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Schools reaching out_to_a_global_world

  1. 1. F I N N I S H N AT I O N A L B O A R D O F E D U C AT I O NLiisa Jääskeläinen and Tarja Repo (eds.)SCHOOLS REACHING OUTTO A GLOBAL WORLDWhat competences do global citizens need? Schools reaching out 2011:34 Publications to a global world 137
  2. 2. Publications 2011:34 As a Global Citizen in Finland projectLiisa Jääskeläinen and Tarja Repo (eds.)Schools Reaching outto a Global WorldWhat competences do global citizens need? ULKOASIAINMINISTERIÖ UTRIKESMINISTERIET
  3. 3. Editorial board Irmeli Halinen Mikko Hartikainen Erja-Outi Heino Lea Houtsonen Liisa Jääskeläinen Tarja RepoTranslation Intertext Layout Katja SärkkäPrinting Kopijyvä, Kuopio 2011Publications 2011:34ISBN 978-952-13-4934-8 (pb.)ISBN 978-952-13-4935-5 (pdf)© Finnish National Board of Education and authorsCover photo Marianne Pärnänen / Ekenäs Upper Secondary School
  4. 4. TO THE READER Affairs, and the head teachers and teachers of the 15 schools involved in the project. The majority of project work wasG lobalisation changes the world carried out at the schools. Experiences and brings a changing world were shared and the schools’ work was with its joys and problems closer steered and co-ordinated at seminarsto us. Distances have become shorter in organised by the Finnish Nationalmany ways; places that were once so far Board of Education. An internationalaway are now more familiar to more and symposium entitled Becoming a Globalmore people. Technological development Citizen was held at Hanasaari Swedish-has enabled rapid communication of Finnish Cultural Centre in Espoo. Asinformation – we find out about things well as the Finnish National Board ofthat happen in different parts of the world Education, the symposium organisersin real time. In a global world, economic included the Global Education Networkties are getting closer and closer, bringing Europe (GENE), the Ministry of Foreignabout both new opportunities and Affairs, the Ministry of Education andthreats. The daily life of each and every Culture and Hanasaari Swedish-Finnishone of us is bound to global changes and Cultural Centre.turbulences in different ways. I would like to thank all the schools The As a Global Citizen in Finland involved in the project and their staff forproject has been implemented as a co- their excellent work. I also thank all theoperation project with a busy schedule. partners and, in particular, the MinistryThrough excellent co-operation between of Foreign Affairs for making this projectdifferent parties, the project has defined possible. The work has required plentythe competences of global citizenship, of competence and it has shared visionswhile also preparing for the forthcoming and enthusiasm. These are all needed toreform of the National Core Curricula for promote global citizenship.general education. The project has also I hope that the project materialcompiled good practices developed by included in this publication is useful forparticipating schools as part of their own all teachers at comprehensive schools andwork. Deliberation on the theoretical upper secondary schools and for everyonebackground relating to global education involved in development of education atin co-operation with university researchers local and national levels. Based on theand sharing experiences between different Finnish process and experiences, I warmlycountries have formed an important part welcome other countries to carry outof the work. similar projects. The Finnish National Board ofEducation (FNBE) co-ordinated the As a Jorma Kauppinen DirectorGlobal Citizen in Finland project, which Finnish Nationalwas funded by the Ministry of Foreign Board of EducationAffairs. In addition to FNBE officials,active participants have included Ms. Chair Council of Europe’sErja-Outi Heino, Communications Steering CommitteeOfficer from the Ministry of Foreign for Education Schools reaching out to a global world 3
  5. 5. Schools Reaching out to a Global WorldPAGE What competences do global citizens need?3 To the reader Jorma Kauppinen6 How the As a Global Citizen in Finland project was implemented Liisa Jääskeläinen I Schools took on the task Tarja Repo14 Sustainable development 48 Teachers joined forces across subject belongs to all boundaries Pupils at Vihti-based Jokikunta Primary Seinäjoki Upper Secondary School collected School compared schooling and gardening the scattered themes of global education into with their peers in Ecuador, sent KeKe a single six-week study unit, also producing dolls around the world and made Polish a guide about it for other schools. eTwinning friends. 56 Sharing a common nest20 In search of a good life The combined Lapinlahti Upper Secondary ‘What makes a good life and global citizenship?’ School and Upper Secondary School in asked pupils at Riihenmäki Lower Secondary Visual Arts, located in North Savo, placed School in Mäntsälä as part of its pupil-driven its own and other schools’ global education and cross-curricular project. under a critical microscope.28 School development co-operation 62 Upper secondary school opens doors launched a popular movement to the whole world Vesilahti Lower Secondary School in Student exchanges and other forms of direct the Tampere Region is a diversely and contact with other countries offer know­ genuinely international school away from ledge and experiences to students at the the world’s hubs. Swedish-language Ekenäs Upper Secondary School in Raasepori.36 Equal partnership with Tanzania Kasavuori Lower Secondary School in 68 Seven more gateways to the world Kauniainen sends the majority of pupils’ Schools providing basic education and proceeds from the school’s Operation Day’s general upper secondary education from Work drive to its African twin school, but Pori to Raahe set out on an expedition to wants to develop the partnership into a explore our common globe, each taking a more reciprocal cultural exchange. different approach.42 A bilingual school is a source of richness The Finnish-Russian School in Helsinki set out to free up dormant resources accumulated by pupils as part of living between two cultures. 4
  6. 6. II What could global citizens’ competences be?76 Competence approach and its 96 Global citizen’s economic pedagogical implications competence Irmeli Halinen Pauli Arola The comprehensive competence of the It is important to reflect on global future should be reflected in curricula and changes in the economy and on what teaching. The competence-based working economic skills young citizens need to approach is intellectually challenging and face the world. socially supportive. 100 Global citizen’s civic competence82 Global citizen’s ethics Kristina Kaihari and Arja Virta Pekka Elo and Hoda Shabrokh Young people play a key role in creating Justice, courage and moderation support new means of active citizenship and a good life. global participation and a new pol­ itical culture.85 Intercultural competence Mikko Hartikainen and Paula Mattila 105 Global responsibility and Intercultural competence means the skill development partnership and will to communicate constructively Erja-Outi Heino and Lea Houtsonen with people from different cultural Global responsibility is built through backgrounds. partnership – both in local everyday life and globally.90 Sustainable lifestyle Lea Houtsonen and Liisa Jääskeläinen A viable and diverse biosphere is the foundation for humans’ subsistence and well-being. Let’s take care of it! III Moving forward on the learning pathway112 Global citizenship – a contemporary 119 Global education – theoretical challenge for schools background and new Gun Jakobsson perspectives The Swedish-language Vaasa Teacher Liisa Jääskeläinen Training School took up the task of ‘…for learning pathways, the limits reflecting on how to raise education for and end points of which no-one has global citizenship as the entire school’s staked out in advance.’ strategic choice. 128 Language programme in Finland Schools reaching out to a global world 5
