwood e Big Sandy Lake Proctor r Park Rapids Detroit Lakes Frazee West Fargo Montpelier Streeter Hill City Crow W Misso Long Lake iv S ai Jamestown Steele M Mountain Virginia Aurora Iron Chisholm Gilbert Hoyt Lakes Lake ge Winnibigoshish i R a n Hibbing Eveleth b Silver Bay sa Keewatin Me Whiteface Reservoir Deer River Bovey Grand Rapids Leech Lake Pokegama Lake Island Lake Reservoir Two Harbors l Medina Ely Vermilion Lake Cook u sq r Walker ffa oR er Oriska Fargo Dilworth Casselton Moorhead Hawley Mapleton Valley City ver Blackduck Cass Lake iver iv e Pelican Lake Orr Lower Red Lake Red R eR eR r Glenfield James River Pingree Woodworth ive r Fosston Finley Mayville Fertile Portland Hillsboro Cooperstown Halstad Wild Rice River Hope Mahnomen Lake Ashtabula Ada Twin Valley Hunter Wimbledon Page Rogers Arthur Carrington Tuttle Go os yenn Goodrich Hurdsfield Saganaga Lake Lac la Croix Basswood Lake Kabetogama Lake Big Falls Nett Lake Thief River Falls ve nne Riv ey e er Sh TH DAKOTA Wing Warren Manvel Red Lake Lakota Petersburg River East Grand Emerado Forks Cl ear wa ter R dL i Re Larimore Warwick Red Lake Falls Grand Forks Sheyenne Crookston Northwood Thompson She McVille Erskine New Rockford Hatton Harvey Fessenden McClusky r Littlefork tt Balfour Drake Anamoose iver Namakan Lake International Falls Black Bay Li Devils Lake Minnewaukan Maddock M iddle R Big Fo Churchs Ferry Stephen Grafton Park River Adams Baudette Thief Lake ief Leeds Karlstad River Edmore Rugby Knox 2 Rainy Lake Greenbush Drayton 1 Muskeg Bay Roseau ver Saint Thomas Cando Towner Warroad R ed R i Rolette Bisbee ina R e R i v e r Th Pe Clyde Rock Lake r Neche Pembina ive Walhalla Langdon Cavalier Hallock mb Rolla Belcourt Dunseith Bottineau Y Duluth Carlton Kettle e Ri W Sa in t ver MINNESOTA Ru I Jam es R iver P omme d e E Te r r e R i ver ver m Ri Bois de Sio ux River le River M is sis sipp i R i ver r Snak Rive Map key River in Rice uri River S hey Wild Pelican Lake Barnesville Perham Nisswa Enderlin Aitkin Pelican Rapids Gull Lake Moose Lake en Lisbon Crosby 6 Wadena g R i v Baxter La Moure ne Riv Abercrombie er Edgeley Otter Tail Lake er d Mille Brainer Linton Staples Verona Breckenridge Fergus Falls Population Wishek Lehr Lacs 30 Kulm Milnor Wahpeton Ot M ap Gwinner Lake Isle te r Battle Lake Wyndmere 100,000 to 500,000 Eagle Bend Tail River Sandstone er Fort Yates Strasburg Forman iv Oakes Parkers xR Hankinson 50,000 to 100,000 Randall Onamia Hinckley Ashley Prairie ro i C Ellendale Little Falls Ludden Lidgerwood Fairmount Zeeland Long Elbow Lake 10,000 to 50,000 Mora Alexandria Prairie Elm Lake Osakis Hecla Pollock Veblen 7 Herreid below 10,000 Pine City Frederick Mud Lake Reservoir Rosholt Wheaton Eureka Rush City Herman Britton Leola Mound City Braham Lake City Rice Milaca Melrose Sauk Centre Columbia Road Elevation Lake Traverse Foley Mobridge Cambridge Glenwood Albany Reservoir lm Sisseton Morris Sauk Rapids Browns Valley Selby Riv r Langford Starbuck Branch e Saint Cloud Princeton Graceville Java Bowdle Hancock Cold Spring Roscoe Ipswich Aberdeen Center City 2000m / 6562ft Waubay Lake Belgrade East Bethel Wilmot Groton Chisago City Paynesville Elk River Webster Big Stone Lake Benson Ortonville 1000m / 3281ft Monticello a t Lake Anok New London Fores Bristol Waubay Hoven 8 Annandale Blaine Milbank Buffalo Coon Rapids Appleton 500m / 1640ft Atwater Conde Kerkhoven Brooklyn Park Roseville Stillwater Litchfield Sn Mellette Lac qui Parle Willmar ak Faulkton Dassel Delano 250m / 820ft eC Saint Paul Howard Minneapolis ree Gettysburg MinneapolisMadison Clara City Cosmos Lake k Afton Lake Kampeska Lester Minnetonka Edina Saint Paul 100m / 328ft Newport Montevideo Hutchinson Prairie Watertown ington Dawson Bloom Clark B Burnsville Redfield Doland Granite Falls Oliviau f f a Glencoe Chaska Shakopee Clear Lake Clarkfield Mi lo River Hastings Onida sea level Lake nn Renville Hector Apple Valley od Prior Tulare eso Hayti Brownton Norwo iver Castlewood Canby Red Wing ta 9 Belle Plaine Farmington Arlington Riv n Estelline le C re e k New Prague Morton Highmore Cannon Falls Lake Pepi Cottonwood er Gaylord u rt Oahe Dam Blunt Northfield Lake City Le Sueur Fairfax Winthrop Redwood Falls Wessington Lake Poinsett Miller Wabasha Ivanhoe Montgomery Pierre Marshall Zumbro Le Center Swan Lake Wolsey o Huron De Smet Arlington Volga Brookings Zumbrota Falls bro Fort Pierre on w od Ri v Saint Peter Sleepy Eye umver ss ot t er Lake Preston Z Ri New Ulm Nicollet M ip Faribault Tyler C Kenyon Pine Island i Tracy pi Stephan Springfield Plainview Lake Thompson Riv Waterville Elkton Lake West Concord North Mankato Balaton Lamberton ur er Goodview Lake Sharpe Janesville Owatonna Mantorville Ri Benton iR Lake Crystal Mankato ve Winona Rochester iver Fort Thompson Lake Shetek Wessington Springs r Flandreau Waseca Claremont Lewiston 10 Madelia Eyota Big Bend Dam Saint James Kasson Madison Gannvalley Slayton Howard Westbrook Woonsocket Presho Mapleton Pipestone Colman Blooming Prairie Mountain Lake Kennebec Rushford Root River Vivian nd Windom Truman New Richla Dell Rapids Ellendale Stewartville Chatfield Jasper Edgerton Fulda Chamberlain Houston Oacoma Preston Winnebago Wells White River Colton Trimont Heron Lake Kimball Spring Valley Plankinton Mitchell Caledonia Alden Garretson Brewster Salem Fairmont Lakefield Austin Luverne Spring Grove Hartford Valley Springs Blue Albert Lea Alexandria Le Roy Harmony Adrian Worthington JacksonSherburn Bridgewater Earth New Albin er Stickney Hills Spirit Lake v Lake Francis Case a Ri Northwood Lake Mills Sioux Falls Cresco Lake Park Iow Estherville 11 Lakota Rock Rapids Ri Corsica er Lansing Parker Winner Spirit Lake Tur Decorah Platte ve pp Osage West Okoboji EaArmstrong Buffalo Center Manly Sibley Lennox ke U Waukon Freeman Parkston r InwoodGeorge y st Armour Milford Lake Canton Colome Fo Calmar Forest City Ke y Bancroft r Rock Valley Sheldon Tripp Olivet a Pa Gregory n City Hartley Graettinger New Lake Andes ha R Clear Lake Maso Emmetsburg Menno Burke Postville Monona Marquette Lake Andes iver Hull Centerville Sanborn Nora Springs Hampton Algona Scotland Viborg Wagner Britt Bonesteel Garner Sioux Center Primghar Spencer West Union Clermont Charles City Pickstown Avon Whittemore Orange City Beresford Fredericksburg Tyndall Nashua Elkader Hawarden Sumner Sioux Sheffield Paullina Yankton Fayette Guttenberg p i Rapids Spencer Springfield Belmond Butte r Akron Tripoli River Springview oi Allison Lynch Remsen pton Laurens ne n Vermillion Lewis And Clark Lake Humboldt ClarioDows Ham sR Strawberry Point erly Ni o br a Marcus Cherokee Mis i ve Oelwein Shell Rock Wav Crofton ra Riv Elk Point Le Mars sour City r Alta Dakota er ury Pocahontas Aurelia i Ri Niobrara ersburg Eagle Grove lle Asb ve Ackley Park Waterloo Stuart Storm Lake Storm Lake Manchester Dyersvi Bassett Hartington r North Sioux Center Iowa Falls Evansdale Dubuque Kingsley City Cedar Falls Elk Fort Dodge Webster City Ponca Atkinson Ainsworth hor Holstein Sioux City Long Pine Independence Epworth D nR Creighton Sac City Rockwell es Hudson ive O'Neill Laurel South Sioux City Cascade Early Quasqueton Moville r La Porte ipin No City Plainview Dakota City Sergeant dy Reinbeck City a Eldor Grun ico rt h Central Monticello Bellevue Ida Odebolt Randolph Emerson n R City Bluff R Lake City Stratford Hubbard Center Traer Center Point Maqu Grove Sabula Lake acco ok e ive Ewing Gowrie Sloan ta Conrad Maquoketa r on Roland Wayne Dysart Vinton View Story City Schleswig Pierce Winnebago Ri Preston Marion Anamosa River r Marshalltown v Neligh Boone hall Mapleton Carroll er Jefferson State Center Cal Pender Toledo New Cedar Rapids Oxford Junction Clinton Tilden am Norfolk Onawa Decatur Ce OgdenAmes u Tama Nevada Belle Plaine De Witt Glidden Scranton Brewster da Mechanicsville Denison Elkh Wisner Elgin Melbourne Camanche orn rR Lyons Madrid Coon Rapids Stanton Dunning Baxter Marengo r Tipton Manning iv Bartlett Dunlap dl Princeton Oakland er Perry City Polk Brooklyn Madison Burwell Taylor Grinnell Ri e Ra North Liberty st Branch We West Point Saylorville Lake Eldridge v er cc o Audubon Victor Ankeny Newton on Panora Clarkson Tekamah Woodbine Wilton Bettendorf Albion liamsburg Iowa City Harlan Urbandale Walcott Guthrie Des MoinesMontezuma Wil erty Adel Humphrey Scribner venport West Lib Logan North English Center Exira Pleasant Hill es Grass Da Ord Blue Greeley West Des Moin New Sharon Blair Monroe Stuart Kalona Wellman Carlisle Muscatine Arnold De Soto Arlington Neola Red Rock Reservoir Avoca Keota Columbus North Bend Broken Bow Norwalk So Anita Sherman Sigourney Pella umbus Junction uth Atlantic Col Genoa Schuyler Fremont Reservoir L Washington nola Knoxville Oskaloosa Lo rset India Oakland ver Fullerton Carter Lake oup River up Greenfield Winte Wapello tte Ri Griswold Fremont Ri er Ansley Pla Winfield iv ve Loup City David City Elkhorn Omaha Saint Paul r Hedrick Morning Sun Council Bluffs yR Osceola Eddyville Wahoo wa Mediapolis Bellevue Central City da Papillion Ottumwa Fairfield Lucas Creston Murray Mount Pleasant Glenwood Emerson Red Oak No Stromsburg Chariton Ashland Plattsmouth New London Ravenna Albia ve ive r Eldon 15 Gothenburg R Osceola Afton r Danville De s Moravia lue Pacific Malvern Corning Waverly Louisville Burlington Grand Island Cozad Big B Mo Junction Seward Humeston Rathbun Lake lington i Lenox West Bur Villisca Tabor Aurora Bloomfield nes York Wood River Essex Lexington Corydon Ri Weeping Water Lincoln Leon Centerville Keosauqua Gibbon ve Donnellson Fort Madison Shenandoah Allerton e Riv er Elm Creek Moulton Milford k B ig Blu gton r Clarinda Farmin For Seymour Mount Ayr Sidney Nebraska City West Friend Montrose Kearney Kenesaw Bedford Harvard ni Lamo Hastings Hamburg Syracuse Crete Big Elwood Sutton Fairmont Nem Keokuk aha Clay Center Geneva Holdrege Wilber Riv Minden Lit Edgar er 16 tle Auburn Arapahoe Adams Big Bl u De Witt San eR Tecumseh dy Cr Cambridge ive Blue Hill e ek Oxford r Beatrice r Gackle Napoleon Hazelton S O M Minnes T ota R C DAKOTA iss i Big Si o ss ux o N G S r J a me s I Ce e da siss N Mis iv er io u x R r r ip sM iv er De e Big S ve ive Ri rR rk o in es R t Fo l li on Riv es M Wes kD V erm i a t r ive ioux R r ive rR Bo I S ye s i ve s River Iowa R o in e tle S ap M P L it W I O W A Ce Mi d o tn a Ri ve r O r eek i ve Cr aR er na b av Iow Be st N up r i ve Skun Ri Ea Lo West le ish r idd N v er Ri ive M a Nishnabotna River e rR iv da sR l R A S K A I kR ou N O S P Wymore Pawnee City Fairbury A S Q Humboldt Scale 1:3,250,000 iR Falls City Km r N A Hebron iv e K Nelson Franklin Red Cloud Repub lic an R iv e r Superior 0 0 10 60 40 20 40 80 100 80 60 120 100 T U V 17 26 projection: Lambert Conformal Conic S 30 120 Miles 26 R 20 10 I Mi s s reek Beaver City Alma Harlan County Lake M ississippi River s Beaver C L L i n I M I S S O U R W X Y Z 29
  • 63. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J Isle Royale 28 Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin O iver nR ive r dR Ba I N iv e Pa ver ve r be au Ri il ipp l s ewa R i ve Ri Yello w eda e River WISCONSIN r River bR n Wo xR lf sco Wi Ri ck Bla iver nR ive r Black River ve Bu ff ssi Io V W ir e gi st n ia Mi is so poo ge R r Fo x R r i ve ur Yellow River Pennsylvania wa r Cl ive air eR Sai nt C ro Ch ix R i v e r M a ot es n nR N go n Lake Michiga ge o na uro M 7 S t ur to eH 6 Ke S E On r nn Apostle Islands ve A Mi Eagle River Devils Island Sand Island Bark Point C 5 Lake Laurium Hancock Outer Island Houghton Portage Fourteen Mile Point Lake w Stockton Island ena Mount Ashwabay we Ontonagon Madeline Island 437m Superior Chequamegon Point Porcupine L'Anse Mountains Iron River Mount e Ashland Washburn Big Manitou R a n gLake Curwood bic Falls e iver 603m Bessemer Gogebic Gog Lake Saint Croix Wakefield Hurley Bond Falls Michigamme Flowage Gile Flowage Ironwood Flowage Michigamme Namekagon Lake Nelson int Reservoir Watersmeet Lake Lac Vieux River r Turtle Flambeau Hayward Desert Crystal Flowage Lac du ix R Lake Iron River Falls Lac Court Cr o Y e l lo w Ri Flambeau int Chippewa Bru Woodruff Oreilles SaGrants i r Park Falls Spooner The Great Lakes region is the center of the US car industry. Since the burg Eagle River lePRnveRiv i e Minocqua er r Long N Frederic Shell Lake P o p p l Ri v e r Willow Reservoir Lake early part of the 20th century, its prosperity has been closely A e Lake Superior Bone Lake D Pike Phillips Rice Rhinelander M A Rive Lake Nokomis linked to the fortunes of automobile manufacturing. Iron and r Lake H Balsam ic am Crandon Fl i Lake Cameron Blue Pelican pR h steel production has expanded to meet demand from this Timms Hill High Falls Lake Ladysmith Jum v er Barron ig La i 595m Tomahawk k Reservoir Amery industry. In the 1970s, nationwide recession, cheaper a pl Chetek Wisconsin Ap New Ric n McCaslin hmond Mountain Cornell Bi River Glenwood City ntario foreign competition in the automobile sector, g Miller Dam 509m Hudson ke O Merrill Antigo Lake La Flow dC pollution in and around the Great Lakes, and the Wissota Stanley age Medford Re Saginaw Abbotsford Milwaukee River Falls rk Colfax Re Wausau Yo dR Oconto Lansing collapse of the meatpacking industry, centered on Chippewa Falls Stratford Rib Mountain Me w Madison ie Detroit iv Keshena Falls u Prescott nomonie e Er Ne River E a Wittenberg er 586m Lak Big Eau Pleine Reservoir ewa Eau Altoona Ellsworth Oconto Chicago Chicago, forced these states to diversify their ipp Rive Claire Cleveland Mosinee Shawano Shawanor Loyal Spencer Ch Toledo Mondovi Marshfield Lake Du Bay Durand industrial base. New industries have emerged, notably Lake Lake Pepin River Osseo Stevens Point o Neillsville Ohio electronics, service, and finance industries. al Peoria r Plover Independence si Indiana iver Columbus Alma Springfield Wisconsin Waupaca R New London Whitehall Black River Falls Rapids Transportation network Indianapolis Kaukauna Fo Nekoosa Weyauwega Illinois ssiArcadia Cincinnati p pi Petenwell Lake Poygan Appleton Menasha Neenah 540,682 miles 6550 miles Ri Galesville Lake Wautoma Winneconne (865,091 km) (10,480 km) Trempealeau Holmen Tomah Castle Rock Friendship Oshkosh Chilton ky r uc Rush Lake Lake nt ive 24,928 miles 2330 miles West Sparta Westfield La Crosse Ke Berlin Lake Winnebago Salem (39,884 km) (3748 km) Ripon Buffalo Lake Mauston Green Lake Fond du Montello Puckaway Lake Lac Hillsboro Elroy Westby Waupun La Farge Few areas of the US have a comparable Wisconsin Dells Lomira Reedsburg Viroqua Portage system. Chicago is a principal transportation Beaver Dam Lake iv e Richland Baraboo Beaver Dam terminus with a dense network of roads, B a r a b o o R a n Lake Center Major industry and infrastructure Juneau West Bend railroads, and Interstate freeways that Wisconsin Hartford Sauk City Colum in River Waunakee Sun Prairi bus research & development radiates out from the city. car manufacture co ns e Menomonee s Wi Muscoda Sprin Lake Mendota Falls textiles coal g Middleton Watertown Prairie du Chien Oconomowoc Wauwato electronics Green sa Monona major towns Madison Jefferson Delafield Fennimore Dod engineering geville ᭤ Ever since Ransom Olds and Henry Ford Verona international airports Waukesha Stoug finance Lancaster Lake Koshkonong hton Greenfield Mineral started mass-producing automobiles in major roads New Glarus Platteville food processing Point Franklin major industrial areas Whitewater Detroit early in the 20th century, the city’s iron & steel DarlingtoEvansville n Elkhorn Dickeyville Hazel name has become synonymous with the Janesville Burlington oil Green Shullsburg Delavan American automotive industry. East Dubuque Charles Mound Monroe Beloit Lake Geneva Union 376m Grove South Beloit r Harvard Antioch Galena ve Lena ca er tonica Riv Loves Fox Lake Park Woodstock Freeport ᭣ The dunes near Rockford Belvidere Waucondan Sleeping Bear Point rise Arlingto Savanna Mount r Byron Genoa Heights 400 ft (120 m) from the Carroll Much of this region shows the impact of glaciation Schaumburg Mount Morris Oregon banks of Lake Michigan. Sycamore Elgin Polo which lasted until about 10,000 years ago, and O’Hare Rochelle They are constantly being Geneva Sterling De Kalb Dixon resculpted by wind action. Wheaton Morrison extended as far south as Illinois and Ohio. Although the Rock Falls er Riv Prophetstown Amboy Sandwich Plano Aurora relief of the region slopes toward the Great Lakes, M ck Yorkville Moline Mendota Ro ver v Rock Island Ri Joliet G r e e n Ri because the ice sheets blocked northerly drainage, East Geneseo Shorewood Milan Moline Ottawa Channahon most of the rivers today flow southward, forming part 28 r Orion Cambridge Peru Illinois Rive Morris Princeton Ed wards Riv er La Salle Marseilles Kewanee Hennepin Lake Michigan of the massive Mississippi/Missouri drainage basin. Aledo Braidwood Galva Henry Senachwine k Lake Erie is the shallowest of the rs Lake Streat e nd e on C ree H Toulon or Dwight five Great Lakes. Its average Oquawka Galesburg Chillicothe Lacon Mino The many lakes and marshes of nk Pontiac depth is about 62 ft (19 m). Monmouth Knoxville Wisconsin and Michigan are the Storms sweeping across from Abingdon result of glacial erosion and Elmwood Canada erode its shores and Peoria Heights El Paso Roseville Gilman deposition which occurred Peoria cause the silting of its harbors. Fairbury Onarga Washington Bushnell during the last Ice Age. Canton East Peoria Pekin Gibson Macomb Carthage Tremont The Appalachian plateau Bloomington Normal City Paxton r Hamilton stretches eastward from Lewistown e Le Roy Rantou Havana ek l Ohio. It is dissected by e Southwestern Wisconsin Cr Farmer City n Mason City Sugar streams flowing west B ea I ll i is known as a “driftless” Clinton Mount Rushville into the Mississippi and Champaign Urbana area. Unlike most of the Lincoln Clinton Sterling Petersburg Quincy Ohio rivers. Salt Beardstown Savoy cK region, low hills Lake Cre ek ee C Virginia reek Monticello protected it from Tolono Springfield Riverton Decatur erosion by the Tuscola Jacksonville Lake Springfield Mount Arthur advancing ice sheet. Pittsfield Chat Winchester ham Sangchris Lake Zion Arcola Auburn Sullivan Roodhouse Pawnee Virden Most of the water used in Charleston Taylorville Girard White Hall Lake northern Illinois is pumped Pana Mattoon Carrollton eek Shelbyville from underground reservoirs. Cr Nokomis Carlinville Shelbyville Toledo c o u pi n Ma Due to increased demand, Litchfield Lake Lou Yaeger Hardin Casey sk many areas now face a Jerseyville Gillespie MountHillsboro ska Lake Olive Ka Sara water shortage. Around Brighton Effingham Staunton Coffeen Lake Altamont Joliet, the water table was Alton Bethalto Gree nville Vandalia lowered by more than Wood River Glen Carbon Edwardsville 700 ft (210 m) over the Carlyle Granite City Highland Lake Louisville ab Olney last century. as Collinsville East Saint Louis hR O'Fallon Flora iv e Cahokia Salem r Carlyle Belleville Columbia Centralia Freeburg Illinois plains Mount Fairfield Nashville Albion Waterloo Vernon Marissa Ohio River Grayville Glacial till Red Bud ip Most recent Present-day Rend Lake pi Sparta Ri Pinckneyville Sesser till deposits river or stream Carmi ve Mcleansboro Steeleville r Mississippi Benton Older till Christopher West Frank Channels caused fort River Chester sheet Johnston City by outwash from Murphysboro Herrin Eldorado Relic landforms from the last melting glacier Marion Bedrock Carbondale Harrisburg glaciation, such as shallow Bald Knob ᭡ As a result of successive glacial basins and ridges, cover all but Unlike the level prairie to the north, Lake of Egypt v 314m er ᭡ The plains of Illinois are characteristic depositions, the total depth of till Anna the south of this region. southern Indiana is relatively rugged. Elizabethtown Vienna of drift landscapes, scoured and Ridges, known as moraines, up Limestone in the hills has been dissolved along the former southern Jonesboro Golconda flattened by glacial erosion and covered margin of the Laurentide ice to 300 ft (100 m) high, lie to the by water, producing features such as e River Transportation & industry 4 Siski Cumberland wit Bay Point Long Point A T The states bordering the Great Lakes developed rapidly in the second half of the 19th century as a result of improvements in communications: railroads to the west and waterways to the south and east. Fertile land and good links with growing eastern seaboard cities encouraged the development of agriculture and food processing. Migrants from Europe and other parts of the US flooded into the region and for much of the 20th century the region’s economy boomed. However, in recent years heavy industry has declined, earning the region the unwanted label the “Rustbelt.” 3 M Thunder Bay Passage Island Blake Point USA: GREAT LAKES STATES 1 L K Kicka 8 9 11 Fo x er iss issi R ock Riv e ppi River A I O W 10 App l eR i Pe The landscape Ve rm ilio nR ILLINOIS er iv er ek sR oi e Ri rC oin re M iv La Spoon Ri v 12 ver Illi no M is R ive r M 13 s Embarra S ia R i ver I 14 Lit tle S W Sk O i ll e tF or Mi s s k Sa R Waba sh R ive r iss U 16 ee Bonpas Cr k 15 lin eR i I 17 with fertile glacial deposits. A 30 B south of Lake Michigan. C D E sinkholes and underground caves. F G 26 sheet can exceed 1300 ft (400 m). H I J Ca ch Oh io River Metropolis Mound City Cairo
