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Interactive Storytelling

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Jouni Smed
jouni.smed@utu.fi
http://www.iki.fi/smed
Course syllabus
• objective:

• credits: 5 cp.

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ to present the key concepts behind interactive
s...
Lectures
• lecture times

‣ Tuesdays 10–12 a.m., lecture room λ (C1027)
‣ Wednesdays 10–12 a.m., lecture room β (B1032)
‣ ...
Assessment
• assessment is based on both
‣ writing an essay and
‣ taking an examination

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

• you can...
Examinations
• electronic examination

‣ opens December 10, 2012
‣ closes March 31, 2013

• you can take the examination a...
Essay
• an essay of 10–15 pages on a chosen topic
(in English or in Finnish)

‣ topics and material are available in the c...
Essay (cont’d)
• grades and possible teacher’s comments
are announced privately through the
course’s moodle page

• all re...
Quick walkthrough

3. Return the PDF version of the essay before
December 13, 2012, 2 p.m. using the essay
return page.
4....
Grading
• grading is based on 20 points

‣ the examination gives at maximum 10 points
‣ the essay gives at maximum 10 poin...
Grading (cont’d)
• final grade:

grade: 1

‣ points: (12, 14]

grade: 2

‣ points: (14, 16]

grade: 3

‣ points: (16, 18]

...
Course homepage

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

http://bit.ly/intstory2012
Contents
1. Introduction to interactive storytelling
2. Analysis of storytelling
3. Strategies for interactive storytellin...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Introduction to
interactive storytelling
Interaction
• “Reciprocal action; action or influence of

persons or things on each other.” (Oxford
English Dictionary)
act...
Storytelling is about…
• the reasons for actions (not actions)
• people

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

(Spierling, 2002)
Linear psychological
narrative
• psychological buy-in by the audience
• willing suspension of disbelief

© 2008–2012 Jouni...
Typical features of
storytelling
• contingency: story time/space vs. real time/
space

• narrative representation: the way...
Comparison of different
narrative forms
Cinema

Theatre

Literature

Virtual reality

Contingency

low

medium

low

stron...
Models of user
engagement
•

actual roles that users play in relation to the
narrative experience (Aylett & Louchart, 2007...
Examples of interactive
storytelling
• inventing and telling a story to an audience
(e.g. children)

• (live action) role-...
Interactive digital
storytelling
• interactive digital storytelling application is

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

“designed for ...
Three partakers
Author

Interactive
storytelling
system

End-user
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Characters
Forms of interactive
entertainment
computer games
interactive fiction
hypertext fiction
digital storytelling
scriptwriting s...
Uses for interactive
storytelling systems
• art
• entertainment

‣ computer games

• education
‣ children

‣ information k...
Narrative thinking
• fundamental structuring of the human
experience

• autobiographical memory holds stories
about the se...
Narrative immersion
• spatial: a sense of place and pleasure taken
in exploring the story-world

• temporal: a desire to k...
Conventional narrative
constructed story

presented story

spectator

experienced story
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

author
Interactive narrative
user

experienced story

characters

external events
author

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

generated story
Narrative loop
EVENTS

cause

Affective
changes

World
state
changes

cause

cause
ACTIONS

(Aylett et al., 2011)

© 2008–...
Degree of interactivity
1. speed
‣ fast turnaround

2. depth
‣ human-likeness
‣ functional significance
‣ perceived complet...
How to interact with
stories?
1. what would change?
2. what would stay the same?
3. how do we make such a thing?

(Perlin,...
Problems for interactive
drama
1. temporal management of actions:
interesting narrative from the choices?
2. multimodal re...
Challenges for story
generation
1. themes
‣ betrayal, yearning, love, revenge etc.

2. story control
‣ the story must rema...
R&D challenges
1. agency
‣ primary feature offered to the players
‣ player has to be able to affect the plot directly

2. ...
R&D challenges (cont’d)
4. connecting generation and interface
‣ planning and drama management

5. terminology

(Stern, 20...
Narrative paradox
• “pre-authored plot structure conflicts with
the freedom of action and interaction
characteristics of th...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Analysis of storytelling
Sources
• Aristotle: Poetics (ca.
• Vladimir Propp:

• A.J. Greimas
• Roland Barthes
• Claude Bremond
• Brenda Laurel:

• ...
Aristotle: Poetics

Thought
Language
Pattern
Enactment

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Material cause

Character

Inferred formal...
Aristotle: Narrative forms
‣ events represented
through verbal
narration (diegesis)
‣ focus on the exploits
of a solitary ...
a) exposition
b) inciting incident
c) rising action
d) crisis
e) climax
f) falling action
g) dénouement

complication

e
d...
Third narrative form:
Epistemic narrative
• emerged in the 19th century
• superposition of two stories

‣ events that took...
Interactivity and narrative
forms
‣ accomplishement of a
mission
‣ used in many games

• epistemic

‣ player as a detectiv...
Russian formalism:
Model of narrative
1. Fabula
‣ logically and chronologically related series of events
caused/experience...
Vladimir Propp:
Morphology of the Folktale

‣ “act of a character defined from the point-ofview of its significance for the ...
Narratemes and spheres
• introduction
‣ βγδεζηθ

• the body of the story
‣ ABC↑

• the donor sequence
• the hero’s return
...
α – initial situation

↑ – departure

↓ – return

β – absentation

D – the first function
of the donor

Pr – pursuit, chase...
Example sequences
‣ δηθ – the villain succeeds in deceiving the victim
‣ DE – the hero is tested to get a magical agent
‣ ...
Example tale
• A tsar, three daughters (α). The daughters

• αβδABC↑H-IK↓W

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

go walking (β), overst...
• Villain
• Donor
• Helper
• Princess (and her father)
• Dispatcher
• Hero
• False hero

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Character...
Moves
• list of functions that make a subsection of

‣ one move follows directly another
‣ new move begins before the end ...
Joseph Campbell: The Hero
with a Thousand Faces
• monomyth (i.e. the hero’s journey)

‣ common pattern with strong referen...
Separation

Innocent world
of childhood

Freedom to live
Master of two worlds
Rescue

Call to adventure

Magic flight

Refu...
A.J. Greimas: Actant model
• first role-based analysis of narrative

‣ background: semantics and structuralist stance

• fo...
Generic actant model
Object

Sought-for person

Helper

Subject

Antagonist
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Dispatcher
Roland Barthes:
Interpretative codes
• ACT (action)

‣ generalization of narrative function
‣ action sequences
‣ backgroun...
Interpretative codes
(cont’d)
• SYM (symbolic)

‣ major cultural objects that symbolic (e.g., money)

• SEM (semantic)

‣ ...
Claude Bremond: Agent
and patient
• agent is responsible for the changes in the
narrative universe

‣ voluntary or uninten...
Brenda Laurel:
Computers as Theatre
• “When we look toward what is known

about the nature of interaction, why not
turn to...
Material for action

Material cause

Thought
Language
Pattern
Enactment

User interaction

Character

Inferred formal caus...
The flying wedge of
possibilities
Potential
Probable
Potential
t

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Possible

Necessary
Janet Murray: Hamlet on the
Holodeck
• can a computer provide the basis for an
expressive narrative form?