  7. 7. How the As a Global Citizen in Finland project was implemented Baseline situation Global education in the spirit of The Finnish National Board of Maastricht Education (FNBE) has implemented a Adapting the Maastricht Global global education development project Education Declaration (2002), global entitled As a Global Citizen in Finland education ‘is education that opens in co-operation with the Development people’s eyes and minds to the realities Communications Group of the Ministry of the world, and awakens them to of Foreign Affairs, the school network and bring about a world of greater justice several experts. The purpose of the project and sustainability’. The project decided was to put together a vision for the key to focus on development education – in premises, challenges and opportunities in the sense used by the Ministry of Foreign terms of education for global citizenship in Affairs – which is based on the UN a glob­ lised world. The project has sought a Millennium Development Goals. and developed ways of participating The project was launched in the in building a world of greater justice autumn of 2010 and ended in late 2011. and sustainability that are suitable for It played a diverse role in the preparations children’s and young people’s experiences. of curricular reform within the Finnish Particular attention has focused on the National Board of Education and at competences required of a global citizen regional and national education events. and how these competence needs could What kinds of things did this year actually possibly be described in the forthcoming involve? curricular reform of general education. The project is a continuation of co- Organisation of the project operation in education for international In November 2010, the Finnish National understanding between the Finnish Board of Education received a €195,000 National Board of Education and the grant from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs that was for the purpose of implementing the As initiated back in 1995. The term ‘global a Global Citizen in Finland project. The education’ has been used since the early Board invited Mr. Jorma Kauppinen, 21st century. The project has also been an FNBE Director, to chair the project used for implementation of the Global co-ordination team with the following Education 2010 programme run by the members: Ms. Erja-Outi Heino, Ministry of Education. A key influence Communications Officer from the on creation of the programme was a 2004 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ms. Liisa peer review by the Global Education Jääskeläinen (Vice Chair), Mr. Pekka Network Europe (GENE) and subsequent Elo, Mr. Mikko Hartikainen, Ms. Lea measures. Houtsonen, Ms. Kristina Kaihari, Ms. Katarina Rejman and Ms. Paula Mattila, all Counsellors of Education from the FNBE. The secretary of the team was6
  8. 8. initially Assistant Paula Paronen, followed upper secondary level. The network wasby Assistant Helen Ala-Seppälä, Project also diverse in regional and linguisticAssistant Hoda Shabrokh and finally terms. In addition to Finnish- andSecretary to the management Merja Swedish-language schools, we also invitedVäänänen. The financial administration the Helsinki-based Finnish-Russianfor the team was entrusted to Secretary School and the French School of HelsinkiInkeri Gröhn, who was also responsible as well as teacher training schools fromfor setting up and updating the project different universities. Of the teacherwebsite. training schools, the Swedish-language In addition to the actual co-ordination Vaasa Teacher Training School took upteam, the project had two separate the invitation.teams responsible for its international Each school produced a project plansymposium and for preparing this including a budget proposal. The FNBEpublication. The publication team also assessment team assessed the content-involved Ms. Katja Särkkä, visual arts related relevance and project competenceteacher respon­ sible for graphic design of each project. Important dimensionsfor the entire project, and Ms. Tarja of competence included networking,Repo, reporter, whose key task became effectiveness, learning environments,focused on compiling Chapter I of this outputs and embedding achievements.publication. The team placed particular importance on raising global education to the level of theBuilding the school network school’s entire operational culture.Right from the start, the project wanted The Finnish National Board ofto hear the voices of schools and highlight Education signed an agreement to covergood teaching practices. Due to the each school project with each school’sbusy schedule, the Finnish National education provider. School-specificBoard of Education sent a letter on project funding varied between €900 and15th December 2010 to invite schools €5,000. Project funds were used to coverwith prior competence in at least some extra costs arising from the project. Thearea of global education to participate schools were also able to send teachers toin the project. The invited schools have project seminars, because project fundsparticipated in networks or projects with were used to cover travel costs and anysimilar objectives, such as the Global possible loss of income.citizen and the media project funded by After the initial preparation phase, thethe Ministry of Education as part of its project network settled on 15 schools, twoGlobal Education 2010 programme, the of which provide education in Swedish.ENSI school network (Environment andSchool Initiatives) and UNESCO schools. SeminarsIn addition, the Board also invited some The project’s start-up seminar wasschools that were otherwise very active in organised on FNBE premises on 4ththeir internationalisation. February 2011. Participants reflected When the school network was being on the project’s objectives and startingbuilt, care was taken to involve learners points and analysed the concept of ‘globalof different ages from primary to general citizen’, while also weighing up project Schools reaching out to a global world 7
  9. 9. ideas in groups led by co-ordination project or that at least the learners had not team members, with particular focus on been involved in planning the project. We the significance of skills. Ms. Hannele also heard that young people were more Cantell, Director of Subject Teacher worried about racism among adults than Education at the University of Helsinki, among their own peers. gave a lecture on phenomenon-based At the workshop seminar, Counsellor of pedagogy. Mr. Olli Hakala, philosophy Education Liisa Jääskeläinen described and ethics teacher from Töölö Secondary the current project situation and outlined School, talked about global citizens’ how global citizenship can be under­ tood, s ethics. Counsellor of Education Liisa using additional material. In add­ ition, Jääskeläinen described a process carried she presented the views of Ms. Vanessa out in the Netherlands to reflect on de Oliveira Andreotti, Professor of Global the same topics, which had produced a Education at the University of Oulu, publication entitled Windows on the World on how different frames of reference – Canon for Global Citizenship Committee1. influence our sensitivity to perceive In addition, a tentative outline for global global changes while also having a de­ citizens’ competences was presented at cisive effect on what means of education the start-up seminar, while participants and training we consider to be wise ways also agreed on joint further measures. Key to respond to globalisation. Counsellor measures implemented after the seminar of Education Irmeli Halinen, Head of included drawing up school-specific the FNBE Curriculum Development project plans, assessment of the plans and Unit, talked about reform needs in basic provision of feedback for the schools by education and the competence approach the Finnish National Board of Education, as a key starting point for reform of the any possible further development of the National Core Curriculum. Head teacher plans, and signing project agreements Antti Jokikokko from Lapinlahti Upper with each school’s education provider. Secondary School in Visual Arts spoke The workshop seminar of the As a about his own school’s project, which was Global Citizen in Finland project was specifically geared towards strengthening organised on FNBE premises on 13th intercultural competence. Groups led by May 2011. The workshop seminar was co-ordination team members addressed scheduled to coincide with the Forum further development of school projects, for Children and Young People and with particular focus on how projects invitations to the forum were sent to would support clarification of global the project schools this time. Seminar citizens’ competences and what types of participants listened to children’s and peda­ogy and school culture could be g young people’s ideas about what global used in this identity development work. education could be about, in what ways The project’s final seminar was held they could participate in the project and at Helsinki Congress Paasitorni on 13th by what means they could influence even October 2011. At the beginning of the global issues. It became clear that some seminar, Counsellor of Education Liisa schools had not yet properly launched the Jääskeläinen gave a brief description of the overall project situation and 1 Counsellor of Education Irmeli Halinen recalled the dimensions of competence8