  • 64. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – G R E AT L A K E S S TAT E S S T 8 urban 74% Michipicoten Bay 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 189 people per sq mile (73 people per sq km) 90 243,513 sq miles (630,674 sq km) 100 a Mi oc wa n V W ir e gi st n ia Blac k R i ve r Traver se B ay Gran d Io i ky 6 es Riv R if l e M a Lake M ichi gan ur uc w Ne Erie Pennsylvania so nt o ntari Columbus Indianapolis Ke er R 7 T it t ab awa s s ee ario 8 iv e Riv er kR iv Blac La Ont ke at r Fl Flint Shiaw S a in t Cl ai r R iv e r Ri v 18 a ss NEW YORK zo PENNSYLVANIA r iver ive hR ffi nR ep Ti Jos int Sa Ri ee ak R iver nk Ka k Sand e u sky e R Aug laiz OHIO S al a is s r r wa iv e ine R 9 ᭡ Farms like this one stretch across more than 67% of Illinois, covering 44,800 sq miles (97,170 sq km). The state is the second largest US producer of soybeans, which are used for animal feed and oil. 12 ᭡ Lake Superior is the largest of the Great Lakes and attracts millions of tourists each year. Valuable mineral deposits such as iron and copper are mined close to its shores. Oh NI 14 GI Km 20 E Q R T ST U 20 60 80 100 80 60 40 100 Miles 15 Map key Population Elevation 1 million to 5 million 16 500,000 to 1 million 1000m / 3281ft 100,000 to 500,000 500m / 1640ft 50,000 to 100,000 mostly replaced family farming in the Midwest, some communities, such as the Amish people in Ohio, retain traditional farming methods, cultivating their small holdings using limited machinery. S 10 40 projection: Lambert Conformal Conic R P 0 10 20 0 io 20 13 Scale 1:3,750,000 V IR Cr eek ive r R accoon Cr e e k O hio R kR ive r m i Ri ve r r ive W 11 A ve r er ew Whit iver R ver W Y C K T U E N K 10 18 sk Mu R Scio to Riv Wabash Ri Lake Michiga itef ish River Wh eN yd no mi ne e R iver n Me a ke La Ohio Indiana Springfield is n n g Detroit Cleveland M ee uro i ke O La Chicago Illinois A Gr A eH h o ti g r ve MICHIGAN INDIANA O D La k c D Milwaukee ie Er e L a k N A 4 i v Ri er v ba na d Ri Wisconsin Ge or gi an Ba y Lake Huron N M ca Es Mi peri Lake Su or ot A Munising Hulbert Lake Newberry Cleveland Rudyard Manistique Drummond Seney Cliffs Basin Lake Island o r t Marsh Munuscong N h Chan nel Lake Milakokia Lake Fo Indian r Lake Point Patterson Islands er Les Cheneaux Manistique Saint Ignace Iron Mountain ts of Mackina Garden Island Gladstone Str ai Norway c Hog Island High Island Niagara Escanaba Bois Blanc Island Garden Beaver Cheboygan Peninsula Island Powers l Summer a ne Mullett Lake Douglas Lake North Fox Island an gB Island Black Lake Burt Lake Bi Ch Saint Martin n Rogers City Mai Island South Fox Walloon Stephenson North Point Petoskey Lake Washington Island Pe Chambers Charlevoix Island Grand Lake Ri s h Cat Head Island Lake Charlevoix Long Lake North Manitou Point Boyne City Menominee River Island er Bay Jordan East Alpena nd Marinette Door South Manitou Leland Gaylord hu Torch Lake North Point Peshtigo Fletcher Thunder Bay Atlanta T Island Peninsula Bellaire Oconto y Pond Otsego Lake a Sleeping Bear Point South Point B Glen Lake Elk Lake Sturgeon Bay Hubbard Lake Long Lake Traverse City Crystal Lake A u Sa bl e R i v er Kalkaska Algoma Harrisville Grayling Mio Beulah Green Bay n Roscommo Luxemburg r Lake Higgins Oscoda ive Lake Saint Helen Kewaunee De Pere eR A Lake City Au Sable Point ste Houghton Lake u Gr ni Cadillac Tawas City Houghton Manistee Tawas Bay Pointe Aux Lake West Branch Lake Mitchell Two Rivers Big Sable i ver Charity Barques Point Manitowoc Island Cleveland Standish Harrison Ludington Hamlin Lake Baldwin Sand Point Gladwin Elkhart Lake r q u e t te Harbor Beach Pe r e M a Bad Axe Ri Saginaw Plymouth Reed City ve r Bay Sebewaing Hart Sheboygan Big Rapids Ri Essexville Cass City ewa River Little Sable Point ver White Chipp er Bay City Cedar Grove r Riv er Cloud Mount ve Midland te Caro i i Fremont Pleasant e R Carrollton Wh sR s n Whitehall Saginaw i ver Ca Sandusky Pi Port Washington nR Alma Frankenmuth Vassar Marlette ego Cedarburg Croswell Stanton Ithaca usk M Mequon Mount Mayville Brown City Cedar Springs Chesaning Muskegon Heights Muskegon Sparta Imlay r Morris Yale Norton Shores Coopersville Comstock Greenville aple Rive Whitefish Bay Flushing er Lapeer City Belding M Grand Haven Owosso Port Huron Park Milwaukee Ionia Saint Gran Marysville West Allis Flint d River Grand Rapids Johns Burton Durand Lake AlmontClair Cudahy Portland Looki g Glass River Saint Wyoming n ee Fenton Holly Orion Romeo Kentwood East Riv Wind Point Holland Marine City er Grand Ledge Lansing Rochester Hills Racine K al a Waterford Wayland Lansing ma Mount Clemens Howell Pontiac Gun Hastings Holt Mason Sterling Heights Kenosha oR Charlotte field Whitmore South Allegan iver Lake Saint Clair Shores Eaton Zion Lake Novi Leslie Gull Lake Rapids Otsego Warren Lake South Haven Waukegan Livonia Battle Creek Kalamazoo Detr North Chicago Ann Arbor Ypsilanti Dearborn oit Saint Clair Hartford Mundelein Jackson Paw Paw Lake Marshall Detroit Metropolitan Portage Highland Park Vandercook Lake Paw Paw Trenton Conneaut Benton Harbor Vicksburg Spring Arbor Des Plaines Milan Clinton Rockwood North Kingsville Schoolcraft Union City Saint Joseph Evanston Tecumseh Carleton D Jonesville Dowagiac Three Rivers Devils etr o Ashtabula Skokie Dundee Coldwater it R iv er Hillsdale Lake Adrian Berrien Springs Pra Geneva Oak Park North Madison Monroe n Cassopolis Riv irie Buchanan River Raisi Blissfield West Sister Bronson Hudson Chicago Sturgis er Niles Lambertville Island Mentor Painesville Burbank Morenci Fremont Willoughby Chardon Toledo Kelleys Island Sylvania Michigan City South Bend Oak Lawn Oregon Lagrange Euc Harvey Elkhart Swanton Gary veland Clevlid d Heights Mosquito Creek La Porte Mishawaka Cleewood Maumee elan Port Clinton Goshen Angola Perrysburg Lak r Hammond Merrillville Wauseon r Lake Sandusky Lorain Garfield Heights ve North Liberty Ligonier Rive Koontz Archbold Butler Cortland age Gibsonburg Chicago ia Parma Solon Bryan Lake Bremen Kendallville Napoleon Port Valparaiso Fremont Vermilion Elyr Heights Crown ille Windham Warren Albion Strongsv Clyde Bowling Plymouth Hebron Oberlin Defiance s Garrett Auburn er Knox Brunswick Peotone Point Ravenna Nile Bellevue Norwalk Wellington Medina Deshler Green Bass Lake iver Riv Manteno Youngstown Holgate Fostoria Tallmadge Columbia City umee Tipp Bourbonnais Demotte Tiffin Warsaw Struthers a ecan o North Baltimore North Willard Lodi Wadsworth AkronAustintown Boardman M Kankakee Berlin Judson Winamac Fort Wayne Paulding River BlancharLeipsic Findlay ney Cree Barberton Columbiana e d Rittman o Greenwich er North Manchester New Haven Morocco Rochester Alliance Lak Ottawa River Carey H iv Palestine Rensselaer Van Columbus and Orrville Shelby North Canton Salem East lR Lake Shafer Bluffton BucyrusCrestline Ashl Grove Ee Huntington Waba DecaturWert Canton Iroquois River Monon sh Upper Sandusky Delphos Lima Mansfield Wooster Massillon Mineerva Kentland Logansport Wabash Salamonie Ri Galion East Liverpool ve Ada Forest Peru M Lake Clear Fork Reservoir Brewster andy Cr ek Spencerville Watseka r Monticello Mississinewa S Carrollton Loudonville iss llsville Bluffton Berne mo Fort Kenton Dover Atwood Lake We onto k Fowler g Lake nie Delphi Strasbur Wapakoneta Shawnee Tor Sciot a r C re e Marion Hartford R Celina o Riv Marion Mount Knox Lake Millersburg New Philadelphia Sug Brookston r nville e Saint Marys Kokomo Leesville Lake e Steube Grand Lake e Wildcat Cr e ek on Gilead Mount Vern Uhrichsville Hoopeston City Gas City New Bremen Indian Lake Riv Lafayette Tappan Lak Mingo Junction Norton ive Portland sh Minster Fairmount l Campbel Gambier Richwood West Lafayette Cadiz r West a ba Lake Loramie Delaware Tipton Elwood Hill 472m Bellefontaine on Newcomerstown Albany ersailles Williamsport WAttica Lafayette Frankfort Alum Creek Coshoct Alexandria Piedmont Martins Ferry Sidney Lake Johnstown Salt Fork Lake Union City Danville Marysville Lake Muncie Piqua Westerville Newark Cambridge Covington Winchester Barnesville Urbana Tilton Covington Lebanon Noblesville Anderson Greenville Columbus Worthington Heath Dillon Lake Gahanna Troy Tipp City Springfield Senecaville Byesville Clarksville Whitehall Westville Crawfordsville Carmel e Lak Fortville London Zanesville Vandalia Pickerington New Castle Newport Brownsburg Powhatan Point Obetz Lawrence Grove Huber Heights Baltimore Greenfield Richmond Fairborn City Danville Dayton Crooksville i in Woodsfield Ashville eek Lancaster lsville ver gum Rockville Indianapolis Connersville Kettering BeavercrDeer Creek Plainfield New Matamoras McConne Xenia Paris Lake Greenwood n Circleville Brookville Miamisburg Greencastle Glouster Ho Loga Devola R Lake Oxford Sabina Washington cki ite Shelbyville Terre Haute h Middletown Marietta Kingston ng Ri Nelsonville Franklin ia oc Court House ve The Plains atBrookville at M latr Cagles Mill Martinsville F Chillicothe Mason Wilmington er Belpre Gre Marshall Lake Edinburgh Hope Greensburg Fairfield ield k Athens r Greenf Pisgah Blanchester e Farmersburg Spencer Batesville Springdale Sharonville Cr e Lake Lemon Columbus Ellettsville Wellston Paint Hillsboro North College Hill Nashville Washburn Hill Pomeroy Jasonville Norwood Sullivan Jackson Bloomington S a n d Williamsburg 409m Versailles Cincinnati Linton Robinson Aurora Middleport Monroe Lake Bloomfield New Richmond Peebles Lucasville Vernon Rising Sun Carlisle Ri Oh Gallipolis Bedford Brownstown io R iver West Union West Portsmouth M u scatuc k Ri Lawrenceville ver Madison Vevay Ripley Austin Wheelersburg Portsmouth Vincennes Loogootee Scottsburg Hanover Shoals Bridgeport Washington Ironton Salem Paoli ite River Petersburg French Lick Wh South Point Charlestown Mount Carmel Patoka Lake Jasper Princeton English Huntingburg New Albany Ferdinand Fort Branch Jeffersonville Corydon iv e Boonville r Tell City Evansville Oh Cannelton io Rockport Ri ve ᭤ Although large-scale agribusiness has r pasture cropland forest A Sugar Island Sault Sainte Marie Lake Nicolet 3 major towns cattle pigs poultry corn fruit soybeans timber es Whitefish Bay 2 Land use and agricultural distribution Whitefish Point Tahquamenon Falls Tahqu amen on Riv er 1 The varied soils and climate of this region have allowed the development of different types of agriculture. Corn and soybeans are the main crops produced, although Michigan is best known for growing fruit, particularly cherries and apples. About 80% of Wisconsin’s agricultural income is derived from livestock-rearing and dairying. Pig breeding is important in both Illinois and Indiana. N Crisp Point Y C ch i g am me R iver 20 Total land area s nt Mary S a i R iv er Negaunee Ishpeming 10 X Using the land rural 26% Population density A L P oa u g h i in t n g F ish ns Marquette W nn S uper io r Au Sable Point Grand Island V The urban/rural population divide C Manitou Island Keweenaw Point Point Isabelle Keweenaw Peninsula ay w B Point Abbaye Big Bay Point H Mou uron nta i U 250m / 820ft 10,000 to 50,000 100m / 328ft below 10,000 17 sea level V W X Y Z 31 rk Yo
  • 65. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J K USA: NORTH MOUNTAIN STATES 1 500,000 to 1 million 5 C IC OCEAN N 1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft ᭡ The Snake River has cut down into the basalt of the Columbia Basin to form Hells Canyon, the deepest in the US, with cliffs up to 7900 ft (2408 m) high. A D 10 40 60 30 40 50 60 70 80 Population density 100m / 328ft sea level 20 80 60 40 100 projection: Lambert Conformal Conic 100 90 Total land area 26 people per sq mile (10 people per sq km) 250m / 820ft ᭤ Fine-textured, volcanic soils in the hilly Palouse region of eastern Washington are susceptible to erosion. 100 80 Miles 20 487,970 sq miles (1,263,716 sq km) C 8 A Blaine Lynden Ferndale t h N o ro t a D a k 6 A 0 10 20 rural 26% 0 10 2000m / 6562ft below 10,000 Km 0 3000m / 9843ft 10,000 to 50,000 Scale 1:3,750,000 The urban/rural population divide urban 74% 4000m / 13,124ft 50,000 to 100,000 4 Wheat farming in the east gives way to cattle ranching as rainfall decreases. Irrigated farming in the Snake River valley produces large yields of potatoes and other vegetables. Dairying and fruit-growing take place in the wet western lowlands between the mountain ranges. Elevation Population 100,000 to 500,000 The remoteness of the northwestern states, coupled with the rugged landscape, ensured that this was one of the last areas settled by Europeans in the 19th century. Fur-trappers and gold-prospectors followed the Snake River westward as it wound its way through the Rocky Mountains. The states of the northwest have pioneered many conservationist policies, with the first US National Park opened at Yellowstone in 1872. More recently, the Cascades and Rocky Mountains have become havens for adventure tourism. The mountains still serve to isolate the western seaboard from the rest of the continent. This isolation has encouraged West Coast cities to expand their trade links with countries of the Pacific Rim. Using the land M Map key I d a h o, M o nta n a , O rego n , Wa s h i ng to n , Wyo m i ng 3 L Sumas Deming v Ri ow Riv er s Gra nd Co u Columbia Basin Ch eh WASHING T ON e g ke Cowlitz R s a nd Ri es ut ch Des B l u e e I s E G O N s o r R P O lu C o c a a d F I wd h C Sna ke Hell River s Ca nyon v er R ive ette R W i lla m Ro Po t C k IC OCEAN ee CIF Cr Rive r a S o u t t a Nebr ask D a k o PA Willow John Day t h N o ro t a D a k M o u n t Gra nd a in R O Neh ale n Sna E n im a ak C P A g N e Spo b ia P uget Sound ka Transportation & industry Oreille River PA d Pen Sanpoil River t h y Inlet ralt mi ras S o u t a Neb D a k o Ok anoga Meth Great Falls CIF Spokane n R iv e r Oroville Mount Baker er Northport San Bellingham 3254m Orient Tiffany Mountain Mount Bonaparte Newhalem Metaline Juan Cape Flatte 2512m Friday Harbo Isl 2212m Mount Logan ry Falls r Washington ands Anaco Tonasket rtes Neah Bay 2770m Montana Mazama Str Republic Mount Vernon Skagit River ait Kettle Falls Priest Rockport Winthrop Clallam Bay of Jua Oak Harbor Portland Colville Lake n de Franklin D. Billings Ad Fuc a Roosevelt Stanwood Eugene Po Port Angeles rt Townsend Coupeville Lake Arlington Darrington Forks Sandpoint Sequim Chewelah Lake Marysville Oregon Glacier Peak Chelan Idaho Newport Hunters Everett 3213m Olympic Boise Priest Wy o m i n g Pateros Pocatello Monroe River M o u n tMount Olympus 2428m Edmonds Grand Coulee ains Califo Twin Falls Deer Park Redmond r rnia Queets Banks ive Cheyenne Bremerton N e v a d a ult R Lake Wilbur kan Qu in a U ta h m Bellevue Skykomish Entiat e Ri ver Coeur Port Orchard e Quinault ol u C le Land use and o Spokane Taholah d'Alene Seattle Leavenworth C o l o r a d 8 Seattle-Tacoma Coulee City Davenport Humptulips agricultural distribution Coeur Kent Moclips Wenatchee Tacoma d'Alene Crab Cr Shelton eek Cheney Copalis Beac Pacific Beach major towns fruit cattle Auburn Lake h Ephrata Odessa Roslyn Sprague Plummer Olympia Aberdeen potatoes poultry Puyallup pasture Cle Elum Rosalia Saint Elma Grays HarbHoquiam timber cereals Quincy or cropland Montesano Lacey Moses Lake Ritzville Maries Tekoa Thorp Westport Gr forest Ellensburg Potholes ayland Tenino Eatonville Mount Rainier Ewan 192 4392m Reservoir al Garfield Willapa Bay Centralia is use River Vantage Bev Warden Benge alo erly Othello Palouse Raymond River Cheh Potlatch South 9 alis Oysterville Bend Colfax Deary Packwood Deary La Crosse Mossyrock Morton Winlock Long Beach White Pass Tieton Selah Washtucna Pullman Connell Yakima Y iver Toledo 1362m Moscow iver Ilwaco Cape Disappo R Vader intment Minerals and timber are extremely important in this Colton White Swan Wapato Ca Mount Saint Hel Eltopia Westport thlamet a ens Mount Ada Pomeroy Astoria ms 2549m Toppenish Riv Sunnyside Kelso region. Uranium, precious metals, copper, and coal are all 3741m er Eureka Granger Clarkston Lewiston Longview Raini Richland Seaside er Pasco Prescott Dayton Cougar er Mabton mined, the latter in vast open-cast pits in Wyoming; oil Asotin Kalama R iv Waitsburg 10 Lake Wallula Prosser Kennewick m Saint Helens Winchester Bickleton Wallula Touchet Walla Wall Woodland Trout Lake and natural gas are extracted further north. a Vernonia Paterson College Place Nehalem Yacolt Goldendale Timber White Manufacturing, notably related to the aerospace and MiltonStevenson Tillamook River Boardman Salmon Freew Vancouver mbia Forest Grove Ba Hermiston ater Wishram Portland Hood River electronics industries, is important in western cities. iver Cape Meare y Col u s eR Arlington Hillsboro Pendleton Portland Biggs Tillamook Beav The erton Dalles Gibbon Gresham C A A Moro N Pilot Rock Mount Hood D A Hebo McMinnville r Or 3424m Newberg egon City Grand Rond Enterprise e Kent Seattle Heppner Woodburn Tygh Valley La Grande Lincoln City Spokane Keizer Great Falls Condon Dallas Tacoma Union Silverton Monmouth Matterhorn Washington Lewiston Helena M o n t a n a Salem Ukiah Pasco 3049m Fossil Warm Springs North Powder Yaquina Ba y Portland Spray Billings Dale Albany Newport er Salem Toledo Riv Haines Mount Jefferson er Lebanon Corvallis 3199m Council Eugene Waldport Long Creek Baker Madras Mitchell Oregon Boise I d a h o Cambridge Sweet Home Junction City Pocatello Casper John Day Harrisburg Sisters Prineville Twin Falls Huntington Mount Vernon Wy o m i n g Canyon City Califo Eugene Redmond Florence rnia Springfield Strawberry Mountain Mapleton Brogan Weiser Three Sisters N e v a d a C ro 2755m Bend Cheyenne Ut a h o ke d 3157m R iv er Seneca o Cottage Grov Payette C o l o r a d 13 e Reedsport Ontario ay Vale Lakeside Umpq ett Transportation network Oakridge ua R e r i ve Nyssa River North ive R Harpe Major industry lheur r Ma Bend 347,857 miles Emmett Cape Ara and infrastructure Sutherlin (556,571 km) Juntura go Caldwell Burns Coos Bay Crescent N orth U m pqu a Rive adventure tourism r Coquille 4200 miles Roseburg Nampa Bandon Mount Thielsen Crane Lake aerospace (6720 km) Myrtle Poin Winston 2799m Chemult t Owyhee Wagontire coal 14 Myrtle Creek Riddle Silver Lake chemicals Harney Lake Cape Blan 12,354 miles Malheur co Union Creek electronics (19,766 km) Lake Murphy Port Orford Crater Lake food processing Mount Scott Jordan Valley mining 1108 miles Summer Lake 2722m Wolf Creek (1782 km) oil & gas Frenchglen Merlin Mount McLou Paisley Gold Beach i ve timber processing ghlin Chiloquin O wy h Burns Junction ogue R Grants R 289 ee Pass Eagle Point 4m The Union Pacific Railroad has Lake Abert major towns Upper 15 Central Point Pistol Rive been in service across Wyoming international airports Klamath Valley Falls Medford r Lake since 1867. The route through major roads Bly Hart Mountain Kerby Brookings 2331m the Rocky Mountains is now major industrial areas Klamath Falls Altamont Ashland shared with the Interstate 80, Worden Lakeview Merrill a major east–west highway. Seattle Tacoma a B a s i n r C P i C b a A m H a r n e y Ri ve r Goose Lake C A L I F O R N I A 16 ᭣ Seattle lies in one of Puget Sound’s many inlets. The city receives oil and other resources from Alaska, and benefits from expanding trade across the Pacific. 17 A 32 B C D E 34 N E V ᭣ Crater Lake, Oregon, is 6 miles (10 km) wide and 1800 ft (600 m) deep. It marks the site of a volcanic cone, which collapsed after an eruption within the last 7000 years. F I J A 34 K L M