• Star Trek’s h...
Representational strategies

(Murray, 1997)
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

• navigable space
• encyclopedic capacity
• participat...
Phenomenal categories

(Murray, 1997)
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

• immersion
• agency
• transformation
Lessons from the
holodeck: goals to pursue

(Ryan, 2008)

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

• natural interface
• integration of use...
Mapping and recapping the
theoretical background 1(4)
Aristotle’s Poetics
Laurel: Computers as Theatre

Mateas & Stern: Fa...
Mapping and recapping the
theoretical background 2(4)
Derrida, Foucault, Barthes, Eco, Baudilard
Storyspace platform

Joyc...
Mapping and recapping the
theoretical background 3(4)
non-literary, non-western tradition
(e.g., oral narratives)

(Koenit...
Mapping and recapping the
theoretical background 4(4)
Barthes, Bremond, Prince, Genette, Chapman
narratology

(Koenitz, 20...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Strategies for
interactive storytelling
Strategies
• author-centric

‣ explicit authoring

• character-centric

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ emergent narrative
‣ imp...
Measures
• plot coherence

‣ the perception that the main events of a story
are causally relevant to the outcome of the st...
Author-centric
• models the creative process of a human
author

• explicit authoring: predefined template to
• strong plot ...
Example: The Oz Project’s
Interactive Drama Engine
Presentation

Drama manager

World
Character
Character

© 2008–2012 Jou...
Drama manager
techniques
• branching narrative
• universal plan

‣ beats (i.e. action–reaction pairs)
‣ interactive plan t...
Drama managers ways to
influence

(Crawford, 2005)

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

• environmental manipulation
• goal injection
•...
Character-centric strategy
• autonomous characters: models the mental
factors that affect how characters act

• the story ...
Emergent narrative
• term introduced by Aylett (1999)
• story emerges bottom up based on

characters described top down by...
Example: Reality TV
• emergent narrative as a source for a story
• participant
‣ motivated by money, fame etc.
‣ subjected...
Example: Reality TV
(cont’d)
• programme production team
‣ pre-production selections

- choice and definition of the main p...
Storyworld
recepient

designer

Narrative interpretation

Emergent system

storyworld = mental model

storyworld = model, ...
Gardening metaphor
• author-centric

‣ explicit authoring is like creating a paper flower

• character-centric

‣ implicit ...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Characters
Features of believable
agents
• personality

‣ unique and specific, not general

• emotion

‣ exhibit and respond personall...
Features of believable
agents (cont’d)
• social relationship

‣ interaction with others changes the relationships

• illus...
Character behaviour
1. low level (e.g. collision detection)
2. social interaction (e.g. introducing oneself)
3. idle behav...
Expressiveness
• independent from visual realism
• origins of expressive behaviour:
‣ agent itself
‣ human creator

© 2008...
Flashback: Crawford on
interaction…
• “a cyclic process between two or more
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

active agents in which...
Character’s interaction
• listen

‣ perception of the world

• think

• speak

‣ acting in the world

© 2008–2012 Jouni Sm...
The perception system in
VIBES
1. acquisition sensors: abstract description of
the world
2. perception filters: simulation ...
Crawford’s personality
model 1(2)
Accordance

Relationship

Integrity

“gullibility”

“trust”

Virtue

“willingness to see...
Crawford’s personality
model 2(2)
Volatility

Anger/Fear

Adrenaline

Joy/Sadness

Manic/Depressive

Arousal/Disgust

Sens...
Event-appraisal theory
• OCC-model (Ortony, Clore and Collins)
• emotional state
‣ positive/negative
‣ intensity

objects ...
OCC-model
Directed to other agents

hope – fear

admiration – reproach

joy – distress

hope – fear

pride – shame

love –...
Autobiographical memory
types
• type 0: agent is always telling the same
story

• type I: agent has a variety of stories b...
Autobiographical memory
types (cont’d)
• type III: agent tells and listens stories (i.e.

interprets the meaning and has a...
Memory in VIBES
• stores information (i.e. percept objects)
acquired about the world

‣ actor’s representation of the worl...
Memory in SAGA
• narrative memory stores a temporal
sequence of episodes

‣ cause-and-effect links between episodes
‣ cris...
Episodic memory
• personal history of an entity
‣ places and moments
‣ subjective feelings and goals

• requires: persiste...
Requirements for a full
episodic memory
1. storing complex hierarchical tasks
2. storing and reconstructing personal
situa...
Full episodic memory
(cont’d)
3. all available information is not stored
‣ perceivability
‣ importance
‣ attractiveness (o...
Late commitment
• character agent’s decisions
‣ in-character (IC)
‣ out-of-character (OOC)

• improvisational theatre: no ...
Late commitment (cont’d)
• explicit OOC communication
‣ framing operators

• late commitment

(Swartjes et al., 2008)

© 2...
Late commitment:
observations
• IC actions should not be selected to satisfy
the preconditions of framing operators

• an ...
Problem of believability:
The uncanny valley
• Masahiro Mori (1970):

• the uncanny valley: the area of repulsion

between...
The uncanny valley:
Movement and appearance
healthy
person

response

+

android/
gynoid
industrial
robot

corpse/
zombie
...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

End-user
Affordance
• interface design: opportunities for action
made available by an object or interface

• interface “cries out” ...
Choice problem
• how to choose from a large amount of
possible actions?