  10. 10. and their effects on curricula. Seminar teach learners to question things, buildparticipants enjoyed seeing and hearing knowledge through interaction, openthe project schools’ presentations on how up a wide variety of views, deal withthey had carried out their projects and uncertainty and act ethically.what kinds of results they had achieved. During our brief project, some seriousDuring the presentations, participants news items affected us from all around thereflected on global citizens’ competences, world. These are some examples:in other words, what types of knowledge, • the tsunami and nuclear disaster inskills, or attitudes, values and will each Japan in March 2011competence comprises. The ideas were • the fight for democracy in the Arabcompiled into a memo, which was sent countries, the Arab Spring 2011to the writers of the articles dealing • economic crises in Europe and aroundwith specific competences. Seminar the world – a banking crisis, a europarticipants also received information crisis or a moral crisis?about the views presented in the Becoming • job reductions at Nokia – economica Global Citizen symposium, which are globalisation pains glocallyalso discussed in Chapter III. • the death of Osama bin Laden in Chapter I provides a rich overview of Pakistan – the question of the end ofthe work carried out by the project schools the War on Terrorand, at the same time, of the final seminar • the Utøya massacre and Norwegians’contributions. More material produced as reactions to the tragedypart of the project has been collected on • the world population exceeded 7the FNBE website 2, which also includes billion.some articles by doctoral student Anna-Leena Riitaoja, MA (Edu), shedding light Each item in that list could be a topic ofon the theoretical background of global a diverse study module, which could beeducation. used to guide pupils and students to reflect on issues such as dealing with uncertaintyRole of education in a world of or the basis on which one could builduncertainty? one’s own ethical solutions. Our seminarThe post-colonial interpretation of glob­ participants were unanimous in thealisation presented by Ms. Vanessa de conclusion that there should be moreOliveira Andreotti, Professor of Global time to discuss current affairs.Education at the University of Oulu, The As a Global Citizen in Finlandis of particular interest to the project, project set out to determine what kinds ofwhich is why I would like to conclude competences a global citizen would need.with it. This interpretation is based on This is the question that we will try tocriticism of mod­ rnity that has long been e answer in the next chapters.set as an ideal for social developmentand, in particular, development co- Liisa Jääskeläinenoperation. It is now essentially admitted Counsellor of Educationthat development is uncertain. This Finnish National Board of Educationbeing the case, the role of education is to2 maailmankansalaisena_suomessa Schools reaching out to a global world 9
  11. 11. m Vaasa Teacher Training School Class 8B at work on the concept of ‘global citizen’. PHOTO Carina Storthorsi An Africa-themed day brought more colour to Kasavuori School’s autumn. The programme included a food quiz, for example. PHOTO Marjo Kekki
  12. 12. I Schools took on the task
  13. 13. As a Global Citizen in Finland International contacts of participating schools 1–2 contacts 3–5 contacts 1–2 kontaktia 6–15 contacts 3–5 kontaktia Norway 6–15 kontaktia Sweden Norja Russia Northern Ireland Ruotsi Venäjä Denmark Pohjois-Irlanti Estonia Tanska Latvia England Viro Netherlands Belgium Englanti Latvia Canada Alankomaat Germany France Poland Belgia Czech rep. Kanada Ranska Saksa Puola Slovakia Switzerland Austria Tšekki Portugal Slovakia United States Sveitsi Itävalta Romania Yhdysvallat Portugali Spain Italy Romania Espanja Italia Greece Turkey Kreikka Turkki Senegal Senegal Ecuador Tanzania Ecuador Tansania Zambia Sambia MAP Kauko Kyöstiö/Spatio Oy12
  14. 14. ÆÆ The global education development project entitled As a Global Citizen in Finland involved 15 comprehensive schools and upper secondary schools. ÆÆ In all, the schools participating in the project had just over a hundred established international contacts. ÆÆ The majority of the schools’ international contacts were twin and partner schools operating in other countries. ÆÆ International co-operation involved student exchanges and various projects on the eTwinning Portal, for example. ÆÆ The general objectives for co-operation included increasing linguistic and cultural awareness and acquiring social capital. ÆÆ Contacts with other countries were a natural and important part of the operational culture at the schools involved in the project. PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS Ekenäs Upper Secondar y School, Raasepori Finnish-Russian School, Helsinki Japan China French-Finnish School of Helsinki Japani Kiina Jokela Primar y School, Raahe India Jokikunta Primar y School, VihtiIntia Kasavuori Lower Secondar y School, Kauniainen Vietnam Kauhajoki Upper Secondar y School Vietnam Kuninkaanhaka Lower Secondar y School, Pori Lapinlahti Upper Secondar y School and Upper Secondar y School in Visual Arts Mäntymäki Primar y School, Kauniainen Pispala Primar y School, Tampere Riihenmäki Lower Secondar y School, Mäntsälä Seinäjoki Upper Secondar y School Vaasa Teacher Training School Vesilahti Lower Secondar y School New Zealand Uusi-Seelanti Schools reaching out to a global world 13
  15. 15. PHOTOS Niina Skutnabb Sustainable development BELONGS TO ALL Jokikunta Primar y School Global citizens in the garden – our common nature ÆÆ The project educates primary school pupils to take global responsibility. ÆÆ In the Secret Garden, schoolchildren cultivate plants and compare gardening with children in Ecuador. ÆÆ Recycled materials were used to make KeKe dolls that spread the word of a sustainable lifestyle around the world (‘KeKe’ is an abbreviation of ‘kestävä kehitys’, the Finnish term for sustainable development). ÆÆ In an online blog at, everyone can tell their own KeKe story. ÆÆ The Polish twin school receives letters written in English via the eTwinning site. ÆÆ Pupils gain first-hand experiences of international activities and receive information about other cultures. ÆÆ Language programme: English as the A1-syllabus language (first compulsory foreign language). ÆÆ A specific competence objective is a sustainable lifestyle. ÆÆ Website: I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Jokikunta Primary School