  • 66. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – N O R T H M O U N TA I N S TAT E S P Q R Puget Sound The landscape 4 ver Ri ue ng iver eR ws To Riv e orn r ive eR ch ur Newcastle he G de r River ello w s ork Y r ks F Cla r reek or C Pry er tone Riv v er e Ri ton ws llo ig h lle C Midwest ra ou Riv er Lingle Torrington Wheatland gs Hawk Sprin nta No Medicine Bow e mi Pl at te Ri Laramie ins h rt L o d g e p ol e C r e ek SKA NEBRA e Bow Riv er Rawlins Walcott Creston Rock Springs Cheyenne Buford ver Flaming Gorge Reservoir icin M Seminoe Reservoir Guernsey ie Muddy Gap Glendo m Reliance Pathfinder Reservoir Lusk Orin a Alcova Jeffrey City Great Divide Basin L ra S wee twa r Manville Douglas atte River North Pl Glenrock Casper Lander ive nne Riv ye er 28 Powder River d or Be Me ks F Upton ers Four Corn Fo Lysite Green River Blac s Powder River Pas 2946m Po w i n nr He l a Sh B Ye dR e Ru aver he a P Buffalo Riverton R te r 28 A r r DA KOT ver e t on s er R iv ith Jud r ve Ri ri ou iss M ive r H ole Riv e r ou r SOUTH is s ve Gillette ountains Ri Shoshoni 9 ve r Big Ri on Riv er er Creek Sa lm wd ebud rk ve r Ros M i iR Li r Devil's Towe 1558m M od R wo Worland Alzada Biddle Sundance n Q Lame Deer Cloud Peak 4013m r P Ri t O o 8 s N G W Y O M I ver i N Baker e t tl S v Granger er Evanston k Fort Bridger 36 Ri Fontenelle Reservoir nR A T B i g h o r n South Pass 2301m ee U No Gooseberry Creek Marbleton H h 7 Ekalaka Sheridan Manderson Gr A in d n Po Lizard Head Peak 3914m Daniel Saint Charles Preston Cokeville Bear Lake ig Meeteetse Gannett Peak 4207m Fremont Peak Hoback Peak 4189m 3311m Pinedale Kemmerer D Lovell N Weston B bull River rey Dubois W Fallon Tongue River Resevoir Greybull Basin Cody Ye Broadus Thermopolis Green R Bondurant Crow Agency Lodge Grass Wyola I Black Pine Peak 2861m iver A iver Malad City Downey Montpelier Paris a Terry i 6 28 Wibaux Miles City Vananda Forsyth B a s i n r ive e eR Needle Mountain 3697m Jackson American Falls Thayne Pocatello Grover Reservoir Bancroft Minidoka American Falls s Soda Spring Smoot McCammon Oakley Rogerson Moose ing Ra nge om Wy Blackfoot Palisades Reservoir n ho os Jackson Lake Grand Teton 4197m B Frannie Fortress Mountain 3684m T v Ingomar Hardin Bighorn Lake Powell Dead Indian Peak 3723m Trout Peak 3732m Sylvan Pass 2603m Idaho Falls Burley Kimberly Riddle Driggs Snak e Ri Rigby ver Filer Twin Falls Rupert a g e a k Jerome S n e n Shoshone Buhl k Saint Anthony Rexburg Lindsay Glendive P r a neau R Bru t e Snake Gooding River a u Hagerman For Rive R R Richfield i n g e R a k a ro sa N i Atomic City Craters of the Moon National Monument Carey Yellowstone Lake Ashton ys Granite Peak 3901m b h Arco Hailey Bridger Red Lodge Canyon Dubois Terreton Billings Laurel Mammoth Hot Springs U ou Hyndman Peak 3681m Ketchum Glenns Ferry O M ver e Ri Fairfield la v er Island Park Circle Pompeys Pillar Silesia Boyd A Yellowstone National Park s e Mosby Hysham Columbus Livingston Gardiner d in Leslie Mayfield P Ri Dell ta Mus sels he ll Gallatin Peak 3357m Ennis e Virginia ng City Ra tt Lavina Reedpoint Bozeman G alla ti n ea m Castle Peak 3606m Hill City Mountain Home ns rh n Harlowton Cr a z y Mo u n t a i n s Clyde Park Big Timber tai e e un ve by Savage l Roundup Ryegate Ringling Belgrade M g Bea n ddl Mount Edith 2890m Mo a Dillon Borah Peak 3859m Horseshoe Bend Mi White Sulphur Springs lt R e Challis Stanley ois v Be ive Divide Wisdom Melrose Gibbonsville Sidney A O N T A N M g e r r o ot R Lost Trail Pass I D A H O kB For Stanford Three Forks L Roy Hilger Lewistown Grassrange Winnett Moore Bi Y Bitt 2869m Culbertson Wolf Poplar Glasgow Nashua Point ve r er Fort Peck Mi ss ou r i R iv Vida u y B Pine Jordan Melstone Butte Anaconda Twin Peaks 3182m Mountains Boise Ri K t o o r r t e i t M l idd o eF Canyon Jefferson Ferry Lake City Deer Townsend Lodge Crow Peak Boulder Salmon er Monarch Helena Garrison ar Ri sso i R i v e r ur Smith e n g R a B River Cascade r Mount McGuire 3073m Mi Ulm Augusta pl Fort Peck Lake Great Falls Fairfield i lk Baldy Mountain 2018m Big Sandy Winifred Philipsburg Hamilton r Riggins Salmon Rive M Malta Fort Benton er Drummond Stevensville Elk City Salmon t Ri v Dodson r on River Choteau C n t Clark Fo B la ck f oo Po e ou Rocky Mountain 2863m Orchard Homes Clearwater Mountains Tet as R i v O M i s et Headquarters Dworshak er Reservoir r Riv ate Orofino rw Grave Peak l ea 2521m C Nezperce Kamiah Lowell Cottonwood Conrad Harlem Havre Chester Lothair M ari e w bin Dupuyer Hungry Horse Reservoir Ronan Missoula Big Creek Shelby Lake Elwell Flathead Lake Pot Mountain 2176m Idaho City Gildford Plentywood Scobey A DAKOT NORTH Mount Brown 2121m Chinook 5 A 8 Loring Cut Bank Browning Bigfork ns Rocky Mountains r Kootenai River D ᭡ Water from the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park deposits minerals as it cools in rock pools. Long periods of deposition have created these rock terraces. G Babb Logan Pass 2026m L R Ca Somers Smiths Ferry Lowman The contorted rock shapes at “Craters of the Moon” National Monument in Idaho were left 2000 years ago by the sporadic upwelling of viscous lava from fissures in the basalt plateau. The plateaus of the Columbia and Snake rivers represent one of the world’s largest accumulations of lava. Over 5 million years ago, successive flows of molten basalt buried the existing land surface by up to 450 ft (150 m). Sweetgrass Sunburst Columbia Falls Kalispell Polson rk Thompson Falls Kellogg Plains Mullan Wallace De Borgia Saint Regis Avery Superior Cascade Reservoir Cascade 1 3 Opheim Whitefish Snowshoe Peak 2655m New Meadows ᭤ Piney Buttes are the remnants of an older, higher land surface gradually weathered and eroded into isolated outcrops with flat tops and steep sides. The Continental Divide, or watershed, crosses the Lewis Range. From here, rivers flow east to Hudson Bay, south to the Gulf of Mexico and west to the Pacific Ocean. Devil’s Tower Rudyard Libby Grangeville Y 2 A Mount Cleveland 3190m Eureka Bovill X Coast Ranges N ai Grand Coulee and the lesser coulées (ravines) were cut by cataclysmic floods, from the release of an ice-dammed lake, at the end of the last Ice Age. W Molten rock wells up from the Earth’s core A Trout Creek V The Cascades are glacially scoured volcanic mountains, the highest of which is Mount Rainier, a dormant volcano at 14,409 ft (4392 m). ᭡ Devil’s Tower in Wyoming is an igneous intrusion, formed below the Earth’s surface. Molten rock intruded through cracks in the overlying strata and cooled. Over time, the softer rock layers have been eroded away, leaving only the tower standing. Clark Fork Lake Pend Oreille U Great Plains Surrounding strata eroded away Molten rock cools, forming parallel columns T Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, killing 57 people and devastating a huge area. Columbia Basin Glacial valleys on the seaward side of the Olympic Mountains receive about 142 inches (3600 mm) of rain per year, supporting the only true rain forest of the northern hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains are flanked by lower parallel ranges, which spread onto the Great Plains in the east and surmount the broad lava plateau which extends westward. The Cascade Range divides the Columbia Basin from the coastlands, where the low areas around Puget Sound are broken by the steep, volcanic Olympic Mountains and the wooded hills of the Coast Ranges. Moyie Springs Bonners Ferry S llo O La N Baggs R C O L O A D O 36 33
  • 67. NORTH AMERICA A B C D E F G H I J K S 1 million to 5 million Kla ma 50,000 to 100,000 S cott R Klamath th 2000m / 6562ft 10,000 to 50,000 Ri v Orick er 1000m / 3281ft below 10,000 500m / 1640ft Mckinleyville Arcata Eureka Humboldt Bay Blue Lake in Ri v sea level ity Thompson Peak 2741m Clair Engle Lake R iv e er r Weaverville Ferndale Fortuna Rio Dell Scot ia Cape Ee lR Mendocino ive r Weott Hayfork Va nD iv e 0 I da ho Ore g on r 0 5 10 5 20 10 30 40 50 30 20 60 40 70 80 50 60 70 80 Miles Covelo projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Laytonville Oakland C a Las Vegas r n FI C ia O C Los Angeles EA N San Diego Upper Lake Clear Lakeport Kelseyville Lake Point Arena Boonville Hopland Clearlake Ukiah In California, the motor vehicle is a vital part of daily life, and an extensive freeway system runs throughout the state, cementing its position as the most important mode of transport. ve r Middletown Mount Saint Helena Healdsburg 1324m Calistoga Santa Rosa Sebastopol major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas MEXICO Cloverdale Gualala Bodega Head Petaluma A ᭣ Gambling was legalized in Nevada in 1931. Las Vegas has since become the center of this multimillion dollar industry. 190 miles (360 km) Ri ian Russ CI Bakersfield Ar izona PA li fo 7822 miles (12,595 km) Willits Mendocino 2944 miles (4710 km) P aerospace car manufacture defense film industry finance food processing gambling hi-tech industry mining pharmaceuticals research & development textiles tourism Fort Bragg 211,459 miles (338,334 km) r Carson City Sacramento Transportation network ive Major industry and infrastructure lR Ely Snow Mountain 2151m Ee Nevada Uta h Reno San Jose 7 Garberville Km San Francisco 6 nR Scale 1:3,000,000 Nevada’s rich mineral reserves ushered in a period of mining wealth which has now been replaced by revenue generated from gambling. California supports a broad set of activities including defense-related industries and research and development facilities. “Silicon Valley,” near San Francisco, is a world leading center for microelectronics, while tourism and the Los Angeles film industry also generate large incomes. 5 uze Transportation & industry 4 Novato San Rafael Point Reyes 8 ᭣ The General Sherman sequoia tree in Sequoia National Park is around 2500 years old and at 275 ft (84 m) is one of the largest living things on earth. Wheeler Peak is home to some of the world’s oldest trees, bristlecone pines, which live for up to 5000 years. C a li fo Las Vegas n Arizona r ia Los Angeles C EA 34 B Sacramento San Francisco O A Reno Amargosa Desert N San Diego Death Valley MEXICO The sparsely populated Mojave Desert receives less than 8 inches (200 mm) of rainfall a year. It is used extensively for weaponstesting and military purposes. ᭤ Named by migrating settlers in 1849, Death Valley is the driest, hottest place in North America, as well as being the lowest point on land in the western hemisphere, at 282 ft (86 m) below sea level. 17 Nevada pasture cropland forest desert C 16 major towns FI 15 cattle citrus fruits fruit irrigation timber vineyards CI The San Andreas Fault is a transverse fault which extends for 650 miles (1050 km) through California. Major earthquakes occur when the land either side of the fault moves at different rates. San Francisco was devastated by an earthquake in 1906. Idaho Oregon Land use and agricultural distribution PA When the Hoover Dam across the Colorado River was completed in 1936, it created Lake Mead, one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, extending for 115 miles (285 km) upstream. California is the leading agricultural producer in the US, although low rainfall makes irrigation essential. The long growing season and abundant sunshine allow many crops to be grown in the fertile Central Valley including grapes, citrus fruits, vegetables, and cotton. Almost 17 million acres (6.8 million hectares) of California’s forests are used commercially. Nevada’s arid climate and poor soil are largely unsuitable for agriculture; 85% of its land is state owned and large areas are used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. Utah 14 Using the land C The Great Basin dominates most of Nevada’s topography containing large open basins, punctuated by eroded features such as buttes and mesas. River flow tends to be seasonal, dependent upon spring showers and winter snow melt. Sierra Nevada 11 As ridges are eroded they fill intervening valleys with sediments I The dramatic granitic rock formations of Half Dome and El Capitan, and the verdant coniferous forests, attract millions of visitors annually to Yosemite National Park in the Sierra Nevada. Daly City F ᭡ Molten rock (magma) welling up to form a dome in the Earth’s interior, causes the brittle surface rocks to stretch and crack. Some areas were uplifted to form mountains (ranges), while others sunk to form flat valleys (basins). San Francisco I Most of California’s agriculture is confined to the fertile and extensively irrigated Central Valley, running between the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada. It incorporates the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. 10 Rising molten rock causes stretching of the Earth’s crust C The broad Central Valley divides California’s coastal mountains from the Sierra Nevada. The San Andreas Fault, running beneath much of the state, is the site of frequent earth tremors and sometimes more serious earthquakes. East of the Sierra Nevada, the landscape is characterized by the basin and range topography with stony deserts and many salt lakes. 9 192 Extensive cracking (faulting) uplifted a series of ridges The landscape The urban/rural population divide urban 92% The Salton Sea was created accidentally between 1905 and 1907 when an irrigation channel from the Colorado River broke out of its banks and formed this salty 300 sq mile (777 sq km), landlocked lake. C D E F ᭡ The Sierra Nevada create a “rainshadow,” preventing rain from reaching much of Nevada. Pacific air masses, passing over the mountains, are stripped of their moisture. G Etna g e s R a n 100m / 328ft Tr 250m / 820ft Orleans Salmon Mo unt ai n s iv er 3000m / 9843ft t C o a s 4000m / 13,124ft 100,000 to 500,000 K lam h River at n s t a i u n M o 500,000 to 1 million ins unta Mo ou Happy kiy Camp is h a t Crescent City Mad 3 Smith River Elevation Population The Gold Rush of 1849 attracted the first major wave of European settlers to the West Coast. The pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and dynamic economy continue to attract immigrants – despite the ever-present danger of earthquakes – and California has become the US’s most populous state. The overwhelmingly urban population is concentrated in the vast conurbations of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; new immigrants include people from South Korea, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Mexico. Nevada’s arid lands were initially exploited for minerals; in recent years, revenue from mining has been superseded by income from the tourist and gambling centers of Las Vegas and Reno. m l a Map key USA: CALIFORNIA & NEVADA 1 H ᭡ Without considerable irrigation, this fertile valley at Palm Springs would still be part of the Sonoran Desert. California’s farmers account for about 80% of the state’s total water usage. I J 0 10 20 30 40 50 rural 8% 60 70 80 Population density 142 people per sq mile (55 people per sq km) 90 100 Total land area 265,785 sq miles (688,357 sq km) K L M