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

(Szilas, 2004)
Interface mapping function
• P: physically possible
actions

f

L

• L: logically (in the
story) possible
actions

‣ real ...
Interface mapping function
(cont’d)
• total

‣ non-surjective: filtering
interface
‣ non-injective: redundant
interface
‣ b...
Anticipation of an action
• author’s activity: plan the user’s inferences
• stability: P and L should remain stable
• surp...
User-centred actions
• ethical consistency
• motivational consistency
• relevance (history)
• cognitive load (opens/closes...
Inferring player states
• inferring player’s knowledge
• inferring player’s preferences
• inferring player’s goals

© 2008...
The role of the end-user?
• users probably do not want to be tragic or
comic heroes

• many users do not even want to be a...
Robin Laws: Seven player
types
1. power gamer: new abilities and equipment
2. butt-kicker: fight!
3. tactician: thinking ah...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Author
Author
• authoring = delivering content for
somebody else’s experience

• author defines

(Spierling, 2009; Spierling & Szi...
A contract with the author
• there is a reason why the author is leading
you through the story

• how does that work in an...
Narrative paradox and
authoring

• the author cannot expect the user to make

the right decision at the right moment or in...
Second person insight
• the ability to think in terms how the
expression will be perceived by the
audience

© 2008–2012 Jo...
Authoring challenges
• authored content depends on the run-time
system architecture

• the increase in the amount of conte...
Problems
• finding IS authors

‣ reluctance to reduce human affairs into logical
models

• abstraction

‣ writing must be a...
Problems (cont’d)
• the potential of engines underused

‣ reduction to linear or branching structure
‣ no inspiring exampl...
Boundaries of authoring
end-user

interaction

author

storyworld

IS
artefact

IS
experience

developer

(Spierling & Szi...
Principles of design
• main characters

‣ limit the number
‣ give clear relationships to one another within a
dramatic sit...
Principles of design
(cont’d)
• characters as foils for one another
‣ emphasize similarities and differences

• narrative ...
Potential influence
abstract
storyworld

action selection

action and
behaviour
models
(Spierling, 2009)

© 2008–2012 Jouni...
Models of actions, states
and events
1.possibility for action
2.actualization
3.result of the action

• von Wright: logic ...
Creative process of the
author
• debugging

‣ altering and adapting the story content to match
the authorial intent

• co-...
Authoring types
• content authoring

‣ which instances of story elements are in the
domain?
‣ which actions, goals etc. ma...
Iterative authoring
1. idea generation
‣ get inspired
‣ find flaws

‣ feel out the
storyscape
‣ detect surprising
behaviour
...
Principles of delayed
authoring

• AI in an IDS system is a decision-making
proxy for the interactive story’s authors

• d...
Authoring in emergent
narrative
• interactive story

‣ who tells?
‣ to whom?
‣ what is the story?

(Louchart et al., 2008)...
Sender and message
• sender

‣ narratorship shared between the system and the
interactor

• message

© 2008–2012 Jouni Sme...
Receiver
• the notion of agency
• not necessary to predict the consequences
of an action

• interactor can make choices th...
Landscape of possible
stories
• point: possible state
• climbing hill: moving towards dramatic
necessity (i.e., flying wedg...
Design suggestions (1)3
• justify the existing boundaries

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ spatial
‣ contextual
‣ interaction
Design suggestions (2)3
• critical mass for emergence

‣ density: how well the authored content serves to
create different...
Design suggestions (3)3
• dead ends

‣ narrative end = lack of content
‣ continuing process involving finding dead ends
and...
Process of authoring
• modelling a dramatic abstraction of reality

‣ how the characters behave (not how people are
behavi...
• Improv: scripts
• Hap/ABL: hierarchy of goals
• FSMs/hierarchical FSMs
• Motion Factory: graphical editors
• Softimage
•...
What does an author
want?
• testing

‣ debugging
‣ parameter tweaking
‣ replaying

‣ but what is actually the author’s rol...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Systems
General scheme of an IS
software
1. reasoning (decision-making, planning)
2. behaviour
3. animation (triggered by behaviou...
Four-level story engine
1. story engine (flow of the story)
‣ narrative function the next scene should fulfil;
gets story ac...
Four-level story engine
(cont’d)
axis: predefined – autonomous
1. strict – dynamically chosen scene
2. predefined scripts – ...
• CrossTalk
• Façade
• Interactive Drama Engine
• Makebelieve
• SAGA
• Storytron
• Virtual Storyteller

© 2008–2012 Jouni ...
CrossTalk
• interaction triangle: three screens
‣ virtual exhibition hostess
‣ changeable virtual exhibition visitors
‣ to...
Narrative structure vs.
story content
1. scene flow definition
2. scene content creation

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ author’s...
SceneManager
• scene

‣ pieces of user-edited dialogue
‣ coherent and closed unit wrt. message, agent
characterization or ...
SceneManager (cont’d)
• scene node

‣ prescribed
‣ customically created
‣ interrupt
‣ conditional
‣ probabilistic

© 2008–...
SceneManager (cont’d)
• user input

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ request and wait
‣ time-out events
‣ interrupt (seamless int...
Dialogue strategies: plan
operators

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

• context: goal and precondition
• dialogue content
• charact...
Façade
• story set-up

‣ player takes the role of a close friend of Trip and
Grace, a couple whose relationship is in trou...
System structure
• story comprises dozen carefully scripted
interactive narrative scenelets

• time is discretized into be...
Broad-and-shallow
approach
• idea inherited from the Oz project

‣ broad: all necessary features have an
implementation
‣ ...
Surface-text processing

1. map surface text into discourse acts

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

2. map discourse acts into chara...
Discourse acts
negative
exclamation

• express of
emotion

• unsure or
indecisive

• thank
• greet

• ally/oppose
characte...
Interactive Drama Engine
• prototype system

‣ non-linear narrative
‣ 3D characters
‣ graphical user-interface
© 2008–2012...
IDE architecture
Narrative engine
Narrative
structure

Action
generation

Action
selection

Behavioural engine

Narrative
...
Makebelieve
• virtual guide system, which uses
‣ Jess/CLIPS reasoning system
‣ OpenMind common sense data
‣ Unreal Tournam...
Story element
• name
• type of event
• location
• attributes (nature of

• special environment

• basic concepts

• subjec...
Method
1. initial situation; input
2. select a story element
3. add related story elements (causation)
4. translate accord...
SAGA
• no predefined story
• users interacting with autonomous

character collaboratively play the role of
the author

• di...
SAGA system
• based on Propp’s narrative morphology
• story definition
‣ initial story situation
‣ variable story schema

g...
Director agent
1. update situation
2. conflict? → select a new episode
3. current plot point achieved? → select the
next pl...
Storytron
• components

‣ authoring tool SWAT
‣ storyworld library

• launched 2006; discontinued 2011
• originally develo...
Virtual Storyteller
• multi-agent framework

(Theune et al., 2004;
Swartjes & Theune, 2006)

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ plo...
Plot generation
• select “episodic script” from a database
‣ setting: location, characters,objects
‣ goals
‣ constraints

...
Plot generation (cont’d)
• within episode characters are free to choose
action

© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

‣ subjected to pro...
General transition model
(GTN)
‣ G – goal
‣ A – action
‣ O – outcome
‣ E – event
‣ P – perception
‣ IE – internal event

•...
GTN (cont’d)
ψ
IE

φ/e

E

φ

P

ψ

m

G

ψ

m/e
m

A

φ
φ/e

ψ

O
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

ψ

ψ
Decision-making in
interactive storytelling

• six general properties of story events

• cf. the six questions in journali...
Story decisions and design
decisions
story decision

property

design decision

idea

what should happen?

result

what wa...
Story decision properties
for Façade
chooser

time

method

justification

idea

author

offline

imagination

no restrictio...
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed

Discussion and
conclusion
Adaptation for interactive
stories
media

• adaptation types
‣ scissors adaptation
‣ distilled adaptation
‣ expanded adapt...
Multiuser interactive
storytelling

• multiple users in application means handling
conflicts

‣ intervowen stories that con...
Too many heroes
• how to guarantee dramatically compelling
story to everyone?