  16. 16. f Jokikunta pupils have compared schooling with their partner school in Ecuador.K eKe dolls convey the message of year. Festivals have been held with prizes sustainable development from awarded to pupils who managed to grow pupils at Vihti-based Jokikunta the largest pumpkins. The most sizeablePrimary School to all corners of the specimen weighed almost 70 Environmental issues form anintegral part of the village school’s You need to have rootsevery­ life. The school’s Secret day Jokikunta School chose global citizenshipGarden is already a topic of discussion as the main theme for the 2011/2012as far away as in Ecuador. school year. The impetus for this project came from the school’s own gardeningJokikunta Primary School, located in the patches.Uusimaa Region of Southern Finland, has ‘The idea was that you need to havefocused its profile on media education. A roots in order to grow wings. It’s good tosustainable lifestyle is also a frequent topic­ know your own village community andof discussion at this school with three culture in order to be a global citizen inteachers and just over 60 pupils in grades Finland too. Then you can see yourself1–6 of basic education. living in a big city without forgetting For a few years now, the school has where you come from,’ explains headbeen carrying out its own environmental teacher Ville-Matti project with a name that evokes The roots of Jokikunta pupilsmemories of childhood reading especially are partially based on environmentalamong more mature people – ‘The Secret awareness. This inspired the idea of takingGarden’. the notion of sustainable development The school garden is part of Vihti’s around the world.municipal programme for sustainable As part of the project, pupils weredevelopment known as the Vihti Model. assigned tasks suitable for each year class. Tending the vegetable garden, Those in grades 1–2 learnt the basics ofnatural history and environmental issues sustainable development and recycling asare part of children’s lives from the day part of their craft activities. The gardenthey start school. The Secret Garden is was mostly tended by third- and fourth-about working together to take care of graders, who learnt more about habitatthe school’s flower bed. There is also a and other factors influencing plantvegetable garden in the school grounds growth. In addition to pumpkins, pupilswhere teachers used to have allotments. also planted peas, flowers and more.The school receives help with gardening ‘We also planned to exchange plantfrom the Vihti 4H Association and the seeds between countries, but the customslocal Jokikunta club of the national authorities intervened. That’s why weMartha Organisation. have only communicated using images. The aim is to organise a harvest festival We received some photos of the vegetableevery autumn as a highlight of the school garden and pig breeding in Ecuador and Schools reaching out to a global world 15
  17. 17. we’ve sent them some pictures of our own development. vegetable patches,’ the head teacher says. During the autumn of 2011, they The project provided all pupils in finished about a dozen dolls, which grades 1–4 with the opportunity to were mailed to other schools in different familiarise themselves with another parts of the world. The idea is that each culture through their own activities. receiving school then forwards their doll Fifth- and sixth-graders also learnt more to the next school accompanied by their about the lifestyle of another culture and own covering letter. about how primary production plays a ‘We’ve searched for target schools more import­nt role in many countries a around the world as teamwork.’ than it does in Finland. In order for children around the world to get in contact with each other, Dolls sent out with letters a blog was created for the dolls. Everyone In the first two grades, pupils made KeKe can go there to tell their own KeKe story dolls from recycled materials and wrote an about sustainable development. accompanying letter explaining the idea Pupils in grades 5–6 were put in charge behind the doll and about sustainable of mailing the dolls. Pupils prepared for16 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Jokikunta Primary School
  18. 18. j The Ecuadorians have used the proceeds from h Gardening brings schoolchildren on two breeding animals to buy computers, which are continents together. The Finns received the only ones at any school in the whole region. information about what tending a vegetable garden is like at a South American school. their task by studying other countries and West Ecuador. Ms. Skutnabb told the cities as part of different subjects. Ecuadorians about Jokikunta School’s plans and they became very interested. Interest in Ecuador ‘I went there on a study visit last One of the dolls was sent to a partner spring. I took with me some photos of school in Ecuador, with which Jokikunta our school and its garden and a letter to pupils have shared their experiences of the teachers. They welcomed me with gardening in particular. open arms and I learnt about their school The partner school was discovered systems and gardens.’ by Niina Skutnabb, an after-school club The consortium schools have a nur­ instructor and learning assistant, who has sery where they grow fruit and useful an acquaintance who runs a consortium plants for their own use and to sell locally. of five schools, known as Educativa In addition, lower secondary school Rural San Francisco del Cabo, in North- pupils­breed poultry, pigs and cows, Schools reaching out to a global world 17
  19. 19. which are sold when they are old enough. The activities are well-organised and the animals are very well looked after. The proceeds from selling the animals have been used to buy computers, which are the only ones at any school in the whole region. ‘The children were excited about the photos, drawings and paintings of the Ecuadorians. The far-away school and its pupils become something real for the children when they receive their actual letters in their hands.’ Ms. Skutnabb believes that the project has provided Jokikunta pupils with new information and ideas about what schooling is like in South America. Their Ecuadorian peers, in turn, have learnt about a country called Finland, located h The Secret Garden is the jewel in the crown of far away in Europe, and its industry and Jokikunta School, providing an idyllic setting for vegetation. visual arts classes, for example. Information and experiences According to the head teacher, the school’s and radio plays and engaging in online youngest pupils in particular have been discussions. People make active use of excited about the project. It is quite an information technology in support of experience for them to be in contact with learning. other countries. It is hoped that their own ‘I feel that the easiest way for a school could welcome some international teacher to teach social media is to use it guests one day. For teachers, the diverse for a real-life purpose. The medium used project brought additional work, which in our project is the blog where anyone they felt was an extra burden to some can write their own stories,’ the head extent. On the whole, however, people at teacher points out. A further idea behind Jokikunta School have had an opportun­ the inter­national blog is to seek out new ity not only to increase awareness of their partners for Jokikunta School in other own local culture, but also to compare it countries. Such contacts may turn out to with other world cultures. be useful in the future. The project also covered media ‘If a specific country is dealt with as education, which is visible in teaching in part of a subject, we can use the blog to many other respects as well. For instance, send them questions about the topic.’ schoolwork involves producing videos18 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Jokikunta Primary School
  20. 20. Let’s Meet – Polish pen-pals for pupilsÆÆ Pupils at Jokikunta Primary School ‘A further aim is to create contactswere also immersed in international co- between pupils and their peers living inoperation in the eTwinning project as another country, thus extending theirpart of their English studies. Teacher knowledge of the world and differentKrista Taipalvesi warmly recommends cultures. We also hope to see increasingher colleagues to check out the tolerance towards diversity and differenteTwinning forum, if they have not cultures.’already done so. Ms. Taipalvesi has received positive feedback on the project from her pupils.The Let’s Meet project covers fifth- and ‘It provides them and me too withsixth-graders who have made pen-pals new materials to build and broaden ourwith their peers in Poland. The project world-views. The project has a strongwas initiated by class teacher Krista focus on the cultural aspect of globalTaipalvesi. Everything started in the education. I personally feel that co-summer of 2011 when she visited the operation with foreign teachers is veryeTwinning forum and found a partner in inspiring and instructive. These kinds ofAnia Milerska, a teacher at a school in projects are a lot of work for a teacher, butthe City of Katowice. they are also hugely rewarding.’ ‘Each pupil produces a letter,drawings or photos, for example, for hisor her own pen-pal once a month. We k for sch oo l Th e eTwi nn ing ne tw orcompile the letters into a kind of album pa rtn er sh ipsand send the end results to Poland. Theynaturally do the same.’ as a co- ÆÆ Established in 2005 The teachers have agreed on a specific operation network for Europeantheme for each month. In September, schools. n betweenpupils wrote brief introductions of ÆÆ Promotes co-operatio schools by means of informationthemselves. The intention is for pupils to hnology.describe topics such as traditions, their and communications tec ÆÆ Offers teachers a free channel toown families and school during the year. projects to seek partners for jointThe letters are sent by post or may be be implemented on line. rtners,posted on a specific password-protected ÆÆ Tools for finding pa ntingTwinSpace Forum. planning and impleme projects, brainstor ming andBroadening world views discussions. l atAs part of the project, pupils learn to ÆÆ The eTwinning Porta t functions asuse e-mail and the online forum and to rkspace. a meeting point and woprepare PowerPoint presentations. Schools reaching out to a global world 19