  • 68. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – C A L I F O R N I A & N E VA D A T ge a R an R Roc ins 3 Spruce Mountain 3128m nta Mou ti ng t o Pi ne Cr e ek B a s i n Ruby r e Rive a Re es ge 3471m n Creek Emigrant Pass 1864m r Mount Lewis 2950m old n Oasis Elko Lamoille Spring Creek Snow Water Lake Ruby Dome Hun Ros dt bol um le H itt t Riv er Carlin Beowawe mb ge Lovelock R y Franklin Lake 4 Ruby Lake Alkali Flat Humboldt Lake R Pyramid Lake Doyle ek Cre Corning Battle Mountain Star Peak 2997m Mount Tobin 2979m Hu Smo ke Cr ee k 2236m Herlong Wells Hole in the Mountain Peak Halleck 3437m S c h e l l Los Molinos Kumiva Peak 2511m Winnemucca Lake Trinity Peak Honey Lake ve Humboldt Empire it Lake Almanor Gerlach an Westwood S V e n t o S a c r a m Stony Creek Chester Santa t ser ac Bl M cC ck iver loud R T r Tri ni t ou init yR nt y ain s M Anderson Hot Springs Peak Susanville 2341m Fredonyer Pass 1759m D 2 H Sonoma Peak 2864m Imlay Montello U ento River ram ac Lassen Peak 3187m G r e a t Winnemucca L Golconda s gh ou Trg e rn n v e R a Rye Patch Se Reservoir Tuscarora reek 36 Mount ain s S kC Ri Central Valley Redding rt ese iv er ld t Eagle Lake Paradise Valley bo Observation Peak 2427m Red Bluff King Lear Peak 2720m 1 Matterhorn 3304m dence Fox Mountain 2494m Madeline Fall River Mills Burney ver Lower Lake Adin Bieber McAfee Peak 3182m um Ri t Pi Eagle Peak 3015m Big Mountain 2593m Mountain City Granite Peak 2966m Duffer Peak 2864m Massacre Lake Cedarville Middle Alkali Lake Alturas Canby er Catnip Mountain 2223m Jackpot Owyhee epen y lle Va i Big unta Mo ns Riv Fort Bidwell Upper Alkali Lake Lake Trident Peak 2558m O H A D I McDermitt ins Pit N W In d Clear Lake Reservoir Mount Shasta Mccloud Dunsmuir Shasta Lake Wa r n e r M o u n t a er O Goose Lake Mount Shasta 4316m Weed iv Tulelake Lower Klamath Lake Yreka Montague G De Dorris E Ro R 32 k O V 32 Becky Peak 2840m at lw a n g e To i y a b e M e lle y nc ak e R ange a B ge G ra ig n t P R a an ge ng k R an Ra Cree or Hot Mo nit ok y Sm 7 H r eek n Cr Wilso nge Ra e r Ri ve r Va W alk st e tW t a We g S h o s h o n e Nor r Riv er 6 A n R a er as r n ive r to R R a n g e iv me n n g e R a r e e y a l l Sacra Fe a t h e 5 S n a k e e C R Stil A D A T V E C r e e k o u n t a i n s er n i N a n E g Quincy me s Roberts Creek Mountain Carson Humboldt ri 3089m T Sink Nixon Salt Marsh Newark Virgina Peak Black Orland Portola Paradise Mount Callaghan 2550m Lake Butte Chico 3105m Wadsworth Lake Diamond Peak Lake Oroville Loyalton Fernley Elk Creek 3235m Downieville North Schell Peak Sierra City Reno Sparks ee River Hazen Willows Eureka Mcgill 3622m ck Oroville Tru Austin Mount Lola Fallon Biggs Reno-Cannon 2787m Gridley Mount Moriah Lahontan n Summit Mountai 3673m Ruth Truckee Virginia City Live Oak Reservoir Ely 3189m Grass Nevada Donner Pass North Kings Mount Hamilton Valley City Colusa Shoshone 3275m 2160m Bunker Hill Beach ba River rson Ri ve r Peak Fairview Peak W Yuba City Yu Ca 3497m Rive r a lk Marysville 2531m 3143m erican er Tahoe City Carson City k Am Olivehurst R For Lake Wheeler Peak Connors th Arbuckle 3981m Tahoe Pass Minden Cac 2354m Mountain Yerington Currant South Lake Tahoe Mount he C Lincoln Auburn 3509m E Gardnerville re ek Jefferson Lund Schurz ive r 3642m Roseville RocklinSou rR Gabbs Arc Dome Freel Peak th For k Am er ic an Riv er ke Currant Knights 3588m al Citrus Heights Camino Echo Summit 3317m Morey Peak Landing Wellington Woodland North 3123m 2249m Round Mountain Placerville Highlands Folsom Walker Lake Lake Berryessa Markleeville Carmichael Saint Helena Davis Sacramento Luning Mount Grant iver Hawthorne 3425m es R iver Sutter Mount Patterson Vacaville mn mne R Dixon Mina su Ione 3558m Creek Mokelu Troy Peak Co Sonoma West Point Devils Gate Jackson 3443m Galt 2292m Camanche Napa Fairfield Arnold Warm Springs Bridgeport Reservoir Eagle Peak San Vallejo San Andreas Rio Vista Matterhorn Peak 3610m Pablo Murphys Lodi Columbus 3738m Bay Yosemite Mono Lake Martinez Columbia Kawich Peak Salt Marsh Tonopah National Richmond Calaveras River Angels Montgomery Pass Worthington Peak 2866m Sonora Concord Lone Mountain Camp Pioche Park 2185m Lee Vining 2697m 2776m Berkeley Walnut Creek Stockton 36 Tioga Pass Jamestown Boundary Peak Panaca Mount Dana 3031m Mount Diablo 4005m 3978m Manteca River Don Pedro El Capitan Oakland 1173m June Lake Owens Reservoir Stanislaus Oakdale Metropolitan OaklandTracy 2483m Cactus Peak Ri Half Dome Caliente Goldfield 2281m Mount Irish Livermore Riverbank Modesto Coulterville 2900m El Portal 2664m Mount Ritter Lake Crowley San Francisco Hayward er Tuo lum ne Riv 4010m Lake McClure Ra Fremo Merced Peak San Redwood City nt ng e Turlock d River 3574m Mariposa ce Mateo Patterson Alamo Mer Elgin Milpitas Palo Alto Livingston Sunnyvale Santa Clara Atwater Bishop Groom San Jose Los Gatos ah Mount Humphreys Lake Merced ute Le Grand Pescadero 4263m Gustine Mesa Ri Big Pine in u Chowchilla aq Felton Jo Los Banos Mormon Peak Morgan Hill Gilroy North Palisade 2260m 4341m San Luis Dos Palos Santa Cruz Reservoir Madera Beatty Watsonville Friant Pine Flat Lake Mesquite Hollister Monterey iv Independence San Juan Bautista Castroville Bay nR Hayford Peak Clovis Mendota Fresno 3021m Daylight Pass Marina Salinas Logandale 1316m Sanger Pacific Grove Indian Springs Fowler Seaside Lone Pine Overton Monterey Reedley s Selma Gonzales ive Death Carmel Mount Whitney in r Kingsburg Dinuba as Valley 4418m Owens Towne Pass dy Peak Mud 1511m Soledad Ri Echo Bay sR Badwater v er Lake 1635m Woodlake ng Jumbo Peak Charleston Peak Basin -86m KiHanford Visalia Point Sur 1757m o u 3632m Olacha Peak San Benito Greenfield s Lemoore 3695m Exeter Lake Mead n t Las Vegas North Las Vega Olancha Mountain Tulare Lindsay 1597m King City Pahrump a i n Paradise East Las Vegas Stratford Haiwee Telescope Peak Strathmore s McCarran Henderson Sequoia Coalinga Reservoir Corcoran 3368m Hoover Dam National Tulare Lake Bed Tipton Park Sloan Boulder City Pixley Porterville Avenal Johnsondale Tecopa Earlimart Alpaugh San Miguel Jean Delano Kingston Peak 2232m Trona g Mcfarland Kernville e Ivanpah Ridgecrest Inyokern Lake Lost Hills Clark Mountain Paso Robles Wasco Isabella 2417m er Cambria v Lake Atascadero Ri Searchlight rn Shafter Mountain Pass Piute Peak Oildale Ke Lake Th o N 8 Ka Val ve dow er Mea h River S ct e Soda Lake Devils D e Playg s e round r s Goleta Fillmore t A Carpinteria Ojai Needles Ludlow Amboy Bristol Lake Hesperia Wrightwood Mount San Fernando N M ew ou Yo nt rk ain s Los A g a v e M o j Mohave P Morovid unt enc ain e s ngel n es Aq ue du er a Baker 11 12 36 13 Lake Havasu Cadiz Lake N Santa Santa Paula Simi Valley Barbara San Bernardino Mountain San Antonio s Joshua Ventura Chan San Burbank Glendale 3067m San Gorgonio Twentynine Palms Tree nel Pasadena Bernardino Mountain Oxnard Thousand 3505m Alhambra Ontario Yucca Valley Santa Cruz Island Oaks Beverly Hills Redlands s Whittier Pomona Banning Desert Hot Spring C ol Santa Monica ora Riverside Inglewood Fullerton do Los Angeles San Jacinto Peak Palm Springs R Santa Rosa Island Desert Center Torrance Anaheim Corona San Jacinto 3293m ral City Indio r A S q ueduct Cathed M anta Hemet Santa ou A San Coachella Long Beach nt n ta Ana Ro Mecca ai Parker Dam Danby Lake 14 er r ive South F o o Riv R n 1455m Johannesburg A O N A R I Z a Colorad rk Kern M y R 2570m Ford City Santa Barb ara San Miguel Island ng e t a ci 192 ri e u Point Conception Sp uct s L E Point Arguello e ang sa R rgo Ama ll ed e a lley h Va n g e eat t R a DP a n a m i n a a qu g o aA V ni R l or in li f n to l ta C Lompoc Bakersfield Buttonwillow Lamont Arvin California City Taft Buena Vista Tehachapi Taft Lake Bed Mojave i Harper Lake Heights Boron er ap s Maricopa Riv ch in ave Barstow Moj ha nta Santa Maria S Rogers Yermo Mount Pinos Lebec Te u Rosamond an Lake o Raf 2692m M Rosamond Lake a el Mou Los Alamos Tejon Pass ntai Ord Mountain Lancaster 1273m ns 1923m Oro Grande Santa Ynez Big Pine Mountain Palmdale River 2081m Victorville Apple Valley Arroyo Grande Nipomo Guadalupe Vi r g i ta in Ca a ni C Be ee p un u d er l q Mo s Riv a R R a n g e Owen Jo Inyo a a n o San l Sa r P r tains v ve V Ri b San Sa n Sa O C A L I F O R N I A Black Mountain 1104m San Luis Obispo 10 iv in ash qu a ley W k oa i nge t Ra aga ran Pah a Pe r nJ Range er ve e Sa D oun White M S i lv l sc o nci y Fra Ba Morro Bay Pismo Beach Grover City w ich San y 9 lo Co Los Angeles ra do R 15 iv Palen Dry Lake e B Vista Oceanside Escondido Carlsbad Julian Ramona Poway Encinitas Santee La Mesa San Diego Coronado N O P Q R S U Lakeside El Cajon National City ho Palo Verde co a C late an M al ou nta ins Niland Calipatria ch ell Westmorland na gu ins La nta ou Santa Catalina oa Salton Sea M San Clemente Island Gulf of Temecula Fallbrook Blythe C ta an rS Island s ᭡ The towering granite cliff of El Capitan typifies the Yosemite Valley, which is often choked with tourists during the summer months. Santa Catalina Island ar ba ra Pa ssa ge edr Laguna Beach oC ha San Clemente n Avalon nel s in ta te Ou San Nicolas Island San P sa Toro Peak Mo un 2657m C Channel Santa Barbara Island a s n Huntington Beach Imperial El Centro 16 Sonoran D e s e r t Imperial Dam Brawley Laguna Dam Holtville 17 Calexico O E X I C M 40 Chula Vista X Y Z 35
  • 69. NORTH AMERICA I D A H O H up Hog tains n Mou G Range s a B t a Indian Peak 2984m U T A H 3453m r Creek s h Kanab ve ff Cli a t e olo d ra d o D e s River e r t Williams Bill Williams Mountain 2821m W n le C Humphreys Peak 3851m Ash Fork pi i Gr a Ri o Ech P no rey Aub s Cliff Flagstaff Meteor Crater k ee NIA te er liffs k Cr on vel Che r o Rive pa R iver Hassayam Dome Moun Rock tains lorad rde River Co Ve a let n ou il M ns tai CALIFOR s an ta kM Cr oun uz Ri tains ve r E F X an ge Sells Keystone Peak 1892m Baboquivari Peak 2357m I C ᭣ The flat tablelands (mesas), and the isolated pinnacles (buttes) which rise from the floor of Monument Valley are the resistant remnants of an earlier land surface, gradually cut back by erosion under arid conditions. G H I J K O L Sierrita Mountains ᭡ Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado river was completed in 1964. it provides hydroelectric power and irrigation water as part of a long-term federal project to harness the river. jo R A Nevada an Riv ne C rica Moenko v er Californ ia al P aria Hur B ig Sandy Ri major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas D fs C if 36 B E 40 E X I C O A Tuba City M Tucson M Li tt aw oh M New Mexico Phoenix a s T e x Albuquerque a Winslow Aquarius Sedona Mormon Lake Mountains Cr Chino Valley Jerome Clarkdale o Hutch Mountain rr BuGranite Mountain ek Cottonwood 2601m re 2324m rC Camp Verde ea aria R M Prescott Cl ive nta Baker Butte r Mayer Sa ntain Arizona i Mou Ok l ah oma Sante Fe chemicals coal defense finance food processing hi-tech industry oil & gas mining research & development winter sports s Colorado in Colorado Springs ta Kansas Utah D e s e r t a Denver e S o n o r a n un sk t ARIZONA Mo Salt Lake City The Colorado Rockies are crossed by 32 mountain passes, some as high as 12,183 ft (3713 m). The Eisenhower Tunnel west of Denver carries Interstate Highway 70 straight through the Continental Divide. a Kaibito Plateau Lake Havasu Mohave City Mountains B il lW 2462m i ll i am s River Ala mo Lake Parker Buckskin Mounta Mogollon Payson ins ins McDowell Mazatzal nta Bo Mountains Mountains ou Wickenbu rg rM Horseshoe Reservoir va Lake Vulture Aztec Peak rcu ala Ha uah ins Mountains Pleasant Bartlett Reservoir 2345m iver arq nta Morristown R H u lt o M El Mirage Sun City Big Horn Peak Ea Theodore g 1061m Litchfield Peoria Paradise Valley Roosevelt Lake Signal Peak Scottsdale Park Glendale 1487m Avondale Phoenix Superstition Claypool Tolleson Sky Mesa Apache Junction Globe Kofa Mountains Buckeye Tempe Miami Harbor San Carlos Guadalupe Chandler Mountains Superior Gila Bend Castle Dome Peak G il San Carlos aR Mountains 1155m Reservoir ive r r Florence Hayden Rive Gila Bend Coolidge Gila Winkelman Casa Grande Yuma Wellton Table Top Somerton 1333m Mammoth Eloy Sand Tank S Gadsden San Manuel Mountains San Luis Oracle Sauceda Mountains Marana Ajo Mount Lemmon Growler 2791m Mountains Tucson South Tucson Gila W y o m i n g 15 bra none Major industry and infrastructure I d a h o Ne 8627 miles (13,881 km) a Canyon en Navajo Mount Gl Rainbow Bridge 3166m Page Glen Canyon Dam Seligman Picacho Butte 2210m r Lake Powell teau Mohon Peak 2286m ash 14 4059 miles (6515 km) Crossman Peak 1554m coni Mount Hillers 3268m c o Grand Canyon eW 13 232,434 miles (373,986 km) Kaibab Plateau Es us Transportation network New industries have helped reduce the region’s dependence on the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels. Precision manufacture has grown rapidly, particularly in Arizona and Colorado. Salt Lake City and Denver are well-established financial centers and New Mexico, the main US producer of uranium, is a prominent region for nuclear research. Colorado is the most important US center for winter sports. Hualapai Peak 2566m Oatman Yucca 34 Transportation & industry Kingman Hualapa ᭤ The intricate stalactites of Carlsbad Caverns have grown with the seepage of calcium-rich water over the last 100,000 years. The huge caves are home to around 100,000 Mexican freetail bats.. Cl 12 Riviera Co Peach Springs l Kanab Fredonia Pla t Cerba ins ta Moun 11 Bullhead City Wash ᭤ In the arid landscape of Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona, the grain of prehistoric trees has been preserved as a fossil imprint in the rocks. The bogpreserved trees were gradually turned to stone by seeping mineral-rich water. Lake Mohave mento Petrified Forest Mount Tipton 2179m Sacra Shifting gypsum sands produce a constantly changing land surface, overwhelming plants and any other obstacles in Tularosa Valley. Red Lake s t a i n M o u n 10 Orderville o P l Plateau Cany Mount Dellenbaugh d on 2156m n Lake Mead B l a c k The striking color effects seen in the Painted Desert come from minerals such as gypsum and haematite, combined with ambient heat and dust. Mount Trumbull 2447m Shivwits Grand Wash 9 Mount Bangs 2442m Rainbow Bridge is the world’s largest natural arch. The 309 ft (94 m) span probably began to grow when the sandstone spur of a meandering creek was breached during a flash flood. Hatch Tropic e n o C Kanarraville La Verkin Hurricane Washington Santa Clara Saint George Escalante Brian Head 3446m Cedar City Enterprise Lost Peak 2291m Mount Dutton 3365m Parowan Panguitch Newcastle Parts of the Grand Canyon, which cuts through the Colorado Plateau,are 16 miles (25 km) wide. The Colorado River has cut down 6262 ft (2000 m), exposing rock strata more than 2 billion years old. 8 Paragonah as Little Salt Lake Modena The parallel basins and ridges, which run north– south along the Great Basin, reflect a major series of block-faults in the underlying bedrock. 7 n i Creek De ep r e G N E V A D A Strawberry Reservoir Spanish Fork Maple ton St raw b err y Payson Salem River Eureka Santaquin Mount Nebo Mona 3620m Nephi Helper Fountain Green Fairview Price Levan Wellington Sevier Desert Spring City Mount Oak City Pleasa Sevier Bridge Reservoir nt Hiawatha Hinckley House Ephraim Delta Huntington Range Scipio Manti Orangeville Notch Peak Centerfield Gunnison 2943m Castle Dale Mayfield Holden Redmond Ferron Fillmore Salina Emery Sevier Aurora Lake Kanosh Richfield Glenwood Frisco Peak Elsinore San Rafael Mount Marvine Knob 2944m 3539m Monroe 2414m Delano Peak re Marysvale ek Milford 3710m Loa Hanksville Bicknell Beaver Junction Minersville er iv tR Circleville Otter Creek Fremon Mount Ellen 3512m Antimony Reservoir Blue Bell Knoll yC 34 ta Uin Orem Utah Lake Provo Springville Granite Peak 2154m dd Sand dunes, 600 ft (180 m) high, have been deposited in San Luis Valley, by winds funnelled through the San Juan and Sangre de Cristo mountains in the Rockies. The Rio Grande has its source in several meltwater streams, which have cut deep valleys into the platform of the San Juan Mountains. Riverton Midway Heb Deseret Peak American er City Lehi 3362m Pleasant Grove Fork Mu Lake Powell R a n g e Over 13 million years of weathering has created thousands of spires and pinnacles from the alternating rock strata of Bryce Canyon. 6 Wah Wah Mountains dry for extended periods, leaving a pan of evaporated mineral salts in its center. South Salt Lake Holladay Park City Cottonwood Heights Sandy City nge 5 a Confusion R The arid, rocky expanse of the Colorado Plateau is dissected by immense canyons of the Colorado River. Desert lies to the north and south and branches of the Rocky Mountains run east and west. The Great Salt Lake and Desert lie within the Great Basin, a barren region of parallel mountain ranges that extends into Arizona. Water level of lake varies according to quantity of run-off received from ᭡ The Great Salt Lake is an snow melt ephemeral lake; it can remain Magna Kearns Grantsville West Jordan Tooele Dutch Mount 2376m The landscape Lake is fed by seasonal snow melt Coalville Salt Lake City Val Verda Bonneville Salt Flats 4 Mudflats Lake Wendover Ibapah Peak 3684m North Ogden Huntsville South Clearfield Ogden Layton Kaysville Farmington Bountiful North Salt Desert Peak 2152m This arid region, characterized by expansive plateaus and spectacular canyons is home to several distinct peoples. The ruins of cliff dwellings built a thousand years ago by the Anasazi people still exist today, and native Americans own one-third of the land in Arizona. Spanish and Mexican conquest and settlement left a hispanic presence which is strongest in New Mexico. The Mormons, who came to the Great Salt Lake seeking religious freedom in 1847, were among the earliest Anglo-American settlers and now make up over 70% of Utah’s population. The region’s mineral wealth drove rapid development in the 20th century, yet the constraints of a fragile environment, including widespread water shortages, may limit prospects for growth. When water evaporates it leaves a salt pan Brigham City Great Willard Salt Plain City Ogden Lake c h a t a s Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah 3 M ro use C Grouse Creek W USA: SOUTH MOUNTAIN STATES 1 32 Snowville Lewiston Richmond Bear Trenton Smithfield Lake Garland Logan Tremonton Providence Wellsville Randolph Hyrum tains oun ee G Sa F Marble Can er y on E Colorado Riv D CaBryc ny C ree k B G rea t S al t Lak e De ser t A Sahuarita Green Valley Apache Peak 2342m Mount Wrightson 2881m Patagonia Nogales M
  • 70. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – S O U T H M O U N TA I N S TAT E S N R S T U ᭣ The Bonneville Salt Flats are in the Great Salt Lake. Sodium chloride (salt), magnesium, and other minerals are commercially extracted from these flats. 32 V W X Y Scale 1:3,500,000 32 0 10 NEBRASKA W Y O M I N G at iv te R er 20 40 10 0 60 20 w Bo ine ins dic nta Me ou M nak e Riv e Sierra Madre 80 60 100 Miles projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Julesburg 2 Map key Population 500,000 to 1 million 100,000 to 500,000 itt le S C o f any Lo on do re 100 80 40 28 Pl Sterling Halligan ut h Reservoir So Iliff Black Mountain Reservoir Diamond Peak ee Buttes Pawn 3310m 2944m Kings Peak 1638m Wellington Sterling Elkhead 4123m Walden Haxtun Cache La P Fort Collins Mountains ou dr Holyoke Rocky Clark Peak eR Ault Eaton ins Jackson i ve Mountain 3947m n t a Maeser L Craig ou Windsor Yampa Riv Hayden Steamboat Springs Reservoir National Loveland Prewitt Vernal M er Greeley Riverside Park Reservoir Parkview Mountain Reservoir Evans Brush Estes Park Berthoud Roosevelt 3748m ins Oak Creek Otis PlattevilleWigg Lyons Grand Lake Fort Danforth Longs Peak Myton Longmont Orno Peak Akron Morgan ite River Yuma 4345m Hills Wray Fort Lupton Wh Dacono Duchesne 3691m Lake r Kremmling r Granby Boulder Lafayette Brighton Bonanza ve Rangely Ri Meeker Green Mountain Broomfield ee r Denver relwood ka r Sher Reservoir Berthoud Pass ve Ari Ri Arvada Denver erce City Go Last Chance 3494m Comm Strasburg Joes r t Ridge Grays Peak Whea Golden Bonny Aurora 4349m Evergreen Vail Reservoir Mount Lakewood Englewood Rifle Glenwood Springs Minturn Evans 4138m Littleton Sunnyside Burlington Mount of the s Stratton Roa Breckenridge Flagler ff Castle Rock rin Carbondale Mount Powell 4125m li g F Holy Cross Limon C 4269m or Bo Cheesman k Tennessee Pass 3177m ok an Pr Lake Cl Ro ice Collbran Hugo Aspen Leadville Fairplay iff Rive Palmer Lake r s Snowmass Mountain Mount Elbert Fruita 4295m 4399m Antero Reservoir Woodland Park Calhan Green River Bi Castle Peak Grand Junction Orchard Pyramid Peak gS 4348m 4273m Grand Mesa Mesa Manitou Springs and Kit Carson Cheyenne Wells Buena Cr Somerset y Cr Mount Harvard Paonia ee Elevenmile eek Vista k Pikes Peak Colorado Springs Crested Butte er 4395m Hotchkiss Canyon Reservoir 4300m v Taylor Park West Elk Peak i nR 3973m r R Reservoir Fountain iver Delta nc Eads om Co r pa Moab Ar n City i v e al Haswell 26 k an sas R y e Cano hg Gunnison Salida Montrose re Mount Peale Great Plains Ro org Adobe Creek Pla Blue Mesa Reservoir 3877m G Reservoirs tea Florence Pueblo Lake Reservoir u Ordway Meredith Holly La Sal Cochetopa Hills A rk r Las Animas an s a s Ri ve Lamar Granada Ark Uncompahgre Peak Fowler ansas R 4361m Saguache John Martin iver Rocky Ford Lake City San Luis Peak La Junta Reservoir Ouray Crestone Peak Greenhorn Mountain 4271m Handies Peak 3763m 4357m Telluride Monticello Creede R 4282m La Garita Muddy Creek Abajo Peak no Mount Wilson Center Huerfa Silverton 3463m Mountains Reservoir 4342m Walsenburg Blanding Vista Pass Del Norte Monte Electra Windom Peak Wolf Creek Blanca Peak 3307m Springfield Walsh 4372m 4292m Lake Alamosa Hesperus Mountain Vallecito Summit Peak 4033m Fort Kim Cortez 4054m Reservoir Bluff Garland La Jara Pagosa Springs San Luis Trinidad Mesa De Maya San Juan Durango Fishers Peak R Branson 2082m Manassa 2934m Culebra Peak r Flaming Gorge Reservoir 1 Km r 50,000 to 100,000 3 10,000 to 50,000 below 10,000 Colo fs Ri Crystal River if ve r sh Riv do ylo Ta C lo ra iso U 2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft 5 250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft sea level 6 r ins nta r Devil R g 3000m / 9843ft ou n M et