How Al-Qaeda came to be


Published on

Jared Sogness

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Other things between 40s and today, that upset them even more so. But this is targeted at the Howdy-Doody Show, the Ben Crosby Show, Rudoplh the Red Nose Raindeer.
  • How Al-Qaeda came to be

    1. 1. By Jared Sogness
    2. 2. Starting off with the Egyptian roots of Al-QaedaSayyid Qutb is an Egyptian that comes toAmerica at the age of 42 in 1948 to 1950.He spends some time in Colorado thencomes to the east coast. Once he returnsto Egypt he starts writing books, religiousbooks as hes a Sunni Muslim. He writesabout the decadence of American society.stating how horrible our western society isand how we are obsessed with Sex,Violence, and Materialism. Keep in mindthis was written in the 1950s.. it didnt evenhit the hippy stage yet in the 60s and 70s.This turns out to be the original critique thatAl-Qaeda builds off of as the decadence ofwestern society.
    3. 3. Once Qutb goes back to Egypt, he hooksup with a group called "The MuslimBrotherhood." The Muslim Brotherhoodwas formed by a man named Hassan al-Banna in 1928. He had organized a grouparound the principles of a pan-islamicregion, uniting the Sunni Muslim world.They were upset about things like Equalityfor women. They were Nationalistic. Anti-Corporate. by 1948 they had almost a halfa million members. Qutb comes back andjoins this group. Once Abdel Nassercomes into control of Egypt he throws Qutbin jail for bashing the government. He isthen released 10 years later for 8 months,then thrown back in jail for anassassination plot. Qutb was then hungalong with 6 other members of theBrotherhood, making Qutb a martyr.
    4. 4. Qutb believed true believers need topreach Islam, his version of Islam. Theymust destroy the institutions of society;Corporations, Governments, Militaries, etc.Once peoples understanding of Islam grewand once the institutions faded, therewould arise a utopian state. Based onSharia Law. This is the basis of the beliefsof Al-Qaeda.
    5. 5. in 1948 due to the assassination andTerrorism committed by the Muslimbrotherhood, the government of Egyptbanned them. 32 Leaders are arrestedand Muslim brotherhood responds byassassinating the prime minister. Inretaliation, the Egyptian government themAssassinates Hassan al-Banna, thefounder.
    6. 6. in 1970, the Muslim brotherhood then"Denounce" Terrorism. They begin workingwith the government and become a muchmore secular group. The roots of theMuslim brotherhood are much moredifferent today then they were back then.When the Muslim Brotherhood renouncesterrorism some of the members got upsetand left the brotherhood and created theirown groups. For example, Al Jihad.
    7. 7. Omar Abdel-Rahman, The Blind sheik issues afatwa, (Sort of like an executive order), on the leaderof Egypt at the time, Anwar Sadat. So then October6, 1981 the former elements of the Muslimbrotherhood assassinate Anwar Sadat, because hehad signed a peace agreement with Israel. Egypt Al-Jihad members threw grenades into a crowd, andfire assault rifles at the stands during a parade,killing Sadat, and wounding 28 people including 4Americans.Following this, Egypt does a huge "cleansing" andthrows anybody and everybody that they can findthats ever thought of even just committing terrorism.and then there’s a time where all these terrorists arein jail in Egypt all at the same time. Al-Gamaa Al-Islamiyya is formed around this time. Islamic Al-Jihad and this group are the two main terroristgroups in Egypt at the time.
    8. 8. EIJ (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) members goto Afghanistan to help them form the utopiaover there instead. They join in theMujahedeen. (Muslims who struggle inthe path of Allah.) Ayman al-Zawahirishows up and takes control of the EgyptianIslamic Jihad. He begins a alliance with aSaudi Arabian, Osama Bin Laden.
    9. 9. 3 major events happen in 1979, TheIranian Revolution, the Shaw of Iran is ranout of town and replaced by AyatollahKhomeini, The soviets invade Afghanistan,and then the major thing happened, theseizure of the great mosque. Juhaymanibn Muhammad ibn Sayf al Otaibi was theleader of the seize. He is a member of apowerful Saudi family. They declare thehouse of Saud is illigimate. He says hisbrother is the rightful leader of SaudiArabia. They dream of creating a worldbased on Sharia Law. They took over thegreat mosque easily because they snuck inweapons, and no weapons of any kind areallowed inside the mosque so nobodycould really fight back. They let go of mostof the hostages right away.
