http://www.ernweb.com/public/433.cfm<br />Self-testing is effective study strategy but students seldom choose to do it<br />Self-testing is more effective than studying for learning, says a recent study in theJournal of Experimental Psychology, but students seldom take advantage of this potent technique when preparing for a test.<br />Students base their choice of strategy on their own judgments of learning (JOL) or their estimates of how well they know their material, often underestimating how much they will forget in a week, according to Jeffrey Karpicke from Purdue University, the author or the article.<br />In 2 pairs of experiments, the researcher tested student retention of Swahili-English word pairs after self-testing (retrieval practice) or studying. In one pair of computer-based experiments, once college students had successfully recalled a word pair, they could choose (1) to remove the word pair from further practice, (2) choose to study it again or (3) choose to self-test it again. In a companion experiment, the students were simply assigned one of those 3 strategies upon recall of a word pair.<br />"
The experiments identify a compelling metacognitive illusion that occurs during self-regulated learning: Once students can recall an item they tend to believe they have 'learned' it. This leads students to terminate practice rather than practice retrieval, a strategy choice that ultimately results in poor retention."
<br />In the second pair of experiments, students prepared for the test in varying patterns of study and test periods--STSTST or SSSTST or SSSSST. When students did more retrieval practice, they were better able to base their judgments of learning on their growing encoding fluency, the author writes.<br />"
When subjects repeatedly studied without testing they continued to rely on intrinsic difficulty as a cue for JOLs, but when subjects studied and tested in alternating periods they shifted toward greater reliance on internal mnemonic cues (i.e., encoding fluency) as the learning phase progressed."
<br />Students should be educated about the power of retrieval practice in learning, the author concludes, so that they choose to use this tool more when they regulate their own learning. He observed that many students choose to practice retrieval only when they have reached a level of confidence in their learning. Retrieval practice earlier in the process would be beneficial and hasten learning, he notes.<br />"
Metacognitive Control and Strategy Selection: Deciding to Practice Retrieval During Learning,"
by Jeffrey K. Karpicke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2009, Volume 138, Number 4, pps 469-486.<br />Current research briefs Teachers' social competence protects against burnout How class size changes classroom dynamics Students seldom choose self-testing as study strategy More students taking AP, scoring 3 and above Blog: Accentuating the positive is not easy<br />http://ielts.cafevip.net/?p=57 Classes to choose<br />Q:<br />Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.<br />A:<br />The question whether high school should allow students to study the courses that students want to study is the one that is open for debate. Some people believe that students in high school should have the right to study the courses they like. However, other people disagree and stand that teenagers can not totally be sure what they like and what they need to know at their age. In this essay I will analyze these points and present my view in favor of people who believe that some courses must be required to study by students.<br />From the one side, having a chance to choose what one likes to study can bring many benefits. First of all, a student can be better prepared for the career he likes because he can spend more time studying what he is interested in. Second of all, students will learn with more enthusiasm because they will learn what they like.<br />From the other side, teenagers often can not completely understand what they want to do in the future. So, given a chance to choose, they can choose classes, which are easy to learn and do not take much time to study. As a result of this after graduation many students can be unprepared to enroll in universities and, of cause, make careers. Personally, I think that some courses such as mathematics, literature, writing English must be required for studying by students. This will helps them to gain more knowledge and experience, develop ability to think logically, improve writing skills, etc. So, students will be better prepared for the real world and independence life.<br />To sum up, I think that high school should have required courses because it is essential for a student to have a good base for the future life. Required courses as a rule are more complicated but they give the opportunity for students to extend their range of interests and help them to develop many important characteristics such as self-confident, persistent, patience, etc.<br />Most of the students in high school want to choose the subjects on their own choice because they think that they are mature enough to live their lives according to their own choice. However, I think students should choose subjects under the proper guidance from their parents and teachers. I believe this because students in the high school age are immmature; they do not have enough knowledge about the subjects and their scopes and they do not know about their abilities.<br /> First, high school students should choose their subjects under proper guidance because they are not mature enough to take decesions about their studies. If they choose their subjects, they would prefer their comfort over their future. They would try to avoide the subjects which need more hardwork. As an example, one of my friends did not want to take math course in high school because she did not like the teacher. She heard from somebody that the math teacher was very strict and she gave lots of homework. However, her parents asked her to take math courses because they knew about her abilities to do well in that course. She took math course and today she is getting her degree in finance. Students should choose their subjects under the supervision because they do not have mature approach of thinking.