  21. 21. g Internationality can be seen as soon as you enter Riihenmäki School. The globes on the wall poster in the entrance hall are marked with hearts indicating the destinations of school trips. Photo Tarja Repo In search of a good life20 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Riihenmäki Lower Secondary School
  22. 22. Riihenmäki Lower Secondar y School Global citizens’ good life ÆÆ A good life and global citizenship were selected as the themes for the 2011/2012 theme year. ÆÆ The themes are discussed in project classes for different subjects. ÆÆ For instance, pupils explore various views of a good life in their religion studies and produce a wide variety of works about the themes in visual arts. ÆÆ The lower secondary school’s seventh-graders forged international contacts using the eTwinning Portal and Skype, while ninth-graders reflected on their future in co-operation with their peers from a Norwegian school. ÆÆ Pupils’ own active involvement in planning and carrying out the project plays a key role. ÆÆ A specific competence objective is social participation. ÆÆ A guide will be produced for teachers covering the phenomenon-based project work model. ÆÆ Language programme: A1 English, B1 Swedish, B2 Spanish, German, French and Russian. Additionally, the entrepreneurship class has 7-hour ‘language showers’ in five languages on a rotating basis. ÆÆ Website: he ideal of an active and respon­ introduce themselves to foreign partner sible citizen plays a key role in the schools. operational culture of Mäntsälä- A large canvas poster has beenbased Riihenmäki Lower Secondary attached to the big screen in the spaciousSchool. Therefore, it’s no wonder that central hall, showing globes that describethe pupils were also invited to take an the school’s other focus, part in planning a theme year, There are red hearts on the globeswith a good life and global citizenship indicating all those places that pupils haveselected as the themes. visited on school trips. Another poster announces that Riihenmäki School is a UNESCO School.The themes of the theme year are visible in ‘In the future, we will also mark onmany places within the school premises. the poster all those places with whichOne wall will be filled with seventh- we have forged eTwinning partnerships,’graders’ self-portraits drawn in front of explains Saija Hellström, teacher ofthe mirror. Pictures will also be posted religion, ethics and entrepreneurship,on the eTwinning Portal, where pupils who is also the school’s vice head teacher. Schools reaching out to a global world 21
  23. 23. Challenge for the entire school year classes throughout the year. Riihenmäki Lower Secondary School ‘This is a major challenge, the likes has just over 360 pupils in grades 7–9 of of which have never been implemented basic­education and about 30 teachers. at our school on such a large scale,’ Ms. In ­ addition to internationality, the Hellström describes. school’s operational priorities also include She explains that not all teachers were entrepreneurship education. recruited to the project, because it seemed The diverse development work that not everyone wanted to include carried out at the school has also attracted an international aspect in all projects. attention from elsewhere. In 2009, the However, the teachers have indicated Trade Union of Education (OAJ) and that they can reserve a few of their lesson its Opettaja (Teacher) magazine picked hours for the project. Riihenmäki School as the School of the Year. The citation for the award was Raising awareness of the the fact that the school creates a team phenomenon-based approach spirit between pupils and teachers and Global citizenship and a good life have promotes active involvement within the been discussed during lessons from many surrounding community. The school also perspectives. One of the objectives was to grants ‘creative madness’ scholarships. practise teamwork skills. Teachers also The entire school community has wanted to open up the phenomenon- joined forces to discuss the building based approach to pupils. They have blocks of a good life during the grasped how the contents of different 2011/2012 school year. In addition, the subjects are connected with each other. school’s As a Global Citizen in Finland Ms. Hellström wishes that there could project was included under this common be more room for the phenom­ enon- umbrella project and the following six based approach and implementation of teachers of different subjects started cross-curricular themes in education. to plan it: Taina Björnström, Riikka According to her, it is not currently Hankonen, Timo Parkkinen, Laura possible for teachers to address cross- Hari, Mari Mäkitalo-Aho and project curricular themes comprehensively, but co-ordinator Saija Hellström. they have to make choices within these The project covered the following themes instead. subjects taught by these teachers: biology ‘I’d start revising curricula based and geography, home economics, health on skills rather than subject contents. education, foreign languages, visual arts Describing skills would be more import­ and religion. Each of the six teachers ant than listing the things that pupils reserved some of their subject classes for must know.’ the project. At the project planning stage, all six The Global citizens’ good life project teachers went through their curricula is being carried out in different subject and considered which cross-curricular22 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Riihenmäki Lower Secondary School
  24. 24. themes could be related to the project’s as teachers didn’t want to make a big songtheme. They then picked these contents and dance of it, but we also wanted to getto be addressed during the project. In pupils themselves to think about how tothe autumn, the project lessons were implement the projects.’added to the school’s annual plan. Project The significance of activating pupilswork is distributed into different subject has only just become clearer as the workclasses. The teachers co-ordinate amongst has progressed. Ms. Hellström eventhemselves what topics to discuss during describes it as one of the greatest thingsproject lessons and in which order. that they have learnt. This insight also The experiment did not remain influences her teaching work in othera one-year effort, because the project respects.started­to develop a permanent model ‘As instructing teachers, we feelfor phenomenon-based work across that pupils’ involvement is also one ofsubject­bound­ries. The aim is for the a the most important aspects in terms oforganisation method learnt during the global citizenship. Young people need toproject to be used in the future as well. experience the feeling that they are theThere is demand for such a model, protagonists of their own lives and thatbecause the school selects a shared theme they can make a difference. Involvementevery year and the new operating model in making decisions that influence yourmakes it easier to extend the theme to own studies and life starts at school.’form part of several subjects. According to Ms. Hellström, pupils can be active agents in their own lives inPupils’ involvement as the guiding relation to themselves, their communitystar and the surrounding world. In order forThe teachers wanted pupils to be involved them to become active citizens in theright from the start and to influence the future, there must also be room for thiscontents and themes of the projects. For active involvement at school.example, pupils had a chance to think Activation of young people alsoabout the topics and tasks that they would influences assessment of learning.later focus on in more detail. ‘Pupils come up to me and ask if This approach differs from the way the work that they’ve done is which projects are traditionally carried My answer is that that’s not what I’mout. assessing. What’s more important is that ‘It often feels like teachers start each pupil­is able to decide for themselvespondering on concepts in depth and at a what they’ve learnt.’high level. They plan something ready forpupils­ such as a theme and a handout. , Teachers don’t dictateThe pupils perform the tasks but are not Biology and geography teacher Tainaable to say afterwards what these dealt Björnström has also encouraged herwith and were related to. That’s why we pupils to think for themselves. The tools Schools reaching out to a global world 23