W a K rty ive Di Gree n R S D A R O L Hors e Creek nn e ng Ra Gu er O Ru ch at S aw Cl O C O 4 4000m / 13124ft K A N S A S R an ange Ro Roan Plateau eR rad o Gre en Ri ve Elevation iv er e iver M de an Gr Río Jorn s ain Lordsburg C E O Valley imas ve Ri Pu iv er Pec os R Califo New Mexico M Hobbs E X I C O Land use and agricultural distribution Wind Mountain 2219m Anthony Salt Lake Loving Malaga Jal X P C I O ra nd 40 Q 15 pasture cropland forest desert The urban/rural population divide 24 Big Hachet Peak 2550m Animas Peak 2597m major towns cattle cereals cotton fruit irrigation Columbus Douglas M La Mesa G Miller Peak Bisbee 2885m Playas Lake Organ Peak 2704m Río Sierra Vista N Animas hi ric ahu a Mount Glenn 2292m Chiricahua Peak Tombstone 2986m ins Mounta Cochise Head 2472m Deming Florida Mountains Pyramid Mountains Willcox Playa Benson Mesilla G M uad ou a Orogrande Albuquerque Arizona Eunice pe lu ins a nt Willcox Colorado Phoenix Artesia Carlsbad Denver Utah Lovington Lake McMillan a O k l ah o m a Dexter Hagerman Mountains sk Sante Fe Tatum Sacramento bra Salt Lake City Roswell Ruidoso Tularosa Mescalero La Luz Cloudcroft Alamogordo Mayhill Las Cruces An Reiley Peak 2326m Hatch Cookes Peak 2563m Capitan Peak 3649m V a l l e y nge Mount Graham 3267m nt ou Bassett Peak 2336m re s ns ita nM Ne W y o m i n g a s T e x Duncan Central Bayard Hurley Portales 11 I d a h o Texico Elida 3073m oun tains Capitan Fort Stanton Sierra Blanca Peak tains Moun ndres Silver City Clovis Melrose Corona Cap Clifton b i im ta M oun M no o u Morenci nt ai ns Pi Pima Thatcher na le Safford go nt llon ain s Fort Sumner Yeso Gallinas Peak 2633m Carrizozo A San M Elephant Butte Reservoir Truth Or Consequences Caballo Reservoir Hillsboro Whitewater Baldy 3321m Lake Sumner Vaughn M E X I C O S la Horse Mount ustin 2911m an Ag 3287m of S Mount Withington Tularosa ins 3083m ReserveMountains Pla Pelona Mountain 2808m Eagle Peak 2983m Escudilla Mountain 3174m r Laguna del Perro Socorro South Baldy San Antonio Gallo Mountains o M ou M Gi a ive Estancia s no ins N Bl R ck N E W Magdalena Grady 10 Kansas Baldy Peak 3476m Whiteriver Madre Mount 2913m Alegres Mountain 3118m Tucumcari Manzano Peak 3078m Mountainair I Lakeside Greens Peak Mcnary 3089m Eagar Canadian River Santa Rosa Willard MoLos P un i ta Quemado ek Black Ra re Rio Sala do Ladron Peak 2797m R io ada D el Mu G e r t o ran de Concho C Rim Saint Johns A Silver Snowflake Los Lunas Belen Manza Mountano ins uerco oP Ri Holbrook Moriarty T u l a r o s a l Isleta Pueblo Ute Reservoir T E X A S Laguna River T San Rafael Zuni Joseph City Livestock, particularly cattle ranching, is the main source of agricultural income. The region has a long growing season and areas of rich soil, but depends heavily on water for irrigation. Crops include corn and wheat in eastern areas, and chili peppers, fruit, and cotton aided by additional irrigation. Nara Visa Conchas Lake Conchas Dam as Zuni Mountains er Sanders Peco Thoreau Chambers Watrous Las Vegas Jemez Pueblo Santo Domingo sR Gall iv Pueblo in Lamy San Felipe Pueblo Mount Taylor Villanueva Bernalillo 3445m Rio Rancho Estates Anton Chico Corrales Milan Paradise Hills Alameda Grants Albuquerque Los Ranchos de Albuquerque Gallup Petrified Forest Mosquero Santa Fe N Pue b Crownpoint 9 Using the land ek U ins Window Rock Gamerco olo Tesuque Wagon Mound Roy Cre nta oC Ocate Truchas Peak Pojoaque 3993m Los Alamos Fort Defiance Ganado do Wash ra Show Low Espanola Ute ou Tohatchi Polacca Keams M o u n t a i n s s ha rgo aM Cuba Nevada ain nt ou La O sk Chinle 26 Clayton Springer Turkey Mountains 8 ᭡ A glacially eroded valley in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. There are 1500 peaks exceeding 10,000 ft (3000 m) within the state, six times the number of major mountains found in the Swiss Alps. OKLAHOMA Cimarron Eagle Nest Lake Taos Ranchos De Taos Dixon Chimayo Mora Abiquiu Reservoir ma Raton rnia M Questa Wheeler Peak 4011m Rio C n rga toi n Navajo Reservoir Tierra Amarilla El Vado Reservoir no Bloomfield Huerfano Mountain 2278m hu u 4282m Costilla Chama Dulce M C Kirtland Ca Ship Rock 2188m Farmington i s t o C r ua r ive Kayenta Aztec Shiprock Pastora Peak 2869m re e Sa nJ uis Valley nL S a R ío Grande o Monument Valley r d Y d 7 R S e urban 80% 0 ᭤ Cattle ranching was introduced to New Mexico via Texas in the 19th century, and has become the principal agricultural land use across this region. T U 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Population density W 90 100 Total land area 34 people per sq mile (13 people per sq km) V 16 rural 20% 424,852 sq miles (1,089,965 sq km) X Y 17 Z 37
  • 71. NORTH AMERICA C D E F G H I J USA: HAWAII 1 The 122 islands of the Hawai‘ian archipelago – which are part of Polynesia – are the peaks of the world’s largest volcanoes. They rise approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) from the floor of the Pacific Ocean. The largest, the island of Hawai‘i, remains highly active. Hawaii became the US’s 50th state in 1959. A tradition of receiving immigrant workers is reflected in the islands’ ethnic diversity, with peoples drawn from around the rim of the Pacific. Only 2% of the current population are native Polynesians. 3 Transportation & industry none Lána‘i O C E N ahi an l ne Ch H A W Map key 60 40 20 80 60 40 100 i iw P lák iC The urban/rural population divide Hilo urban 89% 0 ᭤ The island of Kaua i is one of the wettest places in the world, receiving some 450 inches (11,500 mm) of rain a year. B C 10 20 60 70 189 people per sq mile (73 people per sq km) D E 80 100 90 6,423 sq miles (16,636 sq km) F G Saint Paul Island 14 Saint Paul Pribilof Islands H Saint George Island I Saint George Km 2000m / 6562ft d l Vega e 250m / 820ft R 50 100 150 200 250 t i a n I l s Unimak Island Cold Bay False Shishaldin Volcano Pass Deer Pogromni Volcano 2857m Island 2002m Pauloff Akun Island U nim Harbor ak P as s Akuta Sanak Islands Akutan Island n Makushin Vo Tigalda Island lcano Avatanak Island 2036m Unalaska Island Dutch Harbor nd Krenitzin Isla Umnak Islan d a d n Segula Island Semis opoch Is noi sland Little A land Islan Sitkin nvil Peak 12 Carlisle Tanag Amc d Ka Great S s 21m Amu Yunaska Isla Island hitka Pasa Islanda Is naga Islanitkin Atka nd a G relo T kt Nikolski Islan land d Segu a Island d Islandi anaga Volcan Atka am Island Herbert Islan la Kanag Seg d 1806m o Amukta Is 1307m a Volcano ua nd land mP Cape S Island s s Amlia Is asmik Ada Kagalask P ass s of Four Mountain land k Is a as Delaro s land Isla Island f A n d r e ndn o f I s l a n d s s a F I C ds ss I an Pa C s Isl Fox e D Is 250 or A C t 200 Fenim P sea level u Point Rat I a 100m / 328ft 150 projection: Lambert Conformal Conic a Isla nd 100 Amak Island 25 tk 500m / 1640ft 50 Miles nd Kisk 25 0 ir Isla 1000m / 3281ft B 0 A Agattu S Shem s trai Aga t ya Islan t d Islantu CKrugloi ape P d Saba oint k Buld 3000m / 9843ft below 10,000 Ne Wra Cape ar ngell Is Attu Attu l a Islan n d c hi 4000m / 13,124ft 10,000 to 50,000 38 50 Total land area Am Elevation A 40 Scale 1:8,000,000 100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 30 Population density Map key Population 13 rural 11% s A Kuskokwim Bay Hawai‘i pasture cropland forest mountain region on ukver i Ka Lae (South Point) major towns 14 r St N cattle fishing fruit sugar cane lin Eto A A ze N E 12 E Aropuk Lake n Newtok Ba y Tanunak Tokso ok Bay Mekoryuk Nightmute Cape Mohica n Nunivak Chefornak Dall Roberts Moun Island ait Lake tain 510m Kipnuk Cape Mendenhall Kwigillingok Ná‘álehu Maui Kaho‘olawe C S Hall Isla n Glory of d Russia C ape Saint Mat Upright thew Island Pinnacle Cape Island Ha Captain Cook I Kea‘au Cape Kumukahi Mountain Páhoa View Mauna Loa 4169m Kílauea Caldera ‘Ápua Point Páhala Kealakekua Saint Mary Mountain Village s Scammon Bay Pitkas Point Hooper Bay Chevak G 11 Hilo Hawai‘i Kailua-Kona sto lB ay Kotlik Hamilton Emmonak Alakanuk Sheldons Point RY R Kalaoa Sound Norton Camp Kulow Northeast Caiye pe Southeast Ca pe N 192 Mauna Kea Wailea 4205m Honomú Papá‘ikou bue Solomon Nome Cape Nome ce Island E ha Honoka‘a Laupáhoehoe A 13 O sea level Waimea Keáhole Point Cape Rodney Saint Lawren 10 100m / 328ft Cape Hanamanioa ha áC há h nn n ui ‘Al e ‘Upolu Point el Háwí Hálawa Kivalina Cape Espenberg Savoonga t Cape B eik O E Land use and agricultural distribution l R iver Pa ‘ Al a Kaho‘olawe Gambell Southwes 250m / 820ft e nn Kauná Point Lánai t Cape 500m / 1640ft Honolulu P A C I F I C Northwes 1000m / 3281ft Pu‘u ‘Ula‘ula (Red Hill) 3055m uk Little Diomed e Kougarok Island Mountain 875m Cape Wales Brooks Mountain Prince Seward 883m Bre of Wales vig er Mission Riv Port Claren in ce z i tr Teller Ku Cape Douglas Council 122 9 2000m / 6562ft kp Shishmaref 3000m / 9843ft C 12 8 RUSSI FEDER AN ATION 4000m / 13,124ft Maui Ha wa i Moloka‘i ‘ i O‘ahu ircle Elevation A I I HI SEA Arctic C below 10,000 C UKC Ku tze Population 100 80 r Kaua‘i ᭣ A raft of timber from the Tongass forest is hauled by a tug, bound for the pulp mills of the Alaskan coast between Juneau and Ketchikan. 7 10,000 to 50,000 192 Ni‘ihau 571,951 sq miles (1,481,296 sq km) CH projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Ka Ha rbo I 1 person per sq mile (0.4 people per sq km) 100 90 Point Hope arl 11 80 6 50,000 to 100,000 Pe F 70 e Wevok Miles The volcanic soils are extremely fertile and the climate hot and humid on the lower slopes, supporting large commercial plantations growing sugar cane, bananas, pineapples, and other tropical fruit, as well as nursery plants and flowers. Some land is given to pasture, particularly for beef and dairy cattle. 10 20 10 0 I 60 Total land area Cape Lisburn Kahuku Point Kahuku Waimea Lá‘ie au K Waialua Hau‘ula Ka‘ena Point Wahiawá Ka‘a‘awa Pearl Mókapu Point Mákaha City Káne‘ohe Wai‘anae Nánákuli Waimánalo Beach Makakilo City Moloka‘i Honolulu nel ‘Ílio ‘Ewa Diamond an Point Kalaupapa Cape Hálawa Beach h Head C Kualapu‘u Channel Lá‘au lolo Nákálele Point Point Kaunakakai ai annel h Wailuku Pá‘ia Kailua ohi C Lahaina KalLána‘i City Pukalani Kíhei Haleakalá Hána Lána‘i Using the land & sea 50 5 100,000 to 500,000 O‘ahu 40 Ko Kaulak 0 10 C Hilo Hawai‘i Km A 30 Kaho‘olawe A Scale 1:3,500,000 Hanalei Kílauea Anahola Nohili Kapa‘a Kahala Point Point Líhu‘e Kaua‘i Kekaha Kaláheo Waimea Kóloa an Ni‘ihau Pu‘uwai nel ‘Ele‘ele Makahú‘ena Point Ch Kawaihoa Point ‘i a 20 Maui ᭣ Haleakala’s extinct volcanic crater is the world’s largest. The giant caldera, containing many secondary cones, is 2000 ft (600 m) deep and 20 miles (32 km) in circumference. Hawaii relies on ocean-surface transportation. Honolulu is the main focus of this network, bringing foreign trade and the markets of mainland US to Hawaii’s outer islands. P 4 major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas food processing military base textiles tourism 6 Lehua Island Kii Landing 10 Moloka‘i 43 miles (69 km) none 0 rural 32% Honolulu P A C I F I C Transportation network 4102 miles (6600 km) urban 68% 3 Ha wa i‘ i O‘ahu Major industry and infrastructure 5 The ice-free coastline of Alaska provides access to salmon fisheries and more than 129 million acres (52.2 million ha) of forest. Most of Alaska is uncultivable, and around 90% of food is imported. Barley, hay, and hothouse products are grown around Anchorage, where dairy farming is also concentrated. The urban/rural population divide ᭡ The island of Moloka‘i is formed from volcanic rock. Mature sand dunes cover the rocks in coastal areas. Kaua‘i Ni‘ihau M Using the land & sea Population density Tourism dominates the economy, with over 90% of the population employed in services. The naval base at Pearl Harbor is also a major source of employment. Industry is concentrated on the island of O‘ahu and relies mostly on imported materials, while agricultural produce is processed locally. 4 2 L B 1 K St ra it B er in g A O C E A N
  • 72. N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – H AWA I I & A L A S K A N O P Q A RUSSIAN FEDERATION Land use and agricultural distribution RC T S CEAN IC O U V major towns forest barren tundra Valdez Anchorage Cordova Homer Juneau PA SE BERING CI OCEA FIC X Y 1 Almost 650,000 people live in Alaska, a wilderness of ice, forest, mountains, and plains, purchased from Russia in 1867 and twice the size of Texas. The discovery of large oil reserves has brought prosperity to the US’s “last frontier,” while advancing the need to preserve natural habitats and the traditional livelihoods of indigenous peoples, such as the Aleuts and Inupiaq. DA Fairbanks W USA: ALASKA CANA Alas ka fishing reindeer fruit T N Ketchikan A 2 3 196 Point Barrow ay Sm i ta ku pa Ku s ut So j ek k er re e Riv na va lo Fjords are found along the coast where valleys, deeply excavated by large glaciers, were inundated by rising seas. Eagle 8 le y ver Ri za rC er r Suntrana i Lake Usibell Minchumina Healy rk Mount Deborah McKinley Pa 3761m kw Koyukuk ve Ka n Rivtishn er a im Salc The arc of the Aleutian Islands marks the boundary between the Eurasian and Pacific tectonic plates. Ch arper Mount H 1994m ha Big Delta nction Delta Ju A H i l l s Che s College Fairbank iver R Ester le N Y uk o n Ri v er Chatanika North Po W Nenana oo Anderson 7 Alaska Range River No rt k lac R R Circle Circle iver n s ika Arctic R ck u r iv e an West Fork Glacier Yukon River v sik ek Coal Cre rings na Hot Sp r ive er iy Mo uh ins nta at To Ch B Cr ee Central Riv Kaltag Shaktoolik Tanana Y Minto ills rings sH Manley Hot Sp rine nana Rive Kok Ta Kokrines r Ruby ver Cape Darby Debauch Mountain 1040m uk 1517m Koyukuk Galena Nulato y Ba on Huslia e d Golovin Koyuk B eav Mount Tozi 1682m Mo untai ns i Livengood R art Mountain Wolf on Ramp N en a na Ri Elim Haycock r Hughes R ay K ge Stevens Villa Little ek Bir ch k iv e S A t u Ri River r kR River H a og Fo Birch Cre A P orc e pin Chalkyit Bla rt Yukon n uko Y Allakaket iver uk R yuk Ko t a Fl 6 ar er Peninsula L ills Tag agawik Rive r Buckland Candle Ko yu A S hee n Christian uk R Riv Goodhope Pen ins Selawik Lake Bay ula Deering Kiwalik H ne Za n R i ve r ive Fork North Ri ver K o y u kuk M K o id d l e yuk Fo uk rk Riv er uk John wi ld Ba ri Wa Selawik r R rk ve r Fo r Ri la s ountain Spike M 1139m 5 A M Ch i dd an l guk Mountain Ch Nor s a n d th F or da e 1350m in a l a r Rk iver t a k Ri v er Anaktuvuk Pass n t a Atigun oa u Mount N ss 1448m Mo Tututalak Mountain No ata k Ri Doonerak Pa v er Al E n d i c o t t 2320m 1364m atn Chandalar Noatak aR Wiseman d M o u n t a i n s S Mount Igikpak iver Bair Venetie c hw Chandalar R atka 2594m ive Mou oy ntains Ko kK Ambler r buk Bettles Fo Kotzebue Kiana R h Kobuk Riv zana iver d Noorvik er Shungnak ountains Ho ng M Beaver k illage Arctic V er n a e g Riv ith er Sm Coleen Anak C ha o ChanEast Fo d a la r k rR iv er r Riv ndle Riv er lik Kil Ku D e L o n gMishe lip Phi 4 The ten highest mountains in the US are all in the Alaska Range, Mount McKinley (Denali), at 20,321 ft (6194 m) is the highest. Brooks Range The Yukon Delta is a fan of alluvial material eroded by the Yukon River and its tributaries. It is approximately twice the size of the Mississippi Delta. C B M o u n t ar ins o s tu vuk River Awuna Rive ut Ridg r e er Looko Riv r Riv kpo wruk Ri v er K o k ol i kR i ilik ve Itk uk ok R Point Lay iver ru k e Ut i t R i ns ver u k Ri v Atqasuk Icy Cape s er Canning Rive r Riv Pr M de R ive r ea Cape Halkett ay Ha eB rri son Bay Point ho Martin ud y C a m d e n B a y Kaktovik oint Prudhoe Ba Teshekpuk ation P Lake Demarc Deadhorse lik n r ub ai lson S h u n t Mount Miche n o ough M n 2699m ou nt Green amberli of M a Mou m Mount Ch 2749m 2207 g anz Kon R om Umiat lin Franktains n er Davi i er dson Moun ta e Riv Mou Colvill un nta in Mo Ikp ik p Point Franklin B rd Pe a The mountains of the Pacific coast culminate in the heavily glaciated Alaska Range and extend west, to the Alaska Peninsula and the great volcanic arc of the Aleutian Islands. The interior plains are drained by the Yukon River and bounded by the bare, jagged peaks of the Brooks Range to the north. BEAUFORT SEA y Ba th s Barrow Wainwright The landscape O C E A N I C C T A R Chicken ᭡ By August, the Alaska Range is covered with autumnal tundra vegetation. e Dot Lak yes Mount Ha M entas 4216m ta 9 itn Sus Susitna R iv e r Nab es na Riv er Ba y y B at ut ue n e Bly i e g a it a a R ak B tra x Transportation & industry mS ay n Nushag s Chatha le vi ch a M o t ou nt ain s St ra M it A Cook Inl e 12 C ay G f Alaska f o ul A n B gak Nush a k a hag Nus insula Pen nds la I h es Sh e i n u s t u l i a a n al rc fW A eo r n e e l PA nc e Pr i d ay a 11 l a pper Riv Co e Ta lke etn aM a k s Co rk No K u Hol s i tn k o a k w er A kw im R iv er ali k Bristol Bay s k l a A 10 pp e ountains sko Ku i a Fo rth t n u o M i m a Kusko iak R iv er sa r Kilbuck Mountains ork An Kus hF A nv ik Riv er r ve Ri ky ut arod River afs R e g D n a N d it I n no k o Ri ve r An Poorman Di sh na Rive r t Island Stebbins Saint Michael dre Ka Unalakleet ns N u Yukon l a Riv t o er ss Tanacro Mo Tok Tetlin un West Fork Glacier ay tai Von Frank Mountain Northw 1374m The surging ice mass shears Cantwell Denali Paxson ut 8 a Lake zot Summit ley along the glacier margin Mentast Slana in M Mount McKin4m ountains Medfra Ophir I er er (Denali) 619 Riv Nikolai china r Riv Mount Sanford na a Mount Foraker Chisto Deep crevasses divide the Mcgrath So eek Takotna abes N Grayling 5304m Gold Cr 4949m a Gakona W front of the surging glacier Chisan Shageluk Curry Gulkana Drum r a n g e l l M Farewell into large ice blocks Mount 3661m Anvik ountains a Paradise nallen rangell 4317m enter Ye Talkeetn burn Flat Gle ount W lack Bona nt n M per C Bonasila Dome Mount B Montana Mount ᭡ Surging glaciers make m zlina Cop sina m Ta 551m Ri Tonr hitina 4996 cCarthy 5005 Chickaloon M Lake Holy Cross v rapid and dramatic advances, C Crooked r k Skwentnaine er Ch unt Bea tton Matanuvsera C h u g a c h Su Marshall Creek r Mo Mount Gerd i normally after periods of ke 4520m Pilot Stony River M ot i n a R i v e PalmerRi ount Marcus Baker Russian 3431m Willow La ton M Station Hous un snow accumulation. West Wasilla Sleetmute Mission Chuathbaluk tai Susitna River Birchwood 4016m dez Kalskag Aniak Red Devil Val Fork Glacier in the Susitna Eagle ns Napaimiut s Lower Kalskag Mount Torbert Spenard Anchorage e Pas Lime Village kwim River t Miller S a i n t E Steller Whit River Basin traveled 3479m Ellamar Tatitlek ko Mount 3236m cier Moun Anchorage lia 880m iv Tyonek a Tuluksak ince 2705m s l Cairn Mountain s M R Whittier Pr iam 2.5 miles (4 km) in 1987. Hope Cordova ay g G Mount St Elia Kasigluk Akiac Nyac Will 1158m t m ou in kagw ina hak S 5489 er Sound Bethel Akiak Ki Malasp r n nt r ook Kashegelok Kenai rling Moose Pass Knight Redoubt Hinchinbr t a i Klukwa iv e Glacie Kwethluk Ste a es Yakuta Volcano 3108m nding Island ns aR Island Katalla Napakiak Napaskiak land Icy B Hain tna Cooper La n Soldo Kayak IsElias at Mountain Kalgin Island Mesa Ri K weth Kasilof Seward ver Gla Saint e Island l ch luk Tikchik 996m Tuntutuliak k se Cape mena Kenai u Montagu cie Ri Tere us Lake Clark Tustu Lake Ya ve r B Gustav Saint neau Eek d Lakes r Ninilchik s u Ee k Ri ver Cape Cleare oun Nondalton Peninsula ougla J r Point gS Ancho Icy Dtr Homer S a ag Quinhagak Wood Koliganek Iliamna Lak Pedro Bay y i Island nt iralt ay Newhalen a Middleton Mo River iver ncer ah Adm d n Kachemak B Seldovia e Spe in Cove Hoonlican Lakes k RNew Stuyahok Iliam Kakhonak Augustine English Bay Cap Elf n Islan on e t P int o ke klu Aleknagik nd Ang Island Port GrahamGore Po Ekwok Tena Ah d M bi Isla eric Igiugig Kamishak Bay K en Chugach Islands Twin Hills Yako agof Islan redundk Ton Goodnews F So Dillingham nedy h o s urg gass Levelock Chic Togiak Manokotak Entra Mount Douglas ake anof eterub K Clarks Point d Na Platinum Wal 2153m enson Entranc n c e Naknek t i o Kupre nd P Islan e rus l n Ekuk uzof Mount n a Isla Ste v Cape King Salmon Kr a ngel o t a Is l be Sitk Shuyak Island Afognak South Wra remb Newenham i n Hyder cum Kuiu d F o r e Zaland lin Edge 3201m Island Naknek Hagemeister s gigedo s t Is Eto d nd K Islan Mount Katmai a Island r of Isla Egegik ot B ay Islan evill n ke arm 2047m it Cape er Bara t Ba dna Bay ns MOuzinkie ers R nd Large areas of Alaska are undeveloped, and much of the xand ey Poin E Mey ck Isla an oint Constantine ra Port Lio le St hu ik ain P nd nd ort A mman Becharof Lake C n etch t P Kodiak O n Sou of Cape Chiniak aa K oun tte Isla existing infrastructure is a legacy of Cold War military Cape Christia land ock M nne la Kas lik Karluk Klaw ig Pilot Point A lakat land on Is Kodiak Island Cra n Bay ronati Larse d Ugashik investment. Mineral ores, including gold, have been mined MetDuke Is Co Islan nd Cape Ikolik Old Harbor oyes r Isla urg acon N ab sl Mount Chiginagak e Ch Hyd d for over a century, but the oil business now dominates the Bake Cap 2120m lan Port Akhiok all Is nd D la e economy. Processing industries such as paper-pulp mills Heiden Is zon Ba y anc 192 ester ape Mu Alitak Sitkinak Island Forr ntr C 192 Tugidak Island supply Japan and other markets on the Pacific Rim. n E s o Sutwik nd Dix Trinity Isla Island Chignik Aghiyuk Island Mount Veniaminof CEAN C O Port Moller 2507m TI Perryville Chirikof RC Ivanof Bay Mitrofania Island Island A Prudhoe Bay RUSSIAN Kupreanof Point Sand Point Korovin Island FEDERATION Squaw Harbor Big Koniuji Island Belkofski Unga Little Koniuji Island Transportation network Major industry King Cove Nagai T Island Alas ka rans-A and infrastructure l s Shu 13,524 miles 49 miles Fairbanks Nome magin I sland (21,760 km) (78 km) fish processing gold mining 482 miles none oil (772 km) Valdez timber processing Anchorage Sound Stuar ip el ag o 15 CANA DA el Pip ka as 16 ine Over 40 million gallons (182 million litres) of oil are pumped through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline every day. The oil takes six days to travel the 789 miles (1262 km) from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez. major towns international airports major roads BERING N O P Q R Cordova Homer S Juneau PA EA U CI O FIC CEAN Ketchikan V ᭡ The Trans-Alaska Pipeline has carried crude oil from Prudhoe Bay since 1977. The oilfield is the US’s largest and is estimated to be equal in size to the biggest oilfields of the Persian Gulf. X Y 17 Z 39