    10. 10. In order for the people to try and take themosque back, they had to get a Fatwa, areligious order, and when they did the armywas repelled because they were stationedsnipers throughout the building of themosque. They used the broadcast systemin the mosque to broadcast their dream ofa theocracy based on Sharia law. theyreject the western world. They demandSaudi Arabia cuts off all oil to the U.S. andexpel all foreigners.through numerous attempts to take backthe loss the army loses massive casualties.The rebels hold it for a week. then therebels escape through the catacombs andrun into the city because they lost the willto fight and didnt have any food.
    11. 11. During the 1979 Soviet invadingAfghanistan, we actually help theAfghanistans and fund them in their waragainst the soviets. Abdullah Allah Aam isa university professor that becomesimportant to the cause of Al-Qaeda,because he starts to preach the samethings Qutb said that they need a morenon-western conservative Islamic religionbased on sharia law. The Mujahedeenbetween the soviets and Afghanistan costallot of money. The U.S. Sent over 20Billion dollars worth of weapons toAfghanistan, over the course of the entirewar. Many important people that Imentioned a couple slides back come tofight against the soviets, including OsamaBin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri as well asthe two main terrorist groups at the time:Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al gamaa alislamiya.
    12. 12. Osama Bin Laden is the son of a greatSaudi Builder, the father is close with theroyal family because he built a road acrossthe dessert, which was assumed to beimpossible. Bin Laden and AbdullahAzzam create Maktab al-Khidamat. Theytake the responsibility to come up with themoney to train, recruit, and fight in theMujahedeen. They train around 100people in a base. It is later wondered ifthis is "The Base" meant in the word "Al-Qaeda" since Al-Qaeda means "TheBase." at this point in time, theMujahedeen were our allies. We wereAnti-Soviets at the time.
    13. 13. All the Leaders of the Egyptian IslamicJihad get together and form the groupknown as Al-Qaeda. It is basically anorganization to fund terrorist groups. Thisis the reason why Osama Bin Laden isknown as the "Leader." Hes really the guywith the money. He isnt actually theoperation leader though, that would beAyman al-Zawahiri. The group quarrels atfirst what it should do. There are 2different idea, 1 is to wage a global jihadagainst westernized Muslim governments,and the other idea is to stay in Afghanistanand build the sharia law state utopia. They ended up going with the Global Jihad idea, since Abdullah Azzam is killed mysteriously by explosives, and he was the one who wanted the Utopia state.
    14. 14. Anwar al-Awlaki had gotten angry atAmerica because we didnt help our"Allies." Because we didnt helpAfghanistan rebuild the Taliban came intoeffect. He preached the same idea asQutb as well, that if we spread the idea ofIslam, and people act righteously andfollow sharia law, the need forgovernments will dissolve away. Anwar isthe spiritual guide of Al-Qaeda. He keepseveryone in line.
    15. 15. Ali Mohamed is another person with ties toAmerica. He walks into a CIA agent inegypt and asks to be a "Double" Angent.He tried to say he was part of the groupthat killed Sadat. However, turns out hewas double crossing both sides. We endup bringing him back to the U.S. and trainhim to be a staff sargent in the army. Lateran associate of his El Sayyid Nosair wasarrested for terrorist plots. Nosair wasconvicted in the first world trade centerbombing, as was Ali Mohamed. However,he still hasnt been sentenced.
    16. 16. Theres one big huge reason though whyAl-Qaeda turned its attention to the UnitedStates though. When Saddam Husseininvaded Kuwait, Saudi Arabia felt asthough they needed more protection. SoBin Laden wanted to bring the Mujahedeenback to Saudi Arabia to defend it.However, the Saudis dont want that, theywant the U.S. instead to defend them. BinLaden got extremely angry because of this.A Western Army is defending hishomeland. Because of this he turns hisanger and attention to the United States.This is the ultimate factor of what hascaused 9/11. There were other factors aswell but this was the main one. They aremad about our decadent culture. BinLaden criticizes the Saudi government andis exiled.