  25. 25. that she has used for this purpose include mind maps. ‘We have different themes for different months, such as topical issues or multiculturalism in Mäntsälä. I have intro­ uced various subject areas to pupils­ d and asked them to choose the ones that most inspire them. Pupils have been inter­sted in things like traditions, such e as Christmas traditions,’ Ms. Björnström relates. She admits that this type of g A brainstorming session kicks off the visual working method also requires the teacher arts class. Young people use a mind map to tolerate uncertainty, because the to write down their ideas about what sorts of things global citizenship could cover. outcome is not decided in advance. Photo Tarja Repo Teachers reminisce about how they already brainstormed dozens of project topics and working methods the previous spring. ‘However, it would have been a very teacher-driven approach. The results of the work would have been determined in advance. We rejected this approach and, ÆÆ In Riihenmäki Lower Secondary in the autumn, we started vigorously with School’s visual arts classroom, teacher Mari a pupil-centred approach. Obviously, even Mäkitalo-Aho is starting a brainstorming this approach requires us to set certain session about global citizenship and a parameters,’ Ms. Björnström muses. good life with Class 7E. The outcome may The programme for the school year be a cartoon – or something completely also includes themed events, such as a different. theme week for ninth-graders. During the week, pupils reflect on their future in co- ‘Work together to think about what the topics­ operation with their peers at Risil School bring to your minds. Let’s then make mind in Norway. They have applied for a grant maps of these,’ Ms. Mäkitalo-Aho instructs from the Youth Academy organisation for the class. the theme week to cover the costs of visits The pupils divide into groups to think and a band workshop, for example. about the task. After initial confusion, ideas ‘Someone may, say, decorate their start to spring up, accompanied by a lively own imaginary home during the week. A buzz, and pupils come up to the board to few boys want to write and record a song,’ write down their ideas. Ms. Hellström explains. In their mind maps, young people associate global citizenship with aspects such as equality, public rights, freedom and people of different colours. A global citizen may also24 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Riihenmäki Lower Secondary School
  26. 26. A visual arts class starts with brainstormingbe everyone’s friend, an extraordinary person in with its back cover sporting a large-eyedan ordinary environment, or a Finn. cartoon character with a big speech A good life brings forth even more words, bubble. The bubble is still blank, but thesuch as family, food, leisure activities, learning, teacher is looking forward with interest totechnology, shops, sleep, nurses, procreation seeing what sort of message of a good lifeand money. will be produced. Another task is to use a song aboutWith a big heart a good or a bad life as an inspiration forPupils have done project-related tasks in visual work. Pupils also produce arrangements,arts throughout the autumn. For instance, mobiles and cartoons and practise self-ninth-graders reflect on questions such as ‘who knowledge by drawing I’ or ‘what are objects, moods and images ‘Drawing a self-portrait is alwaysrelating to a good life like’. They produce an equally challenging and fun topicportfolios about their own lives and write a letter for seventh-graders,’ Ms. Mäkitalo-Ahoaddressed to themselves ten years from now and points out.use this as a basis to create a piece describing the The bell rings and the brainstorminghighlights of their lives. session is over for now. The pupils leave ‘Making a portfolio has been an inspiring the classroom, but the ideas linger in theirtask for pupils, which they are working on with minds, bubbling under for the next visuala big heart,’ Mari Mäkitalo-Aho praises. One of arts class.the best outputs is a manga virtuoso’s portfolio Schools reaching out to a global world 25
  27. 27. m Mona Marjeta (left) and Johanna Siira are finalising their English presentations for the eTwinning Portal. Photo Tarja Repo e? op Joni Tenhunen has already finished ur ,E his presentation. For him, writing an English text was not hard, although ng ÆIn Æ he does not have much experience of ni Riihen­ foreigners. te mäki Lower The teacher gives pupils permission lis Secondary to retrieve images for their presentations u yo School’s computer from their Facebook profiles. lab, pupils in Class re 7C are fine-tuning Phone calls on Skype A their English-language The class also think about ways in which presentations of themselves. they would present their own school to The letters will be posted on the their foreign counterparts and topics to eTwinning Portal, through which the discuss with them. For support, they have school has made partners from Spain, monthly changing themes relating to Greece, Turkey and France. news items, immigration, technology and human rights, for example. ‘The English teacher has promised to ‘Try to think about interesting ways check our presentations. What’s import­ of learning something about another ant here is not grammar but making person’s culture and life, and what you yourselves understood,’ Saija Hellström could tell others,’ the teacher explains. instructs her pupils. International contacts are maintained International contacts are part of throughout the year. In addition, pupils Riihenmäki School’s As a Global Citizen live chat with each other using instant in Finland project. The aim is for pupils messaging and Skype, the Internet phone to gain genuine experience of meeting application. their foreign peers. Classes have used the Saija Hellström is planning to ask the eTwinning Portal to find partner classes to pupils to interview their own parents as contact during project lessons. The portal a homework assignment. The interviews offers a virtual TwinSpace classroom to would be videoed, subtitled in English carry out projects. It is used to exchange and posted on the eTwinning Portal. images, files and videos and for chatting. The class will produce material about ‘Writing the presentation has been a the project topics for the portal and bit of a struggle. Otherwise this project assessment will also be carried out using seems nice, because it’s so different from the portal. Teachers received training ordinary schoolwork,’ confides Mona in use of the portal from eTwinning Marjeta, a pupil in Class 7C. Ambassador Sari Auramo.26 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Riihenmäki Lower Secondary School