• each human-controlled character needs a

...
Persistency
• how do we handle players entering and
leaving at any time?

‣ user’s character vanishes from the storyworld
...
Cheating
• every action within the storyworld should
be valid

• limitations exist

‣ e.g. zombie attack and “I’ve been sh...
Motivations for rereading
interactive stories 1(3)
• making sense of things

‣ new fragments to be reconciled into the ove...
Motivations for rereading
interactive stories 2(3)
• seeing things from a different perspective
‣ radical revision of

- p...
Motivations for rereading
interactive stories 3(3)
• reflecting on the techniques used

‣ appreciating or critiquing the wa...
Dramatis Personæ
1986–2002
Brenda Laurel

Michael Mateas
Andrew Stern

Chris Crawford

Janet Murray
© 2008–2012 Jouni Smed...
Dramatis Personæ
2003–
Stefan Göbel
Ruth Aylett
Sandy Louchart

Ulrike Spierling
Nicolas Szilas
Ivo Swartjes

Ana Paiva

M...
References
Ruth Aylett, "Narrative in virtual environments: Towards emergent narrative" in Papers from the 1999 AAAI Fall ...
References (cont’d)
Marc Cavazza & David Pizzi, "Narratology for interactive storytelling: A critical introduction", in Gö...
References (cont’d)
Sandy Louchart and Ruth Aylett, "Managing a non-linear scenario – a narrative evolution", in Subsol (e...
References (cont’d)
Janet Murray, “Why Paris needs Hector and Lancelot needs Mordred: Using traditional narrative roles an...
References (cont’d)
Ulrike Spierling, "Editorial: Digital storytelling", Computers & Graphics 26(1):1–2, 2002.
Ulrike Spie...
References (cont’d)
Ivo Swartjes, Edze Kruizinga & Mariët Theune, "Let’s pretend I had a sword: Late commitment in emergen...
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Interactive Storytelling - lecture slides 2012

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Lecture slides from the course Interactive Storytelling (autumn 2012). The aim of the course is to present the key concepts behind interactive storytelling as well as to review the proposed and existing systems.

The course begins with an introduction to storytelling and interactivity. There are two approaches to combine them: In character-centric storytelling, we focus on creating believable and complex characters and the story emerges from their interaction in a given setting. In author-centric storytelling, we focus on creating a plot that controls the character and adapts to changes while keeping the story dramatically compelling. The course ends with a broad review of existing and proposed interactive storytelling systems.

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Transcript of "Interactive Storytelling - lecture slides 2012"