<br /> Second, students should choose their courses under the supervision of parents and teachers because they do not have much knowlege about different courses and their scopes. They do not have knowledge that which subjects are better for their careers in the future. For example, many students wants to take fine art subjects but they do not know that in this field a very few people are sucessful. Every art student do not become a famous artist. Students do not know well that which subjects lead them to sucessful careers.<br /> Thirdly, students should decide their courses after taking advice from their elders because they do not know about their abilities. Parents and teachers know the students better than themselves because they are watching them from their childhood. They know that which subjects are best fit for them. If a child does not know about his abilities, he will waste his time changing and skiping subjects again and again. For example, my sister wanted to take art subjects in high school but her middle school teachers adviced her to take science subjects because they knew that she was perfect for that and now she is a very good pharmacist. Students should take advise from his parents and teachers because they know him very well.<br /> In conclusion, in high school students should choose their subject under the supervision of their elders because they are not mature people; they do not know much about the subjects; and they do not know about their abilities.<br />http://www.unisa.edu.au/future/year10/subject.asp#entryreqs<br />University entry requirements<br />2011 tertiary entrance (year 12 in 2010)<br />SACE subjects are classified as HESS General or HESS Restricted. For listings of HESS General and HESS Restricted subjects please refer to the SATAC Tertiary Entrance booklet.<br />For almost all UniSA programs you will need at least four subjects designated HESS General (at SACE Stage 2 level, or equivalent) to be eligible for selection.<br />If you are enrolled in the International Baccalaureate Diploma please refer to page 4 of the International Baccalaureate booklet.<br />2012 tertiary entrance under new SACE requirements (year 12 in 2011)<br />Students must complete at least 80 credits of study at Stage 2 of which 60 credits of study must be 20 credit Tertiary Admissions Subjects (TAS).<br />Refer to Page 47 of the SATAC Tertiary Entrance booklet.<br />Choosing a career early will allow you check out the entry requirements of uni programs to plan what subjects to take in school. Also, by choosing the right subjects you can keep your options open and keep heading in the right direction.<br />Prerequisite subjects<br />Prerequisite subjects are subjects you must have successfully studied at SACE Stage 2 (or equivalent) to be selected into a particular degree. Try to check out the prerequisite subjects for different programs offered by different universities so you get a feel for what is required. Make sure you select subjects in school that match the prerequisite subjects for uni degree programs you want to get into.<br />Assumed knowledge subjects<br />Assumed knowledge subjects are those that universities suggest would be helpful for you to have studied at SACE Stage 2 (or equivalent). You don't have to have studied these subjects to be selected into the program but it will be assumed that you will have knowledge of the subject, which might help your understanding in that particular program.<br />UniSA Achievement bonus points<br />If you study and pass specific subjects in Year 12 you may automatically gain UniSA Achievement bonus points. Find out if your Year 12 subjects give you points into UniSA programs.<br />Other selection criteria<br />Some degree programs will have specific or additional criteria that you need to fulfil in order for you to be selected into the program such as a portfolio or an interview. Make sure you investigate these properly before applying for that degree.<br />To find out what the selection criteria are for UniSA degrees, check out our list of undergraduate programs.<br />Other university terms explained<br />http://www.collegeboard.com/student/plan/high-school/33.html<br />How to Select Your Courses<br />Create a Solid Academic Portfolio<br />Your course schedule may seem like a random selection of classes to you, but college admissions officers see it as the blueprint of your high school education. They're looking for a solid foundation of learning that you can build on in college.<br />Take at least five solid academic classes every semester. The following subjects and classes are standard fare for success in high school and beyond, whether you plan to attend a four-year, two-year, or technical school.<br />English (Language Arts)<br />Take English every year. Traditional courses, such as American and English literature, help you improve your writing skills, reading comprehension, and vocabulary.<br />Literature<br />Writing/composition <br />Speech<br />Math<br />You need algebra and geometry to succeed on college entrance exams, in college math classes, and in most careers. Take them early on and you'll be able to enroll in advanced science and math in high school—and you'll show colleges you're ready for higher-level work.<br />Algebra<br />Geometry<br />Algebra II<br />Trigonometry, calculus, and/or statistics<br />Science<br />Science teaches you to think analytically and apply theories to reality. Laboratory classes let you test what you've learned through hands-on work. Six semesters are recommended.<br />Two semesters in biology<br />Two semesters in chemistry and/or physics<br />Two semesters in earth/space sciences, advanced biology, advanced chemistry, or physics<br />Social Studies<br />Understand local and world events that are happening now by studying the culture and history that has shaped them. Social sciences round out your core curriculum.<br />Two semesters in U.S. history<br />One semester of U.S. government<br />One semester in economics<br />One semester in world history or geography<br />One additional semester in the above, or other areas<br />Foreign Languages<br />Solid foreign language study shows colleges you're willing to stretch beyond the basics. Many colleges require at least two years of foreign language study, and some prefer more.