  28. 28. A word cloud reveals pupils’ values ÆÆ At Riihenmäki Lower Secondary School, pupils visualised the hallmarks of a good life using the free Internet- based Wordle applet. To begin with, pupils compiled their words into a common Microsoft Word document. Each pupil added their own words to the file, which meant that words such as ‘family’ may appear a couple of dozen times. The words were then copied to Wordle, which created a word cloud from them. The end result highlighted those words that occurred most frequently. The most visible words were ‘family’, ‘friends’ and ‘leisure activities’. It is also possible to print the word cloud. One class translated their word list using Google Translate, thus creating an English-language word cloud on Wordle. Classes at foreign partner schools also created similar word clouds that can be compared. ÆÆ Schools reaching out to a global world 27
  29. 29. m The Zambian Village of Isenge received young guests from Vesilahti Lower Secondary School.KUVA Tapani Pietilä School development co- operation launched a PHOTO Tapani Pietilä popular movement V esilahti Lower Secondary event, attracting plenty of locals and even School in the Tampere Region guests from neighbouring municipalities. is known for its close contacts The latest crowd puller is the brand with surrounding society. Contacts are new artificial lawn, which was installed not restricted only to the immediate in the grounds a month earlier. Inside the surroundings but extend all the way to entrance hall there are African artefacts Europe, Africa and Asia. The school’s for sale and local Elixir Club members are head teacher and Pupil Association are making quilts for Africa. the driving forces behind international A video about Zambia is playing on co-operation. loop in the school canteen, while a short course in tourist French is about to start On a clear Saturday in early October, in another room. An elementary know­ Vesilahti Lower Secondary School is once ledge of French helps on a trip to Paris again the centre and meeting point of the or, say, Senegal, which is the school’s next municipality. The school is holding an development co-operation partner. 28 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Vesilahti Lower Secondary School
  30. 30. Vesilahti Lower Secondar y School How has the Municipality of Vesilahti supported the global citizenship theme in basic education? ÆÆ For more than 20 years, the school has implemented themes relating to global education. ÆÆ The lower secondary school covers pupils in grades 7–9 of basic education. ÆÆ Pupils’ proceeds from the school’s Operation Day’s Work drive have been allocated to development of the Village of Isenge in Zambia. ÆÆ Aid recipients have also included a Vietnamese day-care centre and, most recently, a Senegalese village. ÆÆ The Pupil Association plays an active part in partnership projects. ÆÆ Pupil exchanges and study visits to different countries are organised with funding through proceeds from pupils’ own café business. ÆÆ Language programme: A1 English, B1 Swedish, B2 German and French. ÆÆ Practical examples of international activities are compiled in a report, which also assesses their effectiveness. ÆÆ Competence objectives include active citizenship and development partnership. ÆÆ Koulutien Uutiset school magazine: opetus/ylaaste/koulutien_uutisetAnnouncements in many languages a school in the Black Forest area ofIn the canteen, pupils are preparing Germany. They spend a week in Germanydelicacies and managing service with and play host to a German guest for aa professional air. In the background, week.’Tapani Pietilä, head teacher and Study visits are also made to themunicipal Director of Education and school’s Latvian twin school and toCulture, is welcoming guests in Finnish destinations in France, Greece andand French on the central radio system. Vietnam, which are familiar from other ‘Announcements are not only like this contexts. During the summer holidays,today, but often at other times too. The the young people may also participatehead teacher is fluent in many languages,’ in other trips organised by the Pupilcomments mathematics teacher Anna- Association. In addition, some pupilsKaarina Huhtala. She says that she has have visited the school’s development co-worked at the school since it was built in operation partner in Zambia.1992 and that she likes it here very much. Vesilahti is a municipality with just Isenge energised the entire villageunder 4,500 inhabitants, located to the The lower secondary school launchedsouth of the City of Tampere. The lower a partnership project in the Zambiansecondary school has about 190 pupils Village of Isenge in 2007. The village wasand 15 teachers. Ms. Huhtala explains discovered through Meeri Salokangas, athat the school has provided global Vesilahti-based voluntary for quite a long time. Funding from Vesilahti inhabitants ‘Every pupil has the chance to has provided the village with a healthparticipate in a pupil exchange with centre­ a bore well, a school with toilet , Schools reaching out to a global world 29
  31. 31. The lower secondary school’s pupils are seasoned travellers. Pupil exchanges and study trips are organised to other European facilities, two houses for teachers and countries and beyond. a henhouse. In addition, women have PHOTO Tapani Pietilä received garden loans and training in using sewing machines, while the project school of the neighbouring Municipality has also covered the cost of about fifty of Lempäälä, where most Vesilahti lower malaria nets. The most recent collection secondary pupils continue their studies at was organised to get electricity to the upper secondary level, has also donated village. funds collected through its Operation ‘All the proceeds from the Pupil Day’s Work drive to Isenge. Association’s Operation Day’s Work drive The aid project will culminate in will go to Isenge without any deductions,’ February 2012 when the buildings Ms. Huhtala points out. are inaugurated. The ceremony will The head teacher informs the school be attended by people from different of news on Isenge in the online school countries and the Zambia National magazine, Koulutien Uutiset. The Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) is maga­ ine reveals that plenty of donations z planning to make a documentary about have also been received from outsiders. the project. Assignment Editor Kennedy Between April and September 2011, for Bwalya from the ZNBC is coming to example, private individuals donated Vesilahti to coincide with the school’s almost 3,100 euros to the Isenge account. Christmas Bazaar to make preparations One donor gave a hundred euros with the for the documentary. following note: ‘A war veteran thanks the Vesilahti Lower Secondary School young people who are helping children has also supported a nursery school in the living in difficult conditions to move Vietnamese Village of Ngyen Ly. forward.’ The school’s own Operation ‘In both Zambia and Vietnam, we Day’s Work drives currently yield about have received strong moral support from 1,900 euros per year. the Finnish ambassadors and embassies Moreover, the upper secondary operating in these countries.’30 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Vesilahti Lower Secondary School
  32. 32. l The co-operation project with the Zambian Village of Isenge is a joint effort involving not only the school but the entire village. Elixir Club members (from right) Aili Saarinen, Inka Valtamo, Ritva Liukko and Anneli Tuominen are doing voluntary work for Africa. PHOTOS Katja Särkkä help Africa even though our own country has economic difficulties. When guests from Vesilahti visited our school to tell us about Africa, students got a more realistic picture of how vast a gap there is in living standards between Latvia and Zambia. I believe that it made them feel more positive about development co- operation.’ Vesilahti has also become familiar at the twin school in other respects. Over a period of seven years, more than 50 Latvian young people have enjoyedLatvia was invited to join summer jobs in the Aittakahvila Café runIsenge also receives aid from the lower by the Pupil Association.secondary school’s Latvian twin uppersecondary school, Draudzīgā aicinājuma ‘Internationality is not underlined’Cēsu Valsts ģimnāzija. Co-operation According to teacher Anna-Kaarinawith Finns is co-ordinated by Ms. Laima Huhtala, it is fair to say that VesilahtiPērkone. Lower Secondary School is an inter­ ‘Our Zambia co-operation started national school. For instance, the schoolabout four years ago, when Vesilahti receives plenty of guests from abroad.invited us to join. We seized the opportun­ ‘However, I don’t think thatity, because we didn’t have any previous internationality is underlined. We areexperience of such projects.’ just an ordinary school, but we do have Ms. Pērkone explains that the Latvian these nice extra activities, such as pupileducation system is of a good standard exchanges with Germany. I also find itand that pupils also have opportunities great that Operation Day’s Work fundsto participate in exchange programmes. are dedicated direct to a specific recipient,However, there are problems relating which the pupils know very well too.’to bureaucracy and the country’s Ms. Huhtala is happy with the facteconomic situation, which may also affect that international activities are runningpeople’s attitudes towards issues such as relatively smoothly from the perspectivedevelopment co-operation. Nevertheless, of employees.the Zambia project seems to have ‘We have such solid routines in pupilchanged young people’s attitudes at the exchanges, for example. Even the Africantwin school. projects are not particularly hard work for ‘Students were asking why we should us teachers.’ Schools reaching out to a global world 31