  1. 1. Interactive Storytelling © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Jouni Smed jouni.smed@utu.fi http://www.iki.fi/smed
  2. 2. Course syllabus • objective: • credits: 5 cp. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ to present the key concepts behind interactive storytelling ‣ to review the proposed and existing interactive storytelling systems
  3. 3. Lectures • lecture times ‣ Tuesdays 10–12 a.m., lecture room λ (C1027) ‣ Wednesdays 10–12 a.m., lecture room β (B1032) ‣ no lectures: November 6, November 7, November 27, November 28 © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • October 30 – December 5, 2012
  4. 4. Assessment • assessment is based on both ‣ writing an essay and ‣ taking an examination © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • you cannot pass the course without both!
  5. 5. Examinations • electronic examination ‣ opens December 10, 2012 ‣ closes March 31, 2013 • you can take the examination at most three • for instructions and examination time reservations, see https://tenttis.utu.fi/ © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (3) times
  6. 6. Essay • an essay of 10–15 pages on a chosen topic (in English or in Finnish) ‣ topics and material are available in the course’s moodle page ‣ the essay has to follow the given style standard ‣ deadline: December 13, 2012 (Thursday) 2 p.m. ‣ papers returned after the deadline will not be graded! © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • the essay is returned as a PDF file
  7. 7. Essay (cont’d) • grades and possible teacher’s comments are announced privately through the course’s moodle page • all returned essays will be published in the ‣ grades or teacher’s comments are not made public © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed course’s moodle page in December 2012
  8. 8. Quick walkthrough 3. Return the PDF version of the essay before December 13, 2012, 2 p.m. using the essay return page. 4. Check your essay grade in the course’s moodle page. 5. Schedule and take an electronic examination. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 1. Pick topics that interest you from the list of topics. 2. Write the essay.
  9. 9. Grading • grading is based on 20 points ‣ the examination gives at maximum 10 points ‣ the essay gives at maximum 10 points • to pass the course you need more than 10 ‣ you cannot pass the course without both taking the examination and writing an essay! © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed points
  10. 10. Grading (cont’d) • final grade: grade: 1 ‣ points: (12, 14] grade: 2 ‣ points: (14, 16] grade: 3 ‣ points: (16, 18] grade: 4 ‣ points: (18, 20] grade: 5 © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ points: (10, 12]
  11. 11. Course homepage © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed http://bit.ly/intstory2012
  12. 12. Contents 1. Introduction to interactive storytelling 2. Analysis of storytelling 3. Strategies for interactive storytelling 4. Characters 5. End-user 7. Systems 8. Discussion and conclusion © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 6. Author
  13. 13. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Introduction to interactive storytelling
  14. 14. Interaction • “Reciprocal action; action or influence of persons or things on each other.” (Oxford English Dictionary) active agents in which each agent alternately listens, thinks and speaks” (Crawford, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • “a cyclic process between two or more
  15. 15. Storytelling is about… • the reasons for actions (not actions) • people © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Spierling, 2002)
  16. 16. Linear psychological narrative • psychological buy-in by the audience • willing suspension of disbelief © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Perlin, 2005)
  17. 17. Typical features of storytelling • contingency: story time/space vs. real time/ space • narrative representation: the way of presentation generation process (Aylett & Louchart, 2003) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • presence: viewer sharing story time/space • interactivity: participation in story
  18. 18. Comparison of different narrative forms Cinema Theatre Literature Virtual reality Contingency low medium low strong Narrative representation visual visual mental visual not physical physical Interactivity no no/yes no yes © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Presence not physical not physical but immersive
  19. 19. Models of user engagement • actual roles that users play in relation to the narrative experience (Aylett & Louchart, 2007) Examples none conventional audience non-participant control conventional authoring; film non-participant influence Forum Theatre; The Sims participant control points branching narrative freely participating characters LARP, emergent narrative © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Degree of interactivity
  20. 20. Examples of interactive storytelling • inventing and telling a story to an audience (e.g. children) • (live action) role-playing games • improvisational theatre (e.g. Forum • tour guiding • teaching © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Theatre)
  21. 21. Interactive digital storytelling • interactive digital storytelling application is © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed “designed for users (interactors) to take part in a concrete interactive experience, structured as a story represented in a computer” (Peinado & Gervás, 2007)
  22. 22. Three partakers Author Interactive storytelling system End-user © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Characters
  23. 23. Forms of interactive entertainment computer games interactive fiction hypertext fiction digital storytelling scriptwriting software role-playing games (RPGs) simulators narrative intelligence (Crawford, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • • • • • • • •
  24. 24. Uses for interactive storytelling systems • art • entertainment ‣ computer games • education ‣ children ‣ information kiosks ‣ tour guides © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • guidance
  25. 25. Narrative thinking • fundamental structuring of the human experience • autobiographical memory holds stories about the self © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Aylett & Louchart, 2007)
  26. 26. Narrative immersion • spatial: a sense of place and pleasure taken in exploring the story-world • temporal: a desire to know what will happen next (curiosity, surprise, suspense) • emotional: affective reactions to the story (Ryan, 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed and to the characters
  27. 27. Conventional narrative constructed story presented story spectator experienced story © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed author
  28. 28. Interactive narrative user experienced story characters external events author © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed generated story
  29. 29. Narrative loop EVENTS cause Affective changes World state changes cause cause ACTIONS (Aylett et al., 2011) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed cause
  30. 30. Degree of interactivity 1. speed ‣ fast turnaround 2. depth ‣ human-likeness ‣ functional significance ‣ perceived completeness (Crawford, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 3. choice
  31. 31. How to interact with stories? 1. what would change? 2. what would stay the same? 3. how do we make such a thing? (Perlin, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 4. where is the artist/author located wrt. the observer/reader
  32. 32. Problems for interactive drama 1. temporal management of actions: interesting narrative from the choices? 2. multimodal representation of character’s actions in a real-time 3D environment 4. authorability: artists should be able to express themselves (Szilas et al., 2007) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 3. interpreting player’s actions
  33. 33. Challenges for story generation 1. themes ‣ betrayal, yearning, love, revenge etc. 2. story control ‣ the story must remain dramatically compelling 3. strong, autonomous characters ‣ characters’ reasonable reactions and beliefs (Bringsjord, 2001) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 4. personalization
  34. 34. R&D challenges 1. agency ‣ primary feature offered to the players ‣ player has to be able to affect the plot directly 2. generation 3. interface ‣ expressive, multi-modal interface © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ real-time generation of content ‣ building blocks
  35. 35. R&D challenges (cont’d) 4. connecting generation and interface ‣ planning and drama management 5. terminology (Stern, 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ young field still lacks proper terms ‣ e.g., ‘storytelling’ or ‘storymaking’
  36. 36. Narrative paradox • “pre-authored plot structure conflicts with the freedom of action and interaction characteristics of the medium of real-time interactive graphical environment” © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Aylett & Louchart, 2007)
  37. 37. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Analysis of storytelling
  38. 38. Sources • Aristotle: Poetics (ca. • Vladimir Propp: • A.J. Greimas • Roland Barthes • Claude Bremond • Brenda Laurel: • Joseph Campbell: The • Janet Murray: Hamlet • Russian formalism (1916–1930s) Morphology of the Folktale (1928) Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) Computers as Theatre (1991) on the Holodeck (1997) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 335 BCE)