  • 73. NORTH AMERICA A D E F U nso e Todos B P Bahía d Santos sie a a El Chiner o rto de I Colorado r Cerro de La Enca 3096m ntada ir Ada 50 25 150 100 25 0 J 50 200 200 150 100 projection: Lambert Conformal Conic T E Sonoyta D A T S K L M ᭤ The rugged, desert landscape of the Sierra Madre del Sur is a product of complex tectonic processes, where the fold mountains in western North America, running north–south, meet the Caribbean mountain arc which runs east–west. Miles Sierra de 1390m l Pinacate A El Golfo Santa Clade ra 0 lta j A Si erra S an Pedro anto To Santo Tom ás más San Vicen te Col Cabo Col onet onet De Laguna Salada Riíto Ensenad Punta S o San Luis Río ol o I Km N rez 2 ra d El Desca C Tecate Sierra de Juá Rosarito Río So noit a Tijuana H Scale 1:6,250,000 192 1 G T E Má a Palomas Bahía de Puerto Pe San Felip ñasco Cerro Co El Sásabe Nogal e es Ciudad Juárez Zaragoza 1213m zón Punta Estr rge ella n Jo a Guadalupe Cabo Sa Naco Agua Prieta de S Sáric Bravos n Quintín Bahía Samalayuca Caborca San Qui Nogales Ascensión Tubutama El Desembo ntín Guzmán Cananea El Porvenir Altar que su n Imuris Laguna de Pitiquito Fronteras o A ci B a hía de Sa n Q ui ntí 16 Sabinal io ío ón Rí Río Santa María Janos ena M BAJA Br Gr Bacoachi Punta Baj M a g da l Sa agdalena an av a nta Ana Lucero Cerro Viejo Las Trincheras de Villa Ahumada od Nacozari de 1646m io San Fern el Arizpe García Bah ía del Ro sar ando Isla Sa Benjamín Hi Bacerac Nuevo Casas n Luis ll Cabo Lobo Querobabi Grandes Isla Gu s La Libertad adalup Banámichi e CALIFOR Moctezuma Galeana Cumpas NIA Isla Ángel Rayón Cerro Pica chos 1554m Huásabas Moctezuma de la Guard a Carbó Buenaventura El Sueco Mazocahui Pesqueira Cabo Tepo Punta Pr Ures Zaragoza Las Varas ca ieta ra e la Pa ono S a dajera Isla RíoSan Pedro Gómez Farías s Bahía de de la Cueva Coyame Ojinaga los Ángel Tiburón Madera Namiquipa es Bahía Kino SO N O R A os Picacho del Centinela Rosarito ch Boquillas Isla Cedro Isla San Es 2896m Sahuaripa B ah ía El Sáuz S La Colorada s teban Temósachic Isla San Lo de erra Se ba st ía Manuel Benavides renzo r n lB Sierra de Ca Mulatos m a de V iz ca ín o Presa Tónichi malli Tecoripa Bachíniva Isla Nativ 19 en l Aldama Luis L. León L l a n o d e l o s El Arco 08m idad Suaqui Grande Yepachic La La Cuesta Punta Eu Caballos Junta ge Ortiz Bahía de nia CH IH UA HU A M e s t e ñ o s San Miguel Laguna OGuerrero Neg San Nicolás Yécora La Babia Tortugas ro jo Julimes Presa de Liebre Basaseachic Cuauhtémoc Empalme Las Palom Guaymas Álvaro as Cusihuiriachic Meoqui Cabo Haro La Perla Ob Delicias San Juanito Cerro Seberi regón Volcán Las Punta Sa San Francisco de Bor Tres Vírgen 972m n Pablo 1996m ja Saucillo es Rosario Carichic Esperanza Creel Laguna Ciudad Naica Santa Rosa San Ignaci San José Múzquiz El Guaje Río Conch o San Lucas lía Punta San Presa de la Camargo Ciudad Obre os Hipólito gón Río Isla Lobos Boquilla Isla San Mar Yaqui Bolsón de Uri cos Témoris que Laguna Sa Nonoava COAHUILA Valle de Zaragoza Mapimí n Punta Abr Mulegé Ignacio Navojoa Urique eojos Samachique Sierra Mojada Ocampo Ce Etchojoa na rro Encantado e Jiménez 1560m all Alamos Rí Huatabampo Balleza de B oS Rosarito Laguna El Rey Hidalgo del Parral Guachochi an M Bahía Choix Presa San Juan Punta Púlpi Yavaros Mig Cuatro Ciénegas i gue San Francisco ta uel Hidalgo Carrillo Punta Pequ ico l eña del Oro Santa Barbara Escaló Es ter o de n Morelos Villa Orestes Pereyra Punta San e La Ag iab am po Ceballos Juanico Purísima rt El Fuerte 192 Isla Carmen Comondú Villa Ocampo Loreto La Poza Gr ande Rí San Blas Guadalupe y Calvo Puerto Esco ndido Tlahualillo Sierra de los Alamitos Ahomé San Bernardo Santa SI NA LO A Santo Dom 2560m Isla Santa Ca María del Oro ingo Guanaceví talina Los Mochis Bermejillo ᭡ Wave action has cut steep cliffs into Mapimí Inde BAJA Ejido Insurg San Pedro Topolobampo the igneous rocks of Isla Cedros, off the Guasave Santiago de los Caballe entes Gómez Palacio ros Ciudad Co Isla Santa Cr ro Mocorito El Palmito Torreón uz Pacific coast of Baja California. The island Badiraguato Isla Magda nstitución s Ciudad Lerdo lena Matamoros um a y a Angostura Tepehuanes amo Guamúchil is home to sea lions, reptiles, and deer. Parras Río H Cabo San Lá CALIFORN eR San Luis del Cordero Viesca Isla San José zaro Bahía Santa María d San Carlos IA Pericos Nazas Bahía Mag R Isla Altamura El Rodeo La Reforma Santa Rita Punta Coyote dalena M Bahía Pedriceña Santiago agdalena Tamazula Bahía Navolato Isla Santa M Papasquiaro Peñón argarita ua de Isla de SUR DURANGO l Espíritu Santo Altata Blanco Cuencamé n a v a Melchor Ocampo La Paz San Juan del Río nzo Cedros Pichilingue San Miguel ore Quila Guadalupe Canatlán L Coa San Juan de Isl SanCosalá coyole Victoria La Paz a Cerralvo Guadelupe El Dorado Río Villa Madero Cerro Prieto Camacho Punta Arena Juan Aldama Mexico possesses rich Cerro Huehuento 3100m de la Ventana Miguel Asua Atotonilco 3150m Durango Tropic of Ca mineral resources, limited La Cruz ncer San Ignacio Buenavista Nieves Otinapa Villa Unión Santiago El Salto Punta Arena Coyotitán Todos Santos Río Grande Nombre de Dios agricultural land and the world’s Regocijo Vicente El Quelite Aserra Saín Alto dero Miraflores Guerrero Santa Genoveva Cañitas Sombrerete largest Spanish-speaking Pueblo Nuevo Mezquital 2406m Concordia Z A C A T E C A S Villa de Cos Mazatlán Villa Unión San José del Ca population. Most Mexicans are n Pe Santo bo San Lucas Sa Jiménez del Teul Domingo Rosario Cabo San Luca Rí o Laguna del Fresnillo s mestizo, although Amerindian Caimanero Valparaíso Ramos Escuinapa Zacatecas communities still exist in the south, Huejuquilla Guadalupe 192 Teacapán Jerez de Ojo Caliente Acaponeta almost 500 years after Spain destroyed the García Salinas Cerro la Ardilla Salinas Tecuala Villanueva 2874m Loreto Laguna NAY ARI T Monte Aztec empire at its height. Much of the arid north is Escobedo Agua Brava Colotlán AGUASCALIENTES Ruiz Tuxpan Isla Isabela sparsely inhabited, while Mexico City is one of the world’s most populous Isla San Juanito Ojuelos Calvillo Santiago Ixcuintla Isla María Madre cities. Conflict with the US has long overshadowed Mexico’s development, but the Playa Los Corchos Aguascalientesde Jalisco Encarnación Isla María San Blas Teul Jalpa North American Free Trade Agreement offers the chance for a more benign relationship, Magdalena Juchipila de Díaz Islas Tres Marías Tepic Lagos de Moreno de Moyahua Isla María Cleofas Compostela de S which may help to offset Mexico’s problems of hyperinflation, foreign debt, unequal Las Varas Ixtlán Yahualica San Juan í de Ahuacatlán tiago los Lagos wealth distribution, and political instability. Tepatitlán RSan Francisco Tequila Punta de Mita del Rincón Tala Bahía de Banderas Puerto Vallarta Atotonilco Ameca Miguel Cabo Corrientes Talpa de Alle Mascota nde Hidalgo Tlaquepaque el Alto The urban/rural population divide Cocula rmaPénjamo Chapala Ocotlán El Tuito ío Le R Tecolotlán Zacoalco urban 74% rural 26% Lago de La Barca La Piedad Ayutla JAL ISC O Chapala Sahuayo Cavadas Corn occupies much of the cultivated area. Commercial plantations Tomatlán Unión de Tula Sayula Zamora de Hidalgo of coffee, sugar, vanilla, and cotton are found along the Gulf coastal Autlán Grullo Tamazula Cotija Zacapú 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Ciudad Guzmán Los Reyes Chamela Nevado de plain and in irrigated parts of the arid north, which is otherwise used Zapotiltic rti S r R R n G C rte Río B av i s p e No o C F f al d pig och i as o en nde o all Rí eB l F Sie Ta rr a Sierra Gra l Can I Hermosillo O oC Rí Yaq ui f I R ío as ní rro u d r S i e ar C on c i Chihuahua e o 6 S C r C i r l r Si i f C od el O r n a ío Ag e l A n d e c i O c E i a Culiacán t Rí o Ate ng o Río de dr o A c a po n e t a N 10 I d nt C Mexico 9 X Rí ga r a Gi 8 E M o de la a o Fue ra a er i O M Rí o s e a n 7 11 a Bo la ñ os l an de Gr R ío Río León an oV er 12 Guadalajara Using the land & sea 14 UN ITE Tijuana 140 people per sq mile (54 people per sq km) TE S O F A ME RI CA of Ca lif MEXICO or Monterrey ni a PA Guadalajara C IF B C U AT EM AL A D Nueva Italia Aguililla La Huacana Presa del Infiernillo ls a ío Ba La Lázaro Cárdenas Unión Punta Cayacal co c al et a ía P Bah Bahía Bufadero A 3000m / 9843ft 100,000 to 500,000 Ario Apatzingán de Rosales MICHOACÁN Arteaga 4000m / 13,124ft C I 2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft 10,000 to 50,000 500m / 1640ft below 10,000 G 40 1 million to 5 million Aquila Uruapan Tepalcatepec 50,000 to 100,000 C AN Elevation 500,000 to 1 million I 17 P above 5 million Mérida Acapulco Manzanillo Punta San Juan de Lima Punta San Telmo Distrito Federal Population Volcán Paricutín 2774m Cerro Tancitaro 3859m Tuxpan Pihuamo Armería Tecomán Coalcomán Mexico: Administrative regions pasture cropland forest desert MEXICO CITY CE nza ni llo Map key Gulf of Mexico O A a Bahía M Colima 4339m COLIMA Colima La Barra de Navidad capital cities major towns cattle coffee corn cotton fishing shellfish sugar cane timber vanilla lf 16 755,865 sq miles (1,958,200 sq km) La Huerta Land use and agricultural distribution Gu 15 D S TA Total land area s Population density for extensive ranching. Fishing is important, particularly shellfish for export. A soaring population has created the need for grain imports since 1980. R 13 BELIZE ᭤ Coffee beans spread out to dry in the sun. Coffee, grown mainly on the Gulf coastal plain, is Mexico’s most valuable export crop. E F 250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft 192 sea level G H I J K L M
  • 74. N O RT H A M E R I C A : M E XI CO N O P Q R S The landscape T U V The long, narrow, extremely arid peninsula of Baja (lower) California is an elongated granite block, separated from the mainland by the flooded rift valley of the Gulf of California (Golfo de California). The great central plateau rises gently southward from the Rio Grande, isolated from the coastal plains by the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental. The two ranges converge from east and west respectively, culminating in high volcanic peaks around Mexico City. Further ranges of the Sierra Madre rise to the south of the Balsas basin, skirted by the low-lying Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Istmo de Tehuantepec) and Yucatan Peninsula. W Wave action has constructed sand bars which shelter lagoons along the shore of the Gulf coastal plain. X Y The dormant cone of Volcán Pico de Orizaba is, at 18,700 ft (5700 m), the highest peak in Mexico. In North America, only Mount McKinley and Mount Logan are taller. 1 Sierra Madre Oriental Rio Grande The heavily-forested Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Istmo de Tehuantepec) is a graben; a low-lying trough created by downward movement of the bedrock between two fault lines. Formation of the Gulf of California 2 ᭡ Tropical rainforest abounds in the Yucatan Peninsula, a broad, low limestone shelf. Rivers are rare due to the porous nature of limestone, so the forest is mostly fed by streams and underground water. 3 Direction of plate movement 4 Baja California Transform fault ᭡ The Gulf of California (Golfo de California) began to open out about 4 million years ago as a result of rifting and plate displacement along transform faults. Hidalgo b I ina s Juárez Presa Nuevo 16 Venustiano Anáhuac Laredo San Carranza Río Sa Buenaventura d Frontera Lampazos o Monclova La Gloria Castaños Presa Nueva Ciudad Guerrera Bustamante Villaldama Falcon Sabinas Hidalgo MierCiudad Miguel Alemán Agualeguas Camargo sa UN Gu rn San Lucas o AT GU Transportation network Tropic of Cancer 67,564 miles (108,746 km) zu m a Fast, modern highways or autopistas now link Mexico City with Toluca, Puebla and other satellite cities, yet distant centers like Chihuahua are still served by narrow roads and an outdated railroad network. oa l mp Te Tihuatlán Poza Rica l Gutiérrez Zamora Papantla Huauchinango R 58 Nautla de La Torre Bravo Dzilam de n Dzidzantú Motul Temax amal Iz Hoctún Progreso Hunucmá Mérida ATÁN C Piste Umán Y U Ruinas zá Sotuta Celestún Tulum Chichén-It a Ruinas de Mun Maxcanú Ticul ción Becal Ruinas Oxkutzcab to Pe sc en hico e la A Calkiní Uxmal Vigía C Tzucacab Tekax akán ád i Hecelch ah n de Rejón Tenabo Bolónché itu S an t o Espír to llo Puer hía del Polyuc Felipe Carri ro ampeche C Hopelchén Iturbide A Ba Punta Herre Seybaplaya INTAN n Champotó Pe la n i n s u ROO Lago de Ciudad Atlacomulco Teotihuacán Chignahuapan Altotonga Apan Cuitzeo Hidalgo El Oro Tlalnepantla LL AV E Calpulalpan Tlaxco Perote Sabancuy Texcoco Apizaco Xalapa CHE cala TLAXCALA (MEXICO CITY) Tlax Pátzcuaro Huatusco Veracruz CAMPE Xpujil de Zitácuaro Benito Juárez Laguna Huamantla Tacámbaro Términos Texmelucan Cholula Volcán Pico de Orizaba Valle de Bravo Francisco Boca del Río Amecameca 5700m Córdoba a l Carmen Zacata Nevado de Toluca 4577m Escárceg Volcán Iztaccíhuati 5286m Alvarado Punta Roca Partida Frontera Tenancingo Orizaba Popocatépetl Atlixco Tejupilco La Tinaja 5452m Palizada Candelaria Tecamachalco és Tuxtla íso Río U Para andelar a San Andr Zacatepec i Cuautla oros sum Comalcalco Huetamo Tehuacán Tierra Blanca oahuila aci Jonuta Catemaco Matam Taxco Jojutla Nuevo C nta SCO A Pre Miguel T as B ACunduacán MORELOS Ciudad Cosamaloapan Coatzacoalcos PU EB LA pán saAlemán Rí Teloloapán rden a Emiliano Zapata Altamirano Cá o Ajal Huitzuco Tres Valles ah us mos VillMacerpana Isla Acayucan Minatitlán Coyuca Arcelia Iguala Acatlán Chiautla Huautla Las Palenque Teotitlán del Apaxtla de Castrejón Tuxtepec Apipilulco Choapas a Teap Camino Tenosique Playa Rí Cuicatlán Palenque o B als as Mezcala uapan enté Huaj Vic Pichucalco El Chichonal Huamuxtitlán Volcán Tamazulapán Medias Aguas Co Simojovel 1060m Ixtapa G U E R R E R O Chilapa de Alvarez Rí Jesús Carranza Nochixtlán de Raudales Zihuatanejo oU Guelatao Chilpancingo Tlapa Copainalá sum Comonfort Petatlán Ocosingo pa Presa ac i n ahuaca Telixtl Tlaxiaco t sas hualcóyotl Ca Atoyac Tierra Oaxaca Cerro Zempoaltepec Matías Romero Netza ozocuautla TuxtlaSan Cristóbal de Las Río Monte Albán Oc Putla Tecpan a Colorad Ja 3395m S Río Omitl án CA O A X A Mitla Río T Chiapa de C H I A P A Cintalapa Corzo Coyuca Ayutlá e hu Ocotlán an Ixtepec o Carranza Zanatepec ritas San Marcos Venustian te Ometepec Las Marga hitán natepec Juc Tapa pe General Juan ria Villa Flores Comitán c Ejutla N Alvarez S La Trinita Arriaga tepec ie Mar Miahuatlán Tehuan Pinotepa Nacional esa de la Mue rto Tonalá r r Pr gostura Salina Cruz Laguna Laguna témoc Punta Maldonado a An or ltepec eri Jami dad Cuauh Superior Inf Puerto Arista M CoCiu apa es Cruces al a m Cerro Tr d 2952m Pijijiapán doza Pochutla r tla de Men Puerto Escondido e MotozinTacaná Puerto Ángel Mapastepec Volcan m tla 4093 Escuin Huixtla la MÉXICO B a h í a Toluca Puebla d e e ech p C a m Bacalar ap O P ún ant at R ío za c oalc os rija lva Lac de Ver Río a N La Unión C ual al Majah ro hinchor Banco C Boca Bac alar Chic o BE 42 L 15 42 16 A S u r C O te I ta F d e l R í o U s pa n a Acapulco Istmo de pec Tehuante Río G Rí Rí oA n Jua n M a d r e TEM AL A oP c ya to Sa S i e r r a Chetum Bay al Chetum aI oa pan Río C Cuernavaca an Yucat QU Mar Tulancingo Cuetzalán acoytínez Tula án Tlap Acámbaro del Río Zacatlán Misantla Pachuca MÉXIC O Teziutlán VE RA CR UZ - Morelia res Isla Muje to Juárez er Cancún Puicario s Leona V Morelo Puerto Molas Espita Punta el te Playa den del Nor Chemax Carm el d Cozum umel Valladoli Isla Coz Chiquil Panabá Tizimín B ᭡ A stone figure reclines by the Temple of Warriors, within the Mayan city of Chichén-Itzá. The Maya civilization flourished across the Yucatan Peninsula between 200 and 900 AD. Álamo o n á M oc t e Querétaro Rí a Cabo Cat os ío Lagart 1801 miles (2900 km) Tuxpán El Alazán C h a oche 16,561 miles (26,656 km) o t San Miguel de Allende Molango QUERÉTARO Zimapán Y u c a t a n Aldama l Huejutla 9 capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas e R oil & gas textiles brewing car manufacture chemicals electronics fish processing maquiladoras mining n n BELIZE 3994 miles (6429 km) au lip a s e Piguícas 3191m Zacualtipán Tequisquiapan Ixmiquilpan Salamanca Celaya Huichapán Valle de Santiago IDALGO n Yuriria San Juan H Actopa Salvatierra Moroleón Oaxaca AN 8 Major industry and infrastructure Puebla Veracruz Acapulco Tam i Silao Irapuato CE Ciudad Mante O r Guanajuato MEXICO CITY de Cerro del Tigre 2268m Tula Xicoténcatl González Dolores Hidalgo Tampico C O Antiguo Morelos Altamira Ciudad del Maíz Cerritos Tampico Ciudad Madero San Bartolo Ébano Laguna de Pueblo Viejo co Pán u Cárdenas Pánuco Rí o Rayón Estación Tamuín Río Verde Arriaga Ciudad Higos Laguna de Tamiahua Valles Santa María del Río Tanquián San Ciro Cabo Rojo Tempoal Magozal San Felipe Naranjos Tamazunchale San Luis GUANAJUATO de la Paz Jalpán í Tantoyuca Tamiahua San Luis Potosí Gulf of 7 Oil and gas on the Gulf coast are Mexico’s main sources of export income. Metal mining has declined but the country remains a leading global producer of silver. Manufacturing is heavily concentrated around the metropolitan area of Mexico City, while the duty-free movement of goods in the US border region, under the Maquiladora Mexico (twin plant) scheme, has created new hi-tech and service Mérida growth centers. E r ra SAN LUIS Moctezuma POTOSÍ arina Matamoros San Luis Potosí I Sie Venado la r e M a d Charcas Ciudad Victoria Jaumave A Nuevo Laredo Guadalajara IF r a Doctor Arroyo Mier y Noriega Nevada 3644m IC C r Matehuala Mazatlán PA Rí e Allende General Terán Saltillo Santiago S Laguna Montemorelos os an F General e C on c h Madre Cepeda LE Ó N Río Méndez rnando San Rafael Burgos Linares Hualahuises San Fernando Cruillas San Carlos Galeana Villa Mainero Concepción del Oro San José de Raíces Villagrán TAM AUL IPAS Nuevo La Ascensión Hidalgo Jiménez San Tiburcio Padilla Aramberri Abasolo Presa Vicente Río Sot o Soto la Marina La Pesca Zaragoza Guerrero Cedral Vanegas Cerro Peña M Catorce ER Monterrey Durango ia Matamoros Cándido Aguilar Cadereyta Transportation & industry AM MEXICO fo Hipólito Ramos Arizpe Valle Herm China li i Monterrey S O F Ca General Mariano General Bravo Río Bravo Escobero oso TE Ciudad Juárez of S Reyno Cerralvo D S TA lf A Hidalgo Santa Catarina ITE Tijuana 6 The highlands of Chiapas are a series of horsts, blocks of land thrust upward between two fault lines. Volcanic cones have developed where lava has flowed out from the faults. IZ la C O NUEVO The unstable, earthquake-prone, upland basin around Mexico City was once a region of shallow lakes. Flood control measures and domestic consumption over the last four centuries have caused the virtual disappearance of this surface water. ᭡ Popocatépetl is a dormant volcano, part of the Pacific “Ring of Fire.” The crater is over half a mile (1 km) wide. do R Nueva Rosita Sabinas Río Popocatépetl Hon E Piedras Negras Zaragoza Nava Allende Villa Unión 5 Río Balsas A Villa Acuña Jiménez San Carlos Sa Spreading oceanic ridge Edge of continental crust M Presa La Amistad Sierra Madre Occidental EM AL A Gulf of California E G Golfo de ec Tehuantep A N Tapachu ero Puerto Mad U 17 algo Ciudad Hid X Y Z 41
