Listening And Evaluating[1]


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Listening And Evaluating[1]

  2. 2. What makes a good listener? <ul><li>Hearing and listening are not the same thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing means being able to detect a sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening means getting meaning from sounds that are heard. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does being a good listener means? <ul><li>Attentive and </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive </li></ul><ul><li>Seek information </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate what they hear </li></ul><ul><li>And respond to it. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What can you do as a good listener? <ul><li>You can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop your interpersonal skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover unexpected coming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve your performance in school and at work </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Analyzing the factors that affect listening <ul><li>Your physical and mental state </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Your prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>The environment </li></ul>
  6. 6. physical and mental state <ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be affected if you are tired or hungry </li></ul>
  7. 7. The speaker <ul><li>Personality involves a person’s traits, attitudes, and habits. </li></ul>Prejudices A prejudice is a prejudgment: a beliefs you have already formed that may not be grounded in facts.
  8. 8. Environment <ul><li>Environmental factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other people </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How to control factors that affect listening <ul><li>Be energetic and focused: eat and sleep well </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the message: listen to what is being said. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an open mind: be ready to learn something new. </li></ul><ul><li>Do what you can do to adjust the physical environment_: block out noises </li></ul>
  10. 10. Listening critically <ul><li>Critical listening: it means that you need to test the strength of the ideas and not only comprehending. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the speaker’s goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker’s goal is the purpose he or she has for giving a speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identifying the main ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main ideas are the speaker’s most important points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the speaker imply the main ideas you will have to analyze to identify what you think are the main ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>A speaker may used repetitions repeat a certain word, phrase, or sentence each time a new point is mention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some rely on signal words words that indicate that a list, contrast, or connection is about to be made. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identifying supporting details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting details are the examples, facts, statistics, reasons, anecdotes, or expert testimony that speaker used to support the main idea </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Using context clues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is used when you are giving a speech that contain new words, and the speaker tries to give clues such in terms in the context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context the surrounding words and sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking Advantages of nonverbal clues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal clues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paralanguage (voice and sound variation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement and gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>silence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Emphasis speakers can emphasize key meaning through changing volume, stressing certain words, and using gestures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction contradicting what the other person says. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Listening Actively <ul><li>Good listener are active. </li></ul><ul><li>They look for meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about what they heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Techniques for Active Learning <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply what you hear to yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think as you listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use associations a and devices to remember important details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the speaker and yourself feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate the information to your own experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize and review throughout the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an association – a mental images that will help you to remember. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not write every detail but use your own words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use body language such as eye contact, gestures and more. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Evaluating a speaker’s reasoning <ul><li>The most important about being an effective listener is evaluating the speaker’s reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>You nedd to ask yourself if the speaker is using a faulty reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>What is a faulty reasoning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement that seem reasonable, even well reasoned, are very often based on mistakes in logic. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Hasty generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalitazions are gerenal conclusions or opinions drawn from particular observation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid generalization are based on sufficient evidence (use the words most, some and generally) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hasty generalization are conclusions or opinions that are drawn from very few observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begging the question means assuming the truth of a statement before it is proven. </li></ul><ul><li>Listeners must be careful to see that speakers have actually proven what they claim as fact. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>False premises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A premise is a stated or implied starting point of an argument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A false premise is a premise that is untrue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False analogies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: is a form of reasoning by comparison. A good analogy draws valid conclusions from items that can be logically compared. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A false analogy: draws invalid conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A band member says to a friend, “I wish you’d learn to play the saxophone so you could join the marching band” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrelevant evidence: is information that has nothing to do with the argument being made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: the merchandise at the UTRa store is top quality . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Examining propaganda techniques <ul><li>Persuasion – is the attempt to convince others to do something or to change a belief of their own free will. </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda – is persuasion that intentionally discourage people from thinking for themselves. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Transfer: is a method that builds a connection between things that are not logically connected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In advertising this connection is built between a product and a positive value. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon: the bandwagon technique encourages people to act because everyone else is doing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Name-calling: is labeling intended to arouse powerful negative feelings. Its purpose is to represent a particular person or group as inferior or bad without providing evidence to support their declare. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Card- stacking: is based on half-truths. It presents only partial information in order to leave and mistaken impression. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes: is a unfair belief about a whole group of people based on insufficient or irrelevant evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded work: evoke, or draw out, very strong positive or negative attitudes toward a person, group or idea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connotation: the feeling associations a word evokes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denotation: specific meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional appeals: or statements used to arouse emotional reactions. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Listening and evaluating <ul><li>Once the speaker finished presenting you are going to evaluate him or her </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critique: is an analysis and evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The oral critique: analyze and evaluate given out loud. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The written critique: detail look at a speech than a oral critique. </li></ul></ul></ul>