  39. 39. Aristotle: Poetics Thought Language Pattern Enactment © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Material cause Character Inferred formal cause Action
  40. 40. Aristotle: Narrative forms ‣ events represented through verbal narration (diegesis) ‣ focus on the exploits of a solitary hero ‣ story can be endlessly expanded ‣ motivations of the hero remain fairly simple • dramatic ‣ events represented through the imitation of action (mimesis) ‣ focus on the evolving networks of human relations ‣ action is mental rather than physical ‣ the dramatic arc © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • epic
  41. 41. a) exposition b) inciting incident c) rising action d) crisis e) climax f) falling action g) dénouement complication e d c a b f g time © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed The dramatic arc
  42. 42. Third narrative form: Epistemic narrative • emerged in the 19th century • superposition of two stories ‣ events that took place in the past ‣ an investigation that leads to their discovery • driven by the desire to know (e.g. mystery (Ryan, 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed story)
  43. 43. Interactivity and narrative forms ‣ accomplishement of a mission ‣ used in many games • epistemic ‣ player as a detective ‣ author-defined story – variable story ‣ elucidation of the mystery until the solution is found • dramatic ‣ most difficult to implement ‣ goals of characters evolve together with their relations ‣ requires constant redefinition ‣ simulation of human reasoning (Ryan, 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • epic
  44. 44. Russian formalism: Model of narrative 1. Fabula ‣ logically and chronologically related series of events caused/experienced by the characters in the storyworld 2. Sjužet 3. Media/text ‣ the surface of the story expressed in language signs © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ the finished arrangement (i.e. the plot, сюжет) of the narrated events as they are presented to the reader
  45. 45. Vladimir Propp: Morphology of the Folktale ‣ “act of a character defined from the point-ofview of its significance for the course of action” ‣ independent from the character who performs it © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • analysis of Russian folktales • 31 narrative units (i.e. narratemes) • character function
  46. 46. Narratemes and spheres • introduction ‣ βγδεζηθ • the body of the story ‣ ABC↑ • the donor sequence • the hero’s return ‣ ↓PrRsoLMNQExTUW © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ DEFGHJIK
  47. 47. α – initial situation ↑ – departure ↓ – return β – absentation D – the first function of the donor Pr – pursuit, chase E – hero’s reaction o – unrecognized arrival δ – violation ε – reconnaissance ζ – delivery η – trickery θ – complicity A – villainy F – provision or receipt of a magical agent G – spatial transference between two kingdoms, guidance B – mediation, the connective incident H – struggle C – beginning counteraction I – victory J – branding, marking K – resolution Rs – rescue L – unfounded claims M – difficult task N – solution Q – recognition Ex – exposure T – transfiguration U – punishment W – wedding © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed γ – interdiction
  48. 48. Example sequences ‣ δηθ – the villain succeeds in deceiving the victim ‣ DE – the hero is tested to get a magical agent ‣ HJ – the hero fights and gets injured ‣ ↓oLQEx – the hero returns but a false hero has taken his place; the hero is recognized and the false hero is exposed © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ ↓oMNQ – the hero returns but is not recognized until he passes a test
  49. 49. Example tale • A tsar, three daughters (α). The daughters • αβδABC↑H-IK↓W © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed go walking (β), overstay in the garden (δ). A dragon kidnaps them (A). A call for aid (B). Quest of three heroes (C↑). Three battles with the dragon (H-I), rescue of the maidens (K). Return (↓), reward (W)
  50. 50. • Villain • Donor • Helper • Princess (and her father) • Dispatcher • Hero • False hero © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Character roles
  51. 51. Moves • list of functions that make a subsection of ‣ one move follows directly another ‣ new move begins before the end of old move ‣ second move is interrupted by a third move ‣ two villainies occur at once ‣ two moves have a common ending ‣ two protagonists part at a road marker with an exchange of signalling objects © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed the story (usually ending on F, K, Rs or W)
  52. 52. Joseph Campbell: The Hero with a Thousand Faces • monomyth (i.e. the hero’s journey) ‣ common pattern with strong reference symbols • symbolic representation of the passage ‣ departure ‣ initiation ‣ return © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed from childhood to adulthood
  53. 53. Separation Innocent world of childhood Freedom to live Master of two worlds Rescue Call to adventure Magic flight Refusal of call Refusal of return Supernatural aid Crossing the first threshold Belly of the whale The Hero’s Journey Return The ultimate boon Apotheosis Road of trials Tests and ordeals Dragon battle Nadir Crucifixion Symbolic death/dismemberment Sparagmos Meeting with the Goddess Atonement to recognition by Father © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Initiation
  54. 54. A.J. Greimas: Actant model • first role-based analysis of narrative ‣ background: semantics and structuralist stance • formalization of Propp’s roles ‣ not for what they are but for what they do • the actant model can be instantiated by a (Cavazza & Pizzi, 2006) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed specific semantic field
  55. 55. Generic actant model Object Sought-for person Helper Subject Antagonist © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Dispatcher
  56. 56. Roland Barthes: Interpretative codes • ACT (action) ‣ generalization of narrative function ‣ action sequences ‣ background knowledge required for interpretation ‣ contextual knowledge © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • REF (reference)
  57. 57. Interpretative codes (cont’d) • SYM (symbolic) ‣ major cultural objects that symbolic (e.g., money) • SEM (semantic) ‣ choice of words to narrative events ‣ items that should trigger interpretation ‣ cues for future events ‣ elements of mystery relevant to the story © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • HER (hermeneutic)
  58. 58. Claude Bremond: Agent and patient • agent is responsible for the changes in the narrative universe ‣ voluntary or unintended ‣ types: influencer, improver, protector, frustrator • patient is influenced by the narrative actions • transient status: characters can alternate between the roles © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ awareness of the situation ‣ the situation itself
  59. 59. Brenda Laurel: Computers as Theatre • “When we look toward what is known about the nature of interaction, why not turn to those who manage it best – to those from the world of drama, of the stage, of the theatre?” (Laurel, 1991) ‣ designing an interface is the real problem ‣ creating a representational world that leaves the feeling of the interface behind © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • invisibility of the computer
  60. 60. Material for action Material cause Thought Language Pattern Enactment User interaction Character Inferred formal cause Action © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Neo-Aristotelian theory of interactive drama
  61. 61. The flying wedge of possibilities Potential Probable Potential t © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Possible Necessary
  62. 62. Janet Murray: Hamlet on the Holodeck • can a computer provide the basis for an expressive narrative form? • Star Trek’s holodeck as an ideal model of © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed interactive narrative
  63. 63. Representational strategies (Murray, 1997) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • navigable space • encyclopedic capacity • participation • procedurality
  64. 64. Phenomenal categories (Murray, 1997) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • immersion • agency • transformation
  65. 65. Lessons from the holodeck: goals to pursue (Ryan, 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • natural interface • integration of user actions within the story • frequent interaction • dynamic creation of the story • ability to create narrative immersion
  66. 66. Mapping and recapping the theoretical background 1(4) Aristotle’s Poetics Laurel: Computers as Theatre Mateas & Stern: Façade (Koenitz, 2010) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Carnagie Mellon: OZ project
  67. 67. Mapping and recapping the theoretical background 2(4) Derrida, Foucault, Barthes, Eco, Baudilard Storyspace platform Joyce: Afternoon Jackson: Patchwork Girl (Koenitz, 2010) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed hyperfiction
  68. 68. Mapping and recapping the theoretical background 3(4) non-literary, non-western tradition (e.g., oral narratives) (Koenitz, 2010) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Jennings: the book of ruins and desire Harrell: Griot system
  69. 69. Mapping and recapping the theoretical background 4(4) Barthes, Bremond, Prince, Genette, Chapman narratology (Koenitz, 2010) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed interactive fiction (IF)
  70. 70. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Strategies for interactive storytelling