  • 75. o New River Belize City Hill Bank Lagoon BELIZE San Ignacio a Benque Viejo del Carmen Flores San Benito BELMOPAN Santa Elen a cint ma su CAYO La Libertad M Sayaxché Dolores a Middlesex STANN CREEK Turneffe Islands Lighthouse Reef M 64 Dangriga rC han nel a r r i e r Xunantunich Ciudad Melchor de Men cos Lago Petén Itzá n C A R I B B ISLAS DE LA BAHÍA Glovers Reef Victoria Peak 1120m Richardson Peak 1000m ne an d Río U Sibu Belize City R e e f d PETÉN ac E lL a WALK Tikal L ᭤ Lighthouse Reef is one of a series of coral reefs lying off the coast of Belize in the shallow waters of the Caribbean. Bocar Bacalar Chico Ambergris Cay San Pedro BELI P e ORANGE Indian Church ZE Altun n i n Ha s u l ro de Caledonia In an Pe COROZAL Orange Walk Bel ize X R ío S r ra 40 M TOLEDO E San Luis Monkey River Town Lubaantun A Gulf of Honduras San Antonio ac lb a l Ix c á n Isla de Guanaja Isla de Roatán ía Roatán Bah la e s d Punta Gorda la San Mateo Isla de Utila Is Ixtatán Barillas Modesto Mendez Sarstoon Bahía de Punta Mana Punta Caxinas HU bique Amatique Jacaltenango EHUETENANGO Rí Punta Sal Soloma Trujillo Si Chisec Río Puerto Cortés Iriona Lívingston C er IZABAL La Ceiba to QUICHE Balfate o s ra ALTA VERAPAZ Puerto Barrios Limón in i ío de Santo Tomás de Castilla Río Cu Brus Laguna D Chajul San Pedro Carchá ilco S el Neb Tela ATLÁNTIDA COLÓN egu l o s C aj El Estor d e Ag u Tocoa CORTÉS ab ó n a Cobán ah La Masica uchu Lago de re Huehuetenango Rí o C Pico Bonito 2435m matanes í mb Río San Cristóbal Verapa Río Polochic Izab Morales San Pedro Sula o R al Volcán Tacaná z Pan SAN a N zós Savá a iller 4093m MAR ca Laguna de Olanchito Macuelizo Cord Los Amates agu COS c ó n El Progreso Si Volcán Tajumulco t e l e Villanueva R í o C h am o er r Jocón Caratasca BAJA VERAPAZ s San Esteban 4220m Santa Cruz del Potrerillos Río M YORO ina Quiché a de Ch SANTA Chichicastenango San Marcos u ac ús Rabinal Salamá S i s M Gua Pico Pijol Santa Rita Monte Mucupina GRACIAS er ra de la lán BÁRBARA Totonica 2282m 2152m Quezaltenango pán A Zacapa Represa El Cajón CIUDAD DE A DIOS La Unión Lago de Colomba Victoria Yoro d e Dulce Nombre de Culmí Gualaco Ciudad Tecún Um Santa Bárbara Copán Ruinas COPÁN Santa Rosa Río Coatepeque Atitlán Sololá GUATEMAL r ra án Río Wampú San Francisco de la Paz A Guastatoya Chiquimula Sie Chimaltenango(GUATE La Sula de Copán Lago de Yojoa MALA CITY) co Libertad Catacamas Santiago Atitlán Patzicía Salamá Río Telica Tilapa Kaminalj Jalapa Retalhuleu Ciudad Vieja uyú Quezaltepeque La Aurora Mazatenango San Luis Esquipulas Grac Antigua Guatemala ias Siguatepeque Comayagua Jilotepeque Santa Lucía Volcán de Cedros Waspam Guaimaca Campamento Juticalpa Lago de Amatitlán OCO Cerro Las Minas Nueva Ocotepeque TEPEQUE Cotzumalguapa Acatenango Champerico e COMAYAGUA FRANCISCO gua R í 3976m Volcán de Pacaya OLANCHO Jutiapa Metapán La Palma San Marcos llera2827m o Gu ayap Montañas de Comaya Pueblo Nuevo late 2552m n INTIBUCÁ i que La Paz á Escuintla rd a Cuilapa Tiquisate Coyo La al Asunción Mita Cerro Villa de MORAZÁN Cerro Zarzalar ío Co Cel La oJ Ulmukhuás Gomera Esperanza Su m e 2250m San Antonio Rí Lago de Güija El Pital Bocay d 2730m El Semillero Chiquimulilla re Teupasenti CENTRAL Embalse Cerrón LEMPIRA Marcala Barra Nahualate nt E REGIÓN AUTÓNOMA Santa Ana DISTRICT EL PARAÍSO Grande a Chalatenango LA PAZ L e mp a Chalchuapa er Bonanza TEGUCIGALPA Volcán de San Salvador 1893m Toncontín San José Iztapa ill Aguilares rd Ahuach Wina ATLÁNTICO NORTE Sensuntepeque Co Danlí Río Go Volcán de Santa Ana 2365 apán Mejicanos La Rosita m Yuscarán Jalapa San Delgado Cojutepe Río Torola Ciudad Barrios Sonsonate El Paraíso JINOTEGA Cerro Saslaya Nueva que C Luis ordillera 1990m Lago de Sabanagrande San Salvador ue 192 Cacag uatiq NUEVA Acajutla SANIlopango San Vicente Siuna San Francisco Mogotón Punta Remedios Ocotal 2107m SEGOVIA SALVADOR Volcán de San Vincente 2182m VALLE í La Libertad Zacatecoluca Chinameca Nueva Guadalupe o b o Nacaome San Salvador Alamikamba ana Ch Santiago San Miguel San Lorenzo ío Somoto MADRIZ Rí Volcán de R Cerro de María San Migue oP Condega l 2130m La Unión Chachagón CHOLUTECA r inz Jiquilisco Usulután Pueblo ap o l k a 1804m San Rafael Amapala Choluteca Nuevo Lago de Makantaka El Salvador: del Norte San Juan de Limay Intipucá Gulf of Apanás a La Cruz de Río Tuma Cedeño ESTELÍ r Administrative regions Cerro Musún Río Grande Fonseca Estelí Jinotega le e Matagalp Somotillo d i l MATAGALPA 1700m a de Río Grande Potosí rd AHUACHAPÁN CABAÑAS an Villa Nueva Punta La Sirena C o C ordil l e ra D ar i e n s e Gr SANTA ANA LA PAZ La Trinidad Río Kurinwas Cosigüina o Matagalpa Rí SONSONATE SAN VICENTE CHINANDEGA Sébaco LEÓN CHALATENANGO USULUTÁN Muy Muy El Viejo Ciudad Darío Esquipulas LA LIBERTAD SAN MIGUEL Chinandega Chichigalpa SAN SALVADOR MORAZÁN N 100 60 40 80 100 o Corinto A 120 N projection: Lambert Conformal Conic 10 Telica León Masaya Jinotepe CARAZO Casares C EX M D E oP at u Rí Golfo de Nicoya SAN JOSÉ San Ignacio SAN JOSÉ San Marcos Parrita N I C A R AG UA MANAGUA capital cities major towns ᭤ Bananas are harvested throughout the year along the Caribbean coast. Bananas are a perishable commodity and the plantations rely on good railroad links to the ports for rapid distribution. A 42 B Rn a A Península Caldera de Nicoya Paquera P 196,721 sq miles (509,640 sq km) río Río F 197 people per sq mile (76 people per sq km) 17 Total land area er Population density 90 ill 80 A 70 SE 60 N 50 PUNTARENAS Grecia Heredia Alajuela Puntarenas San José EA 40 GUANACASTE Nicoya Puerto Jesús B SAN SALVADOR E L S A LVA D O R C O S TA R I C A ' SAN JOSE E C 30 Volcán Arenal Quesada Volcán Poás Volcán 1916m C o r d 2704m Barva il San Ramón l e r a 2906m IB HONDURAS A C ' Colon N PA NA M A pasture cropland forest PANAMA CITY COLOMBIA F G H I J di o RICA C O S TA Santa Cruz Quepos TEGUCIGALPA O 20 Sardinal R GUATEMALA CITY C 10 rd BELMOPAN FI 0 de Cabo Blanco BELIZE G UAT E M A L A cattle bananas coffee cotton corn shellfish sugar cane timber 100 Golfo de Papagayo Belize City Land use and agricultural distribution rural 53% Los Chiles Upala o In S ío Ju a n Volcán Gu 2028m Miravalles e a qu na pi s ca s ALAJUELA an Carlo m te S HEREDIA Liberia Arenal Puerto Bagaces Tilarán Laguna Altamira Viejo Filadelfia Cañas a CI urban 47% Península Santa Elena Rí El Castillo de La Concepción San Carlos 192 PA The urban/rural population divide 16 RÍO SAN JUAN A 15 oP au lay á RIVAS San Juan del Sur La Cruz O Muelle de los Bueyes C About half of all agricultural produce is exported. Five commodities dominate commercial farming: bananas, grown on the humid coastal lowlands of the Caribbean; coffee; cotton; sugar, and beef on the Pacific side of the isthmus. Corn is the main subsistence crop and many varieties are grown, supplemented by beans, squash, and sorghum. Large areas of tropical rain forest are commercially exploited, causing concern about deforestation. Volcán Mombacho 1365m Co 14 Santo Tomás Acoyapa Granada Nandaime Lago de Nueva GRANADA Nicaragua Guinea da Morrito Alta Gracia Río Punta Gor Belén Volcán Concepción 1610m Rivas San Miguelito Isla de Ometepe The natural beauty of tropical Central America belies the civil strife which has long plagued this region. The imprint of Spanish colonization prevails in the official language and Catholic religion of the people, who are mostly of mixed heritage. Indigenous Maya peoples remain most numerous in Guatemala. The US has frequently intervened in Central America, purchasing from Panama the right to build the canal in 1903, and sponsoring guerrilla activity in Nicaragua during the 1980s. Initiatives for a common market with Mexico offer hope of overcoming foreign economic dependency and attaining the relative prosperity enjoyed by Costa Rica. However, gaping disparities of wealth and land ownership remain fundamental obstacles to peace and stability. Using the land & sea os MASAYA San Rafael del Sur Masachapa B E L I Z E , C O S TA R I C A , E L S A LVA D O R , G U AT E M A L A , H O N D U R A S , N I C A R A G U A , PA N A M A IC N I C A R AG UA Volcán Momotombo 1360m Boaco REGIÓN AUTÓNOMA Camoapa Lago de BOACO La Paz Centro uia ATLÁNTICO SUR Managua Si q ío Nagarote R E R MANAGUA La Libertad El Rama sconío Santo Domingo Tipitapa di d o co CHONTALES MANAGUA Managua Río Mi Juigalpa Central America 13 Ri la el ab Is E Miles 11 i co T oT in t lu tec a Rí Lemo pa C 120 s 20 80 o 10 60 Rí 0 40 Te 0 10 20 R m Ba O Km LA UNIÓN Río Coc o R Pa ío z ascorán I EL SALVADOR F I C Rí o Río Achigu ate R ío Rí o Ríouya Hum C Scale 1:4,000,000 CUSCATLÁN a de Montecil diller los Cor r pu l 9 A Rí H O N D U R A S e d mb re a S am al á Ja Río l ap a M R 8 oS a Río P Rí Si e lta ga r oG ua ya r Rí e r ra Gi U A T E M A L A S 7 án R oy hix Río Ulú a oX Río 4 t a n Carmelita ón 3 Si e C K Rocky Point B I RETALHULEU QUEZALTENANGO TOTONICAPÁN SOLOLÁ SUCHITEPÉQUEZ ESCUINTLA CHIMALTENANGO SACATEPÉQUEZ GUATEMALA EL PROGRESO JALAPA SANTA ROSA JUTIAPA CHIQUIMULA ZACAPA 2 a J Corozal M 1 c O Ho nd Guatemala: Administrative regions u Chetumal Bay N R iv e w er Y C ya B Río de la Pa sión A ts NORTH AMERICA K L M
  • 76. NORTH AMERICA: CENTR AL AMERICA N O P Q Over 40 active volcanoes line the Pacific coast north of Panama, including Volcán Tajumulco which, at 13,846 ft (4220 m), is the highest point in Central America. ᭡ The 990 ft (300 m) deep crater occupied by Lake Atitlán (Lago de Atitlán) was created after a volcanic explosion caused the original cone to collapse in on itself. On its shores lie other volcanic cones. S E R S The high plateau of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes is a horst, an upthrusted block of land. The limestone rock is deeply incised with canyons along the plateau edge. T U V Soil erosion and mass-movement of hillslope material is a major problem on the coastal hills of El Salvador, increased by deforestation and overintensive farming. Arrecifes de la Media Luna Y 1 The Sierra Madre range spreads west from Mexico, between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of Petén. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast, to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatún (Lago Gatún). A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica. Low, white limestone cliffs, mangrove swamps and coral reefs characterize the coast of Belize, which is part of the Yucatan Peninsula. 2 Deep ocean where swell is greatest Main reef supports diverse fauna Over half of the route of the Panama Canal runs through Lake Gatún (Lago Gatún), the highest stretch of the journey. The freshwater lake also acts as a holding reservoir for the canal, providing water to operate the locks. The Gulf of Fonseca, the Río San Juan and lakes Nicaragua and Managua occupy a major rift valley, which runs across the isthmus. X The landscape Lake Petén Itzá is typical of the swampy depressions or bajos of the Petén region, formed by intense weathering of limestone in the hot and humid climate. Sierra Madre A W 3 Still waters Branching coral encourage the growth of ᭡ The coral reefs off the coast of Belize, globular coral 4 are distinctly zonal. Different Coralline features develop in the high energy water of the ocean from those in the enclosed lagoon. The main reef development lies in the deep ocean. Lake Managua 5 Puerto Lempira Cabo de Gracias a Dios Arrecife Edinburgh co Co Río Boom Laguna Bismuna Lake Nicaragua (Lago de Nicaragua) contains around 400 islands, some of which are active volcanoes. Unique freshwater species of shark and swordfish have evolved over the long period since the lake was cut off from the Pacific by a belt of volcanic cones. C o a s t Cayo Muerto Ku k ᭡ An ox-drawn plough tills fields of tobacco in the Copán region of Honduras. Only about 25% of the land is cultivated, in this sparsely-populated country. ala IC O BELMOPAN A Prinzapolka SE A E L S A LVA D O R Cayos de Perlas CI FI C O C 500,000 to 1 million 1000m / 3281ft below 10,000 Barra del Colorado Río Chir ri pó 250m / 820ft C Río Chi r r ip Atlántic ó o CARTAGO l 44 A Limón Turrialba Cerro La Muerte Cerro Chirripó 3491m Grande 3819m Bribri Rí 12 100m / 328ft sea level 13 R Punta Mona Telire Río 3797 miles (6112 km) I B Guabito oS ixaola Changuinola B E A N Archip de San iélago Blas ta San Isabel El Por venir Portobelo S E A ᭡ Panama’s rain forests are home to many mammals which originated in North America, including jaguars, tapirs, and deer, as well as sloths, anteaters, and armadillos, which long ago migrated from South America. re s KUNA YALA Colón AlaLago ag juela h Aligandí C ordi l l e ra d e S an Cristóbal Ist Bla C Bocas del Toro San Isidro C o r Cerro Kámuk mo ío s A DE o Punta Mosquito Gu lf of KUN R d i 3554m PA NA MÁ Río Teribe Nuevo Chagres Lag de de lle Almirante Archipiélago MADUNGANDÍ Dominical Gatún Chepo D ar ie n ra Pa Pan Bocas del Toro R ío Buenos la Borda go La Miguel de KUNA DE de G ArenosaCa nam amá Panama City Serr Península F ener Aires NDÍS Ta BOCAS DEL N Norte aní Escocés Bayano COLÓ WARGA na a Coclé del Punta Laguna de Valiente il al ad la er l San Miguelito TORO eM m a Chiriquí r Balboa ajé PUNTARENAS an c D an ía Cortés PANAMÁ Y) a S Chiriquí Grande Golfo de los Mosquitos Rí a ro Chucanti C Cer ar í La Chorrer Puerto Obald R o e o R G ab a (PANAMA CIT 1439m ié Bahía de Palmar s ío rande de Tér rVolcán Barú r r a n Ch án Santa Catalina ía Capira a h í a d e P a n a m á im te B Coronado Sur de 3475m Cerro Peña Ta b El Valle Punta Chame ñ San Vito Blanca Cerro Gaital NGÖBE asa Volcán Boquete a Archipiélago 1314m rá 1173m Cerro Chorcha Isla del Rey Go de las Perlas Península EMBERÁGolfito BUGLÉ r a l CO CL É Penonomé San Carlos lfo CHIRIQUÍ 2238m San Miguel de Osa Cent La Palma WOUNAAN Cordillera La Concepción ta Brava Pun Santa Fé a Antón David Quebrada Cerro Santiago Río Hato Cerro Tacarcun Yaviza Isla San José Golfo de Cañazas DA RI ÉN Guabo 2121m Calobre 1875m l Unión San Mig uel Rí El Real Alanje Pedrega Aguadulce o S San Francisco Chocó Horconcitos Bahía Punta Garachiné é a nt Puerto Armuelles a Garachin Remedios Cerro Pirre Isla Sevilla de Parita Santiago Mar í a 1200m Las Palmas m Isla Parida b Monagrillo Parita í Golfo VER AG UAS Cerro Setetule de Chiriqu Montijo Ocú Soná 1220m Chitré Los Santos Punta Burica EMBERÁJesús Río de A a HERRER Las Tablas WOUNAAN Guarumal Ponug Macaracas uc Ch aq ue Rí 54 A M 54 O Jaqué 16 BI B al s a s Tonosí Río Cerro Hoya 1560m Pedasí Punta Mala ú A N LOS SANTOS de Azuero Sa á Golfo de Panam uira oT Rí o E 15 un Río San Pablo e jo Isla Cébaco Isla de Coiba 14 l de a n Rí o A Península C A P C O N l én ol a Cricam Chir iquí Vi I Be ío Río lce Du F M A N I 11 The completion of a major oil pipeline across Panama in 1982 has reduced crude oil shipments via the Panama Canal, further contributing to a long-term decline in canal traffic. 500m / 1640ft ParaísoC Cartago e n t ra capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas 918 miles (1478 km) 1912 miles (3077 km) 2000m / 6562ft 10 10,000 to 50,000 Río Colorado Volcán Irazú 3339m COLOMBIA 3000m / 9843ft 50,000 to 100,000 Siquirres Matina PANAMA CITY N 14,994 miles (24,135 km) 4000m / 13,124ft 100,000 to 500,000 San Juan del Norte A ' Colon Transportation network 1 million to 5 million ón ' SAN JOSE PA NA M A Elevation Population LIMÓN chemicals coffee processing fish processing finance food processing mining textiles timber processing C O S TA R I C A E Monkey Point Punta Gorda 9 Major industry and infrastructure MANAGUA PA Cayos de Albuquerque 8 Most manufacturing takes the form of cottage industries concentrated in the larger towns, and the production of food, tobacco, furniture, textiles, clothing, and footwear. The region’s oil and metallic mineral potential is largely unexploited. The Panamanian economy is dominated by service industries, and the country has one of the world’s largest free trade zones at Colón. N I C A R AG UA Cayos del Este Sudeste Map key Re Rí veno taz N SAN SALVADOR Isla de San Andrés Punta de Perlas Punta Mosquito Bahía de Islas del Maíz Kama Bluefields El Bluff Bluefields Guápiles EA TEGUCIGALPA (to Colombia) Laguna de Perlas B PROVIDENCIA Cayos King IB Kara BELIZE G UAT E M A L A GUATEMALA HONDURAS CITY SAN ANDRÉS Y Barra de Río Grande R Cayos Guerrero 7 Transportation & industry Belize City C M o s q u i t o ya Isla Santa Catalina Isla de Providencia Wounta EX Ri o Tuapi Puerto Cabezas M Yablis Cayos Miskitos Cayos Londres Dákura Río W awa 6 ᭣ A geyser erupts from the central cone of Volcán Poás, an active volcano in the Cordillera Central of Costa Rica, which frequently produces spectacular lava flows. L CO 17 Y Z 43