  33. 33. The Pup il Ass ocia tion mak es imp orta nt dec isio ns h Pupils appreciate a seat on the Pupil Association’s Board. Shown in the picture from left, Board Chair Iida Ollinpoika and members Heta-Mari Himanen, Ronja Nummela, Konsta Nuutero, Mariisa Uusitalo, Ulla Mäkelä and Susanna Mäkelä. PHOTO Katja Särkkä ÆÆ The Pupil Association plays a of times each year. prominent role both in daily life and ‘It’s been perceived as being a good during celebrations at Vesilahti Lower solution. There’s not always time to deal Secondary School. The young people with all the topics during breaks and it’s participate in decision-making within difficult to organise transport after school. the Africa project, manage its aid The local authorities have promised to account and run their own Aittakahvila fund one meeting trip each year, because Café and the school kiosk. it helps to advertise the municipality too Young people appreciate their Pupil to some extent.’ Association, which is reflected in the fact Iida is also leaving on a school trip that a seat on its Board is in high demand. to Zambia in February 2012. She is ‘The Board steers the Zambia project. very much looking forward to seeing We are about to leave on a seminar the Village of Isenge and to meeting the cruise, where we’ll go through the Isenge people­who will receive their aid. accounts,’ explains Iida Ollinpoika, Iida Ollinpoika supposes that Chair of the Pupil Association’s Board Vesilahti Lower Secondary School has from the 8th grade. more international contacts than many Meeting trips are organised a couple other schools. 32 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Vesilahti Lower Secondary School
  34. 34. ‘I think that international activities encourage independence. During their lower secondary school years, many pupils participate in a trip that is not necessarily attended by their own parents.’ The café provides money for trips The Pupil Association set up its own café in 1996 during economically difficult times. The local authorities gave the young people the use of an outbuilding dating back to 1840, where they have successfully operated the café during the summer months. During the school year, they arrange refreshment services for evening events h Pupils run a café that caters for a couple of held at the school. Customers include thousand customers every year. Delicious pastries are on offer thanks to hygiene the Municipal Council and the adult certificate training organised for young education centre’s study circle, which people by the Pupil Association. convene on the school premises. Young people are paid for the work they do, i During the summer months, the Pupil Association organises trips abroad which which they use to fund trips, among other are also open to other Vesilahti inhabitants. things. Former café employee Susanna In 2009, the destination was Paris. Mäkelä reveals that the summer job PHOTOS Tapani Pietilä generates a nice sum for the travel fund. ‘Serving refreshments at larger events may bring in as much as a hundred euros­ for each employee. It’s great that pupils­can enjoy a trip with aid from the Aittakahvila Café, if it’s not possible any other way. Pupils have internal school accounts where their fees are paid,’ explains Susanna, who is also on the Pupil Association’s Board. The café caters for a couple of thousand customers every year. The largest order­ has been a war veterans’ party attended by almost 1,300 participants. Operations are possible because many pupils hold hygiene certificates. The Pupil Association also organises a major Christmas Bazaar on the school premises every year.Schools reaching out to a global world 33
  35. 35. MAURITANIA AFRICA Atlantic Sén ég Messages from Ocean al Diamniadio to Vesilahti Dakar SENEGAL MAP Kauko Kyöstiö/ Spatio Oy Fatick Diamniadio MALI GAMBIA 0 100 200 km GUINEA- BISSAU GUINEA n Senegalese guest Mamadou Fall tested the school’s brand new artificial grass with local football stars. but there is not much work around. As a result, many of them move abroad. Mr. Fall’s home village in West Africa is located on an island. There are about a thousand inhabitants and fishing is more or less the only livelihood. There is no PHOTOS Katja Särkkä electricity. Another problem is drinking water, which is fairly salty. Water is purified using a piece of equipment that requires petrol, which is also in short supply. ‘The village has a primary school. ÆÆ After Zambia and Vietnam, However, there are no dwellings for Vesilahti Lower Secondary School is teachers, who need to stay with local setting up a new aid project in Senegal. families instead. That’s why it’s difficult Co-operation with the Village of to get teachers to come to the village. The Diamniadio was planned in Vesilahti school building itself is old and there are in October. no desks. There may be as many as 65 pupils sharing one classroom.’ Gathered around the table were the When they leave primary school, Senegalese guest Mamadou Lamine Fall pupils­should move on to secondary with his French interpreter and members school on another, bigger island. of the lower secondary school staff and However, parents cannot always pay for of the Board of the Pupil Association. their children to stay with another family, Mr. Fall explained that Senegalese young which means an end to schooling for people­have some opportunities to study many at that point.34 I Schools took on the task ÆÆ Vesilahti Lower Secondary School
  36. 36. There is a public health nurse living recipients. For instance, no transactionson the island, who sees patients at home. are made without receipts and fundsWhen women give birth, for example, for building the school go direct to thethey need to leave the island on a small builder.boat and sometimes children are actually There may also be communicationborn on the boat. One problem is that difficulties. For example, communicationsthere is no fridge for medicines requiring with the Zambian partner school Isengecold storage. are most commonly by text message, According to Mr. Fall, the most urgent which are necessarily quite brief. Thepriority for the village is to build a small village does not have an Internethealth centre and a teachers’ residence. connection and postal delivery takes anywhere from a week to a month.Problems from the local balance of The idea of a development partnershippower is to disperse the donor/recipientDevelopment activists know that projects relationship and to progress towardsmay also run into problems, which may inter­ ction on a more equal footing. The abe caused by the local balance of power partner community should become ableand the leaders’ responsibilities towards to stand more and more firmly on its owntheir families. In many cases, all things go feet. The signs augur well for Isenge.through the village chief, which is not a ‘The henhouse project has made avery simple arrangement from the donors’ profit after the first lot of sales; in otherperspective. words, it has started to generate capital for developing operations and some spendingAid to the right address money for the people. The school is alsoHowever, donors have their ways of operating on its own,’ Mr. Pietilä relates.making sure that aid reaches the right Schools reaching out to a global world 35