  71. 71. Strategies • author-centric ‣ explicit authoring • character-centric © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ emergent narrative ‣ implicit creation
  72. 72. Measures • plot coherence ‣ the perception that the main events of a story are causally relevant to the outcome of the story • character believability (Riedl, 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ the perception that the events of a story are reasonably motivated by the beliefs, desires, and goals of the characters
  73. 73. Author-centric • models the creative process of a human author • explicit authoring: predefined template to • strong plot coherence • not so strong character believability © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed follow runtime
  74. 74. Example: The Oz Project’s Interactive Drama Engine Presentation Drama manager World Character Character © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Player Character
  75. 75. Drama manager techniques • branching narrative • universal plan ‣ beats (i.e. action–reaction pairs) ‣ interactive plan trees (e.g. HTN) ‣ anticipation of every possible action ‣ combinatorial explosion (Louchart & Aylett, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • problems
  76. 76. Drama managers ways to influence (Crawford, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • environmental manipulation • goal injection • shifting personality • ticking clock of doom • dropping the fourth wall
  77. 77. Character-centric strategy • autonomous characters: models the mental factors that affect how characters act • the story emerges from the characters’ decisions and interaction • implicit creation: narrative planted • strong character believability • not so strong plot coherence © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed beforehand
  78. 78. Emergent narrative • term introduced by Aylett (1999) • story emerges bottom up based on characters described top down by the author © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • exhibits perpetual novelty
  79. 79. Example: Reality TV • emergent narrative as a source for a story • participant ‣ motivated by money, fame etc. ‣ subjected to entertain the spectators ‣ gets entertainment ‣ lacks influence on the narrative © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • spectator
  80. 80. Example: Reality TV (cont’d) • programme production team ‣ pre-production selections - choice and definition of the main protagonists - designing the world environment to foster emotions ‣ performance time control (Louchart & Aylett, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed - tasks, eliminations etc. - compiling a broadcast to the spectators
  81. 81. Storyworld recepient designer Narrative interpretation Emergent system storyworld = mental model storyworld = model, rules world state → mental state world state → world state states, actions, events generating from the rules states, actions, events © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed reconstruct storyworld by inference (Spierling, 2007)
  82. 82. Gardening metaphor • author-centric ‣ explicit authoring is like creating a paper flower • character-centric ‣ implicit creation is like planting a flower © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Spierling, 2007)
  83. 83. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Characters
  84. 84. Features of believable agents • personality ‣ unique and specific, not general • emotion ‣ exhibit and respond personally-specifically • self-motivation • change ‣ growth and change with time (wrt. personality) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ internal drives and desires
  85. 85. Features of believable agents (cont’d) • social relationship ‣ interaction with others changes the relationships • illusion of life (Mateas, 2002) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ multiple goals ‣ broad capabilities ‣ quick reactions
  86. 86. Character behaviour 1. low level (e.g. collision detection) 2. social interaction (e.g. introducing oneself) 3. idle behaviour 4. targeted behaviour (i.e. go for the goal!) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Fairclough & Cunningham, 2002)
  87. 87. Expressiveness • independent from visual realism • origins of expressive behaviour: ‣ agent itself ‣ human creator © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Szilas, 2007)
  88. 88. Flashback: Crawford on interaction… • “a cyclic process between two or more © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed active agents in which each agent alternately listens, thinks and speaks”
  89. 89. Character’s interaction • listen ‣ perception of the world • think • speak ‣ acting in the world © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ coloured by the character’s personality ‣ associated with and stored to the character’s memory
  90. 90. The perception system in VIBES 1. acquisition sensors: abstract description of the world 2. perception filters: simulation of the physical sensors (Sanchez et al., 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 3. cognitive filters: support for the decisionmaking
  91. 91. Crawford’s personality model 1(2) Accordance Relationship Integrity “gullibility” “trust” Virtue “willingness to see good” “virtue perceived” Power “timidity” “fear of power” Intelligence “judging others wise” “respect” “vanity” “attractiveness perceived” Attractiveness © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Intrinsic
  92. 92. Crawford’s personality model 2(2) Volatility Anger/Fear Adrenaline Joy/Sadness Manic/Depressive Arousal/Disgust Sensuality (Crawford, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Mood
  93. 93. Event-appraisal theory • OCC-model (Ortony, Clore and Collins) • emotional state ‣ positive/negative ‣ intensity objects varies according to their emotional state (Theune et al., 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • agents reaction to events, actions and
  94. 94. OCC-model Directed to other agents hope – fear admiration – reproach joy – distress hope – fear pride – shame love – hate © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Directed to agent itself
  95. 95. Autobiographical memory types • type 0: agent is always telling the same story • type I: agent has a variety of stories but not within the conversational context context best © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • type II: agent selects a story that fits the
  96. 96. Autobiographical memory types (cont’d) • type III: agent tells and listens stories (i.e. interprets the meaning and has a response) • type IV: a living, autonomous agent (i.e. personality) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Ibanez et al., 2003)
  97. 97. Memory in VIBES • stores information (i.e. percept objects) acquired about the world ‣ actor’s representation of the world ‣ knowledge the actor has acquired • records consecutive internal states of the (Sanchez et al., 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed actor (e.g. wants, emotions)
  98. 98. Memory in SAGA • narrative memory stores a temporal sequence of episodes ‣ cause-and-effect links between episodes ‣ crisis ‣ climax ‣ resolution (Machado et al., 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • episode comprises
  99. 99. Episodic memory • personal history of an entity ‣ places and moments ‣ subjective feelings and goals • requires: persistent world and multiple actors scope (Brom et al., 2007) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • autobiographic memory: longer, lifetime
  100. 100. Requirements for a full episodic memory 1. storing complex hierarchical tasks 2. storing and reconstructing personal situations © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ what, with which and why? ‣ who saw and what did he do?
  101. 101. Full episodic memory (cont’d) 3. all available information is not stored ‣ perceivability ‣ importance ‣ attractiveness (or salience) 5. coherence: trust in the stored data (Brom et al., 2007) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 4. large time scale: the importance of forgetting (details reduced, events merged)
  102. 102. Late commitment • character agent’s decisions ‣ in-character (IC) ‣ out-of-character (OOC) • improvisational theatre: no agreed upon ‣ implicit OOC communication (e.g. “Hello, daughter.”) (Swartjes et al., 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed storyworld but framing as the actors go along
  103. 103. Late commitment (cont’d) • explicit OOC communication ‣ framing operators • late commitment (Swartjes et al., 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ goal management: goals from OOC if no other goals exist ‣ action selection: agents can create OOC plans for their goals
  104. 104. Late commitment: observations • IC actions should not be selected to satisfy the preconditions of framing operators • an action contradicting a framing operator has to be ordered after the framing operator • all characters must unconditionally accept (Swartjes et al., 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed all framing operators
  105. 105. Problem of believability: The uncanny valley • Masahiro Mori (1970): • the uncanny valley: the area of repulsion between “barely human” and “fully human” © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ the more human-like the robot, the more positive the emotional response ‣ at some point the response becomes quickly a strong repulsion ‣ as the appearance and motion improve, emotional response becomes positive again