  • 77. NORTH AMERICA A B C J Great Sale Cay Pelican Point Freeport N Ex a id or O o d e S a ne el So ys ann a C C Cat Island Columbus Point n Ch Great Guana Cay ea lag as c e O hol th Kemp’s Bay a um C Ex ma u of pié I Arthur’s Town BAHAMAS Great Exuma Island an chi Anguilla Cays Bannerman Town ue Nic Behring Point Andros Island Cay Sal Rock Sound Andros Town Ch ag o iél hi p rcMa Minas de A tahambre Guanabacoa Matanzas José Martí Cárdenas Guanajay Güines ts of New Providence T Adelaide Fl ᭡ The large bar which lies submerged in front of Marina Cay in the British Virgin Islands, has been built up by waves, depositing a bank of sand which partially encloses the islet. NASSAU Linden Pindling en s de lo Mariel Artemisa i tra Ar (HAVANA) Colorados A Southwest Point nel ce C h an v ide n P ro Eleuthera a st e r th Current Island No Nicholls Town Governor’s Harbour Berry Islands tar GU S O F LA HABANA LF Cherokee Sound San M Tropic of Canc er I EX Great Abaco To n g 3 64 Marsh Harbour Grand Eight Mile Rock Freeport Bahama Island Nor Moores Island thw e st P C h a ro v i d e n ce nn e l Bimini Islands M L 2 L T ᭣ The Caribbean’s virgin rain forest, seen here in Jamaica, is increasingly at risk from agricultural, industrial and tourist development. On some islands, the rain forest has virtually disappeared. Coopers Town West End Point West End UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1 K Little Abaco A 16 Cockburn Town San Salvador d Cape Conception Island Santa Maria Rum Cay George Town O un C Tropic of Cancer E Little Exuma Long Island l A Deadman’s Cay Samana Cay Clarence Town a g e Jovellanos ss Sagua la Grande b Pa Cristóbal Güira de Melena s Ó Colón Cayo a n O lo n d Crooked Island Cape Verde a A r ld B Frag d e ConsoLos Palacios sla Jagüey Grande Santo Domingo oso a ch Northeast Point lación del Sur Ragged Golfo de ra dI B e i p ham Plana Cays s a g k eColonel Hill Caibarién ahía d Península i e rGuane Pinar del Rí ié Island Guanahacab Cayo oo o e Bu e l a a Ch ibes S de Zapata Aguada de Santa Clara as Range na Vist Coco C r Long Cay Cabo go an P Placetas Snug Corner a Pasajeros Mayaguana Cruces a de San d e nel Cienfuegos an Acklins Island Antonio ag C Cayos de g u The Carlton Southeast a s s am Pico San Juan Cabaiguán Nueva Gerona Morón Cayo Romano Cabo Corrien a Point P North S a n Fe l i p e tes Salina Point 1156m ag ay Jatibonico Sancti Spíritus os Caicos Grand M ic ü Esmeralda Santa Fé e Ca Kew Caicos n Trinidad Cayo Guajaba a Ciego de z Ch Cayo Largo Isla de la Juve Za Providenciales Archipiélago de Ávila an ntud East Caicos los Canarreos nel West Caicos Caicos Islands Florida Nuevitas Little Inagua Cockburn Harbour Golfo de Camagüey South Caicos A n a M a r i a Vertientes Northeast Puerto Padre TURKS & Point Sa CAICOS ISLANDS n Pedro Gibara A Lake Rosa (to UK) Las Tunas Cabo Lucrecia Ja rchi Great Inagua Holguín Banes rd pi Matthew Town i é N e nos r g a San de s í a no B a h c hi Co c Yu a at y CUBA r e ne a Scale 1:5,500,000 Km 100 40 120 140 80 t 160 60 80 100 120 140 160 e Miles projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Little Cay man 8 GEORGE TOWN Owen Roberts Cay man Brac r Grand Cayman (to UK) Population density 88,396 sq miles (229,005 sq km) A 44 Discovery Bay Lucea St Ann’s Bay Clark’s Town Birchs Hill The Cockpit Dolphin Head Port Maria Browns Town Ocho Rios 551m 545m Country Don Christophers Point Claremont Grange Hill Alexandria Negril Cambridge Annotto Bay Savanna-La-Mar Highgate Buff Bay Little Mount Denham North East London 986m Point Port Antonio Ewarton Linstead Christiana Crab Pond Point Maggotty Frankfield Blue Mountain Bog Walk i Mandeville Chapelton JAMAICA B C Port-au-Prince r e a t Santo Domingo e r Kingston A n t i l l e s cattle bananas coffee fishing shellfish sugar cane tobacco D Lee San Juan R ack Santa Cruz Malvern 725m Alligator Pond b e Great Pedro a n Bluff S ea Peak 2256m Spanish Town KINGSTON May Pen Golden Portmore Norman Manley Bath Grove Old Harbour Port Royal Yallahs Hill 730m Port Morant Morant Bay Lionel Town Portland Wreck Point Long Bight Bay SCALE 1:2,500,000 Portland Point 0 5 10 5 Puerto Rico major towns rd Isl Map key se Les F Population 1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million 100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 10,000 to 50,000 Elevation an 2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft Barbados 500m / 1640ft 250m / 820ft Tobago 100m / 328ft Trinidad SOUTH AMERICA E 20 Miles 3000m / 9843ft CARIBBEAN SEA pasture cropland forest 20 Km 10 below 10,000 wa Ant il les 100 Black River N r 90 Total land area 435 people per sq mile (168 people per sq km) 17 80 S e a Falmouth nel Hispaniola E S Chan 70 N ica AT L A N T I C O CEA e ma 60 Sangster A l Ja 50 E C a r i b b e a n Montego Bay R A l’ 40 B l er 30 B Milk Riv 20 I i nnel 10 Cha 0 ca Camagüey Land use and agricultural distribution rural 35% ai R Toussaint Louvertu ds urban 65% m A ri Ca 16 Ja Manley Portland Bight PORT-AU-PRINCE t ᭤ Market traders in St. George’s, the capital of Grenada, sell a wide variety of fresh fruit and vegetables. The island is known particularly for its spices and is the world’s second-largest producer of nutmeg after Indonesia. G The urban/rural population divide Jérémie Cap Dame Marie Canal de la Gonâve Jimaní Dame-Marie Corail Miragoâne Léogâne NAVASSA Pétionville M a s s i f d e l a Ho t t e ISLAND Petit(to US) Pic de la Selle Aquin Goâve Chardonnières Cayes Jacmel 2680m Port Salut Île à Vache Pedernales Pointe à Gravois 0 Santiago de Cuba Jamaica Petite-Rivièree de-l’Artibonite Hinch St-Marc C an iv iè r a St - M l d e r ti e dador Île de la Gonâve arc bo de Comen n Mirebalais Arcahaie ite KINGSTON b Cayman Islands n Port Maria Christiana Port Antonio Spanish Mandeville Blue Mountain Peak Town 2256m Black River May Pen Port Royal Norman Morant Bay South Negril Point Savanna-La-Mar s 15 H i s p Golfe de la Gonâve JAMAICA Sangster Montego Bay ma ha Ba 14 ge Gonaïve A Using the land & sea Agriculture has long been the basis of most Caribbean economies. Much agricultural H land is set aside for cash crops such as ANORTCA MERI sugar, spices, citrus fruits, bananas, and cocoa, which are grown for export. Diversification is being Havana encouraged to reduce the islands’ reliance on imported Cuba grain and vulnerability to price fluctuations. sa HAITI C 13 s Pa Île de la Tortue d Monte Cristi a r Port-de-Paix Jean-Rabel Cap-Haïtien d w Môle-StFort-Liberté Limbé in Nicolas Gros-Morne Trou-du-Nord W -du-Nord Grande-Rivière Dajabón s Bahía de Guantánamo (to US) The islands known as the West Indies form a great arc which trails eastward from the Gulf of Mexico almost to Venezuela, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. During the period of European colonization, which began in the 16th century, Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands struggled for control of the area. Some countries remained politically tied to their colonial rulers until late in the 20th century, and most islands’ economies still bear the legacy of the plantation system. A diverse mix of peoples, with roots drawn from Africa, East Asia, and Europe replaced the original Amerindian population, creating a unique and remarkably homogeneous culture, reflected in the various Creole languages and musical forms such as reggae and calypso. 12 Quemado Guantánamo Bodden Town B A H A M A S , G R E AT E R A N T I L L E S , L E S S E R A N T I L L E S 11 La Maya Maestra Sierra Santiago Pico Turquino Pilón 1944m de Cuba Cabo Cruz CAYMAN ISLANDS The Caribbean 9 Campechuela G H M 20 60 LO 40 sea level I J K CO 0 10 ve r 0 10 20 l s d a g o Santa Cruz del Sur Moa Mayarí Cueto e l de Punta Guarico a Golfo de ra Re los Cauto Sierr istal Sagua de Tánamo Jiguaní in Bayamo lC Baracoa a Manzanillo de Palma Soriano Guacanayabo Maisí Punta de Bl 7 Wi ndw ard Islands G L IA B
  • 78. NORTH AMERICA: THE CARIBBEAN P Q R S NORTH AMERICA T W X ma ha Ba Major industry and infrastructure Caribbean industry remains, with few exceptions, agricultural, and export-led, or service-based, supporting the flourishing tourist industry. However, several countries including Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Puerto Rico have developed important mineral industries, and Cuba is attempting to diversify its economy by importing capital goods to start up new manufacturing businesses. Cuba Camagüey AT L A N T I C O CEAN Santiago de Cuba G 211 miles (340 km) 2 wa rd Is Puerto Rico la n ds 661 miles (1064 km) Lee San Juan r e a tPort-au-Prince Santo Domingo e r Kingston A n t i l l e s Transportation network 3376 miles (5434 km) major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas Hispaniola Cayman Islands 53,439 miles (86,012 km) sugar refining tourism fish processing finance mining oil refining Havana Jamaica ᭤ Cruise ships, such as this one moored at Castries in St. Lucia, have become a popular way for tourists to travel round the Caribbean islands, stopping off at several islands for sightseeing and shopping. CARIBBEAN SEA r Air links are well developed between most of the Caribbean islands. The importance of the tourist trade has recently encouraged many countries to upgrade their paved roads. se Les Cataño at a l a Pl R í o de Pa Vie saje qu e ir ho uc Mo 0 5 10 S e a 5 0 ri Ma de al an C St-Claude CapesterreBelle-Eau BASSESCALE 1:2,500,000 es 0 5 10 20 Km TERRE l des Saint C an a 20 Km 10 a r in Te r re Soufrière 1467m VieuxHabitants SCALE 1:2,500,000 C a r i b b e a n 5 OCEAN Sea ss e de Loíza Turks Islands ag e e o u pPort-Louis C R í o G r a nd COCKBURN TOWN del Pointe de la Grande Vigie Anse-Bertrand NTI Río Grande Cabezas de San Juan Culebra Carolina Fajardo e Guaynabo Sierra de El Yunque Sonda de ío Grande de A R ña Vieques Isla de Luquillo 1065m Bahía de Mayagüez sco Utuado Orocovis Punta Puerca Culebra Caguas Adjuntas Mayagüez Humacao de Centra Vieques C o r d i l l e r a Cerro de Punta l s Monte Pirata 1338m Embalse Cayey ay Yabucoa San Germán 301m ierr ye Yauco Juana Díaz Toa Vaca S Isla de Vieques de Ca Punta Guayama Salinas Guayanés Ponce Punta Cabo Rojo Punta Brea Petrona Grand Turk Island Gu a 4 ra Sa nd C Mornec M ul à-l’Eau le Moule ar i Ste-Rose n Grande Te r re Baie-Mahault le Raizet Lamentin St-François les Abymes Pointe-à-Pitre Pointe des Pointe Pe Ste-Anne Colibris t it B a sse Noire Cu l de-S ac lante Petit-Bourg M e -Ga Luis Muñoz Marín Bayamón (to France) a s s a P G de d ranatí R í o G an de M Aguadilla Punta San Sebastián Lago Higüero Dos Bocas (to US) SAN JUAN Manatí Vega Baja Tobago LA Arecibo Tortuguero Barbados AT Isabela GUADELOUPE g e PUERTO RICO AT L A N T I C O C E A N Laguna Car ibb ean ᭤ This rock stack on the coast of St. Martin in the Leeward Islands has been created by wave action which undercut the cliffs, forming an arch. Continued wave action weakened the arch, which eventually collapsed leaving a single tower of rock. 3 Trinidad SOUTH AMERICA Pa 1 s Transportation & industry Y Wi ndw ard Islands O Ant il les N 20 Miles 0 5 6 20 Miles 10 7 ᭤ The Pitons in St Lucia are two volcanic domes; the tallest is 2620 ft (798 m) high. Their steep slopes are covered in thick forest. a n i o l a e e VIRGIN BRITISH NDS ISLA w a r 8 d Sombrero a) (to Anguill Vi orís Santiago San Francisco de Macaná Anegada Sam (to UK) La Vega B a h í a d e S am an á Río Yuna Pico Duarte Cor ROAD Virg in Gorda Miches Cotuí RTO)RICO dil PUE (to US ANGUILLA HE VALLEY TOWNef Island l e r 3175m Bonao (to UK) T Be Luis Muñoz a C El Seibo i n St Thomas Monte Plata ton J. Lloyd ) Tortola AN Marín JU Ang uilla Clay ar tin (to France Pa San Juan e n Villa bo SAN hn o Mayor Higüey Cabo Engaño e Hat Areci St Jo Carolinajardo s s a g e tr Marigot St-M y Fa a l Altagracia Americas ure ar thélém ARLOTTE RG yamón Aguadilla Ba CH St-B Las Vieques IPSBU en ) San Pedro de Macorís (to France AMALIE NDS PHIL Sint Maartds) Caguas El Yunque Neiba San Cristóbal Utuado LA 1065m a de rlan l La Romana Azua Lago Isl (to Nethe VIRGIN IS ) Mayagüez Saba SANTO Cordillera Centra ) US ds (to Pa ss ag rg ues Guayama Vieq Ponce Sint Nicholaas 54 Noordpunt Curaçao Hato Airport WILLEMSTAD Malmok Santa Catherina h e Gulf of Par i a Arima Ca Piarco roni River Sangre Grande Caroni Arena Dam Chaguanas Couva OCEAN o ut n’s M go ra LA NTI Th Trinidad San Fernando La Brea Princes Town Point Fortin Bonasse p th e n t ’s Guatuaro Point Rio Claro Killdeer River Rushville Siparia Moruga Galeota Point ie Ste-Mar tin le Lamen ire’ sa e St-Pierr é CE Aim E-FRAN -Pilote FORT-D Rivière Cé St Lucia Chann S CASTRIE imie Mount G Vieux Fo S ai n t V incent Passage ère La Soufri m 1234 belair Chateau OWN KINGST own Georget nt St Vince le Arnos Vazabeth Port Eli Bequia ue Mustiq E DA GRENA ria Victo RGE’S ST GEO Salines Grenville Point DOS BARBA town Speights hsheba Bat Grantley Adams eville Charlott Bonaire KRALENDIJK Tobago Z U E U L V A ugh Scarboro oint Galera P 16 Arima gre Grande San Piarco d Trinida ia ro Rio Cla f Par G u l f o n Fernando Point Sa Galeota Siparia Fortin Point Bonasse 54 E 12 ETOWN BRIDG (to Netherlands) AD TRINID O AG & TOB N 11 Canouan land Union Is borough Car riacou Hills F-SPAIN PORT-O V el 950m orra IA ST LUCSoufrière rt Hewan ENT ST VINC E & TH INES D GRENA SCALE 1:2,500,000 BONAIRE (to Netherlands) PORT-OF-SPAIN Tunapuna r Se u T h e Mo ORANJES CURAÇA VENEZUELA Matelot Redhead AT L A N T I C SCALE 1:2,000,000 Lesser Antill es ARUBA O (to Netherlands) TAD Reina Beatrix AT L A N T I C O C E A N Car ibbea n S ea ST.GEORGE’S St.David’s Grand Anse Galera Point Blanchisseuse D Se n ea ibb Mount St.Catherine 840m Grenville Point Salines SCALE 1:2,000,000 SCALE 1:2,000,000 Sauteurs Victoria AT Stubbs Arnos Vale a GRENADA Car North Union AT L Grantley Adams OCEAN St Vincent KINGSTOWN Oistins 10 Miles Caribbean Sea Gouyave ANTIC Georgetown Chateaubelair Layou The Crane 5 0 C OCEAN a Se ean BARBADOS BRIDGETOWN La Soufrière 1234m Barrouallie S a Hewanorra Vieux Fort int Ministre Point Vi n c e n t Pa s s a g e 10 Km 5 TIN MARo France) (t e Pelée Montagn 1397m SCALE 1:2,000,000 ince nt Pa ssage nt V Porter Point Sai Fancy Caribb N 0 Micoud Laborie OUPE UADEL le Raize G (to France) Pointee te Basse Terr à-Pitre ie-Galan ERRE Soufrière Mar -Bourg BASSE-T m rand G 1467 s les Sainte ag e a Pa s s D o m i n i c Marigot ICA outh Portsm lle Hall DOMIN Melvi e La Plain Canefield e ROSEAU i qu e Pa s s ag IQUE Ma r t i n l e s t i l A n EA Bathsheba Welchman Hall Mount Gimie 950m 10 rre Grande Te Désirade la t r OC Soufrière Petit Piton 743m Gros Piton 798m e SCALE 1:2,500,000 Dennery ST LUC IA upe Ste-Ros s Saint Lucia Channel George F L Charles CASTRIES 9 64 sborne John A. O age Pa s s lo T RRAT u a d ePort-Louis MON(toSE G UK) e s IC Speightstown Holetown le Lamentin le François AN C OCE ge Mar tinique Passa Mount Hillaby NTI Berekua Gros Islet Anse La Raye Aimé Césaire ran Baie de Fort-de-F Riviére-Pilote les Ansesd’Arlets le Diamant Ste-Anne SCALE 1:2,000,000 NT Schœlcher FORT-DEFRANCE a Scotts Head Village AT L A (to France) le Robert Se ROSEAU MARTINIQUE n La Plaine la Trinité St-Pierre Rosalie Canefield LA Castle Bruce Salisbury St.Joseph AT DOMINICA L Pointe Du Cap Montagne Pelée 1397m Ste-Marie le Prêcheur Marigot CEAN NTIC O ea Caribbean S Melville Hall Morne Diablotins 1447m Car ibbea Portsmouth que Passage Grand’ Rivière Basse-Pointe BRADES e AT L A A t ini Mar ce s ST & NEVIS s s ag e a Pa nic Pointe Jaco mi Vieille Case Do n to Codring s Enriquillo Oviedo Cabo Beata Isla Beata a Barbuda n an UA & (to Netherl ANTIGUDA s St Kittsrt L. Bradshaw St Eustatiu ) ARB be B Ro ands V. C. Bird (to Netherl RRE e W. Antig ua nc BASSETE VaAmory Nev is HN’S JO onda Falmouth T Red estown S KITTS Charl Christiansted St Croix eriksted Fred l I s l a n d s Yauco Isla Mona Cabo Rojo Mo DOMINGO na Isla Saona s d Baní Enriquillo Barahona Punta Punta Palenque Salinas I i n d w a r d L 64 W Mao Sabaneta DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Gr T h e e na din e s Cabo Francés Viejo Cabrera Bahía Escocesa Moca Nagua do Salce Anegada Passage Cabo Isabela Puerto Plata Gregorio Luperón W X Y 17 Z 45
  • 79. A B C D E F G H I J K L M 1 NOR e ntal e de San ala tépetl Popoca 5452m go tia Un io nR ec tep an hu idge Te R ee f s s unt mo ea S Cl ipp e an area of 6,886,000 sq miles (17,835,000 sq km). There are 12 separate countries, with the nd e C h ap Mexico Basin Rise ific Pac C st P A Ea Reaching from the humid tropics down into the cold south Atlantic, South America has 5 Lago d a Gr South America 4 Río rie adre O Sierra M tal den Occi adre Sierra M cas San Lue Cap 3 Rio Grand ifornia Gulf of Cal Lower California Cedros Trench 2 TH largest, Brazil, covering almost half the continent. n rto ton Clipper Island 6 Greatest extent, North–South: 4750 miles / 7640 km PLATE COCOS LATE P NAZCA Greatest extent, East–West: 3100 miles / 4990 km I 7 Punta Gallinas, Colombia 12° 28’ N F I Equator Punta Pariñas, Peru 81° 20’ W Cabo Branco / Ponta do Seixas, Brazil 34° 50’ W 9 Largest lake: Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru 3220 sq miles (8340 sq km) Highest recorded temperature: Rivadavia, Argentina 120°F (49°C) 10 C NAZCA PLATE PACIFICPLATE Most westerly point: Galapagos Islands, Ecuador 92° W 8 Most northerly point: Punta Gallinas, Colombia 12° 28’ N ricorn Tropic of Cap Antofagasta São Paulo Most easterly point: Ilhas Martin Vaz, Brazil 28° 51’ W Highest point: Cerro Aconcagua, Argentina 22,833 ft (6959 m) 11 Lowest recorded temperature: Sarmiento, Argentina -27°F (-33°C) Lowest point: Laguna del Carbón, Argentina -344 ft (-105 m) 12 Cape Froward, Chile 53° 54’ S 13 Antofagasta, Chile Atacama Desert Andes Most southerly point: Cape Horn, Chile 55° 59’ S Paraguay river São Paulo, Brazil Planalto de Mato Grosso 14 Cross-section from Antofagasta, Chile to São Paulo, Brazil 0 250 500 750 1000 Km 0 15 250 500 750 1000 Miles line of cross-section 16 17 A 46 B C D E F G H I J K L M
  • 80. sso Sarga Sea P la in ai s A ap o Oy r im co Gran C ha ia otam C ranc Ch isco a oF Sã n pi da Es an nt iq ue ira li zi Ser ra ra Tr i n d a d e S p u r Ilha de astião São Seb Santos Plateau 10 Ilha de ncisco São Fra nde Rio Gra Rise 11 Río la Gr an de Mir im Lagoon de la Plata 12 ne enti Arg in Bas ne Argenti Plain 13 ent carpm Ewing Falkland Es Maurice k ndwich Tre Ban South Sa d ia South Georgia Ridge South Falklan eorg South G E dwich Plateau Gulf of e San Jorg ell an AT Bahía N PL s d Island MERICA E Grande g Falklan A AT H PL a OUT SCOTIA fM e S it o Ridg a Stra otia Scoti Sc Tierra o Sea ueg del F orn Cape H hetland rkney South S nds South O ds Isla Islan gh ou r So uth Sh etl an dT lago Archipié nos ho de los C 9 ricorn of Cap Tropic a M da ra Ser nch or cov ado H i pada Diaman tina gh la nd Pa s Se r de r Manso ra do Roncador Se r ai a gu Serra Tapajós ru Me í ba Par n a Ir ir i Ta pajós Curuá Canumã ira de Lim ay Branc o Jaua per i Pu i Itu x B e ni Acr e Ma dre ck Maron i Courantyne s o n a l L aR idg e os Abrolh Bank D o ce 8 N l ra Ge C lfo Go ço z i l B r a i n B a s il ch Cu as an Matí Golfo S hico Todos A a Serr R ro Neg Bahía Blanca D e s e a do 7 Lagoa s to dos Pa e Embalsro Neg de Ríoo í s p a a n i g o P a t a Lago s Bueno Aires de Represaca Itapari E Paraguay m P a Colorado Río Neg ro ha 6 buco Pernam Plain C é l do aba rra iac r Se nap a ra M Pa Iguaçu ranco Cabo B O íb a Rio Grande na ic ay o da Planalt a m Borbore raguaçu Baía de Santos os Apor ta Na z c C an if uén do Fernannha Atol de Noro ocas das R e Cabo d que São Ro gu nez uela Gu lf o f Ve gu ra Se de rran Pe ía r ij á Sa I Cordi l l e ra O cc i d e ntal Co Magda r d i l l e r a C e nt ral C o lena rdi l l e ra O r i e nt al F de Represainho Sobrad Ara an a Par Par an á n de an ns Xin l ne rth T u I s ssa e Ri s an Mosquito Coast N an nF g Xin gu Par an á a Lagun a hiquit Mar C Plai Ser ra Gr u pi c l era a G oiás G uari Taq o c AN PA TAR CI CT FI C IC P PL L AT AT E E No ur 4 one one re Z re