<br />The Arts<br />Research indicates that students who participate in the arts often do better in school and on standardized tests. The arts help you recognize patterns, discern differences and similarities, and exercise your mind in unique ways, oftentimes outside of a traditional classroom setting.<br />Computer Applications<br />More and more college courses and jobs require at least a basic knowledge of computers. Computer skills also can help you do research and schoolwork better and faster.<br />Advanced Placement Program® (AP®)<br />Try out college-level work, master valuable skills, and, with satisfactory scores, maybe even receive college credit. More than 3,800 higher education institutions award credit, advanced placement or both based on satisfactory AP Exam scores. Learn more about the AP Program.<br />Independent Study<br />If you're interested in a subject that isn't offered at your school—say, botany, economics, or instrumental music—don't give up on your interest. Many schools allow motivated students to pursue independent studies, often with a teacher as an advisor. Most schools have rigorous standards for independent study. Be sure to talk to a counselor or teacher to find out if independent study is an option at your school, and what requirements may exist.<br />For More Help<br />Be sure to meet with your counselor or advisor, who can help you with your personal needs. Use College Search to look up a specific college's academic requirements. <br />http://www.collegeboard.com/student/plan/starting-points/114.html<br />Twenty Questions to Ask Your School Counselor<br />Your school counselor is one of your best resources as you plan for college. Your counselor has information about admissions tests, college preparation, and your education and career options. Here are some basic questions to help get your conversation started:<br />What are the required and recommended courses—for graduation and for college prep?<br />How should I plan my schedule so I'll complete them?<br />Which elective courses do you recommend?<br />Which AP® courses are available?<br />When is the PSAT/NMSQT® going to be given here?<br />Is this school a testing center for the SAT®, or will I need to go somewhere nearby?<br />Do you have any after-school or evening sessions available for college planning, or the SAT?<br />Do you have college handbooks or other guides that I can browse or borrow? Do you have a copy of the free SAT Practice Booklet, which has a practice test in it?<br />What activities can I do at home and over the summer to get ready for college?<br />What kinds of grades do different colleges require?<br />Are there any college fairs at this school, or nearby?<br />Where do other kids from this school attend college?<br />What are the requirements or standards for the honor society?<br />Can you put me in touch with recent grads who are going to the colleges on my wish list?<br />Do you have any information to help me start exploring my interests and related careers?<br />If my colleges need a recommendation from you, how can I help you know me better, so it can be more personal?<br />Are there any special scholarships or awards that I should know about now, so I can work toward them?<br />Can I see my transcript as it stands now, to see if everything is as I think it should be?<br />Do you have any forms I need to apply for financial aid?<br />How does our school compare to others, in terms of test scores and reputation?<br />Reality Check<br />Your school counselor may be the most wonderful and accessible person on the planet, or may be juggling a thousand students and barely know your name. So remember that the person who has the biggest stake in your academics is you. It's up to you to stay on top of opportunities and deadlines, to take control of your future.<br />http://www.collegeboard.com/student/plan/index.html?affiliateId=rdr&bannerId=plan<br />Time Management Tips For High School Students<br />It's 10 p.m.—Do You Know Where Your Homework Is?<br />Does it seem like there's never enough time in the day to get everything done? Feel like you're always running late? Here are some tips for taking control of your time and organizing your life.<br />1. Make a "
List Every Day.<br />Put things that are most important at the top and do them first. If it's easier, use a planner to track all of your tasks. And don't forget to reward yourself for your accomplishments.<br />2. Use Spare Minutes Wisely.<br />Get some reading done on the bus ride home from school, for example, and you'll kill two birds with one stone.<br />3. It's Okay to Say "
<br />If your boss asks you to work on a Thursday night and you have a final exam the next morning, realize that it's okay to say no. Keep your short- and long-term priorities in mind.<br />4. Find the Right Time.<br />You'll work more efficiently if you figure out when you do your best work. For example, if your brain handles math better in the afternoon, don't wait to do it until late at night.<br />5. Review Your Notes Every Day.<br />You'll reinforce what you've learned, so you need less time to study. You'll also be ready if your teacher calls on you or gives a pop quiz.<br />6. Get a Good Night's Sleep.<br />Running on empty makes the day seem longer and your tasks seem more difficult.<br />7. Communicate Your Schedule to Others.<br />If phone calls are proving to be a distraction, tell your friends that you take social calls from 7-8 p.m. It may sound silly, but it helps.<br />8. Become a Taskmaster.<br />Figure out how much free time you have each week. Give yourself a time budget and plan your activities accordingly.<br />9. Don't Waste Time Agonizing.<br />Have you ever wasted an entire evening by worrying about something that you're supposed to be doing? Was it worth it? Instead of agonizing and procrastinating, just do it.<br />10. Keep Things in Perspective.<br />Setting goals that are unrealistic sets you up for failure. While it's good to set high goals for yourself, be sure not to overdo it. Set goals that are difficult yet reachable.<br />Consider these tips, but personalize your habits so that they suit you. If you set priorities that fit your lifestyle, you'll have a better chance of achieving your goals.<br />