  106. 106. The uncanny valley: Movement and appearance healthy person response + android/ gynoid industrial robot corpse/ zombie bunraku puppet prosthetic hand – 0% human-likeness 100%
  107. 107. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed End-user
  108. 108. Affordance • interface design: opportunities for action made available by an object or interface • interface “cries out” for the action to be taken © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Mateas, 2002)
  109. 109. Choice problem • how to choose from a large amount of possible actions? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Szilas, 2004)
  110. 110. Interface mapping function • P: physically possible actions f L • L: logically (in the story) possible actions ‣ real affordances © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed P ‣ perceived affordances
  111. 111. Interface mapping function (cont’d) • total ‣ non-surjective: filtering interface ‣ non-injective: redundant interface ‣ bijective: direct interface ‣ free interface: free interface © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • partial
  112. 112. Anticipation of an action • author’s activity: plan the user’s inferences • stability: P and L should remain stable • surprise: counters stability ‣ new possibility should remain in the selection ‣ addition in slow pace ‣ freeze or fill in the time ‣ semi-autonomy ‣ ellipsis © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • duration of interaction
  113. 113. User-centred actions • ethical consistency • motivational consistency • relevance (history) • cognitive load (opens/closes narrative processes) conflict) (Szilas et al., 2007) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • conflict (exhibits or pushes towards a
  114. 114. Inferring player states • inferring player’s knowledge • inferring player’s preferences • inferring player’s goals © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Thue et al., 2008)
  115. 115. The role of the end-user? • users probably do not want to be tragic or comic heroes • many users do not even want to be actors but marginally involved observers or confidantes (Ryan, 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ a peripheral character affecting the world and observing the outcome (i.e. agent and spectator)
  116. 116. Robin Laws: Seven player types 1. power gamer: new abilities and equipment 2. butt-kicker: fight! 3. tactician: thinking ahead 4. specialist: sticks with his favourite character 6. storyteller: plot threads 7. casual gamer: in the background © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 5. method actor: want to test his personal traits
  117. 117. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Author
  118. 118. Author • authoring = delivering content for somebody else’s experience • author defines (Spierling, 2009; Spierling & Szilas, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ actions ‣ states ‣ events
  119. 119. A contract with the author • there is a reason why the author is leading you through the story • how does that work in an interactive story? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Perlin, 2005)
  120. 120. Narrative paradox and authoring • the author cannot expect the user to make the right decision at the right moment or in the right place • author’s role is to write interesting characters and rely on their ability to interact with one another user’s inner state (Louchart & Aylett, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • author must be extremely attentive to the
  121. 121. Second person insight • the ability to think in terms how the expression will be perceived by the audience © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Crawford, 2005)
  122. 122. Authoring challenges • authored content depends on the run-time system architecture • the increase in the amount of content • not a single author task © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Aylett et al., 2011)
  123. 123. Problems • finding IS authors ‣ reluctance to reduce human affairs into logical models • abstraction ‣ writing must be at the level of story-related abstract structures ‣ e.g., XML, Excel • algorithm-centered story design © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • formatted and constrained writing
  124. 124. Problems (cont’d) • the potential of engines underused ‣ reduction to linear or branching structure ‣ no inspiring examples, lack of prototypes • authoring and programming intersecting (Spierling, 2009; Spierling & Szilas, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ storyworld and engine have a blurry line ‣ immaturity of the medium
  125. 125. Boundaries of authoring end-user interaction author storyworld IS artefact IS experience developer (Spierling & Szilas, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed runtime engine
  126. 126. Principles of design • main characters ‣ limit the number ‣ give clear relationships to one another within a dramatic situation • character definitions • parallel characters ‣ draw clear contrasts (e.g., rivals, friends, enemies) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ along the spectrum based on the value system central to the story
  127. 127. Principles of design (cont’d) • characters as foils for one another ‣ emphasize similarities and differences • narrative events (Murray, 2011) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ combine functions of an overarching frame story ‣ create coherent nested sequences
  128. 128. Potential influence abstract storyworld action selection action and behaviour models (Spierling, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed staging / shape of events (representation) narrative discourse / sequence of events
  129. 129. Models of actions, states and events 1.possibility for action 2.actualization 3.result of the action • von Wright: logic of 3.state without the action • AI planning 1.pre-condition 2.action 3.post-condition (Spierling, 2009) action 1.intial state 2.end state after action © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • Bremond: elementary sequence
  130. 130. Creative process of the author • debugging ‣ altering and adapting the story content to match the authorial intent • co-creation (Swartjes & Theune, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ embracing the possible stories and letting it change the original authorial intent
  131. 131. Authoring types • content authoring ‣ which instances of story elements are in the domain? ‣ which actions, goals etc. may occur? • process authoring (Swartjes & Theune, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ how do the element connect causally? ‣ when do the elements occur?
  132. 132. Iterative authoring 1. idea generation ‣ get inspired ‣ find flaws ‣ feel out the storyscape ‣ detect surprising behaviour 2. implementation ‣ add new content and processes ‣ constrain the domain (Swartjes & Theune, 2009) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 3. simulation
  133. 133. Principles of delayed authoring • AI in an IDS system is a decision-making proxy for the interactive story’s authors • delay story decisions made online: maximize the chance of new player information authoring process: it is better informed by inferred player information? (Thue et al., 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • a story decision arising during the
  134. 134. Authoring in emergent narrative • interactive story ‣ who tells? ‣ to whom? ‣ what is the story? (Louchart et al., 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • sender, receiver, message
  135. 135. Sender and message • sender ‣ narratorship shared between the system and the interactor • message © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ the interactor can construct their own message
  136. 136. Receiver • the notion of agency • not necessary to predict the consequences of an action • interactor can make choices they would • willingness to play within the role and its constraints © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed not do in real life (even if they know the consequences)
  137. 137. Landscape of possible stories • point: possible state • climbing hill: moving towards dramatic necessity (i.e., flying wedge) • valley: offers potential mountains © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Louchart et al., 2008)
  138. 138. Design suggestions (1)3 • justify the existing boundaries © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ spatial ‣ contextual ‣ interaction
  139. 139. Design suggestions (2)3 • critical mass for emergence ‣ density: how well the authored content serves to create different paths ‣ added content © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed - new possibilities - widens the boundaries and reduces density
  140. 140. Design suggestions (3)3 • dead ends ‣ narrative end = lack of content ‣ continuing process involving finding dead ends and resolving by adding new content © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Louchart et al., 2008)
  141. 141. Process of authoring • modelling a dramatic abstraction of reality ‣ how the characters behave (not how people are behaving in reality) • modelling implies complexity reduction ‣ too much generalization can lead to uninteresting stories plot (Louchart et al., 2008) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • author should not think in the terms of
  142. 142. • Improv: scripts • Hap/ABL: hierarchy of goals • FSMs/hierarchical FSMs • Motion Factory: graphical editors • Softimage • Virtools: flow charts • BEcool: oriented graphs (Szilas, 2007) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Authoring tools and methods
  143