    17. 17. Bin Laden then goes to Sudan whereOmar al-Bashir took control of Sudan.Omar also wants to set up the dreamIslamic Utopia based on Sharia Law.Omar actually invites Al-Qaeda there. whilethere Bin Laden runs into a spiritual leader,named Hassan al-Turabi. Hassan actuallyturns out to be a conman and drains BinLaden of all his money for his ownpersonal desires and bankrupts Bin Laden.Al-Qaedas funding actually dries upbecause of this man. Bin Laden’s familyactually decides to cut him off because heis now against the Saudi Government.
    18. 18. One day in Egypt a school girl was killedby the Egyptian terrorists who were tryingto create the Islamic state. Because of thisthe Egyptian people begin to chant thatterrorism is the enemy of god. Ayman al-Zawahiri goes beyond furious andcommands his Egyptian Islamic Jihadattack the Egyptian embassy in Pakistan,in turn actually turning the Pakistanisagainst Al-Qaeda and Egyptian IslamicJihad.
    19. 19. Meanwhile in Afghanistan the Taliban havepretty much rose to power, they are thegovernment while there is no government.they try to make sure everyone eats andmake sure everyones healthy. However,they eventually turn into a very oppressiveand conservative and religious regime. Al-qaeda then settles into Afghanistan.February 23, 1998 Ayman al-Zwahiri andOsama Bin Laden then issues a Fatwa onthe United States of America. They swearto kill any American or Europeansanywhere they can find them.
    20. 20. August 7th 1998 Al-Qaeda carries out theembassy bombings. Hundreds are killed.This makes ayman Al-Zawahiri and Osamabin laden famous around the world. this isthe first time people all over even becamevaguly aware of who these people evenwore. On October 12, 2000 a ship full ofsuicide bombers attack the USS Cole, anAmerican War Ship. this killed 17 andwounded 39. This is the last major attackby Al-Qaeda before 9/11.
    21. 21. The Blind Sheik goes on tour in the UnitedStates on a visa, in July of 1990. He thenissues a Fatwa of allowing bank robbingand killing American Jews. He calls for hisfollowers to: "cut the transportation of theircountries, tear it apart, destroy theireconomy, burn their companies, eliminatetheir interests, sink their ships, shoot downtheir planes, and kill them on the Sea, airor land." Followers of the blind sheikactually massacre europeans on 2 differentoccasions. the biggest one is the Luxarmassacre.November 17, 1997 62 tourists are killedwhen a popular tourist attraction isattacked by Egyptian Islamic Jihadists.
    22. 22. February 26, 1993 A truck bomb wasdetonated below the north tower of theWorld Trade Center in New York, NY. Theoriginal idea was to bring both towers downand kill thousands of people, but it failedand only killed six people, but stillthousands were injured. Ramzi Yousef,Mahmud Abouhalima, MohammadSalameh, Nidal a. Ayyad, Abdul RahmanYasin, and Ahmad Ajaj were a group ofconspirators who planned it out. EyadIsmoil drove the truck carrying the bomb.This was all funded by Khaled SheikhMohammed.
    23. 23. The last key to everything tying in before9/11 was Khalid Sheik Mohammed. Hewas personally motivated by themistreatment of israel. He comes tobelieve the united states is debotched andirredeamable. In the philipeans he comesup with "Bojinka." Its a plan to blow up 12planes all at once. It never gets off theground, but it becomes a foundation for9/11.
    24. 24. The elements have now all have cometogether.The Violence of Ayman Al-Zawahiri, Theidea to use planes as weapons by KhalidSheikh Mohammed, The money andconnections of Osama bin laden, Religiousphilosophies of Sayyid Qutb, FinallyAbdullah Azzam. This is the deadlymixture that became 9/11.
    25. 25. Sources The book – The Looming Tower written by Lawrence Wright 369448.html l (Warning a few websites at the top gave me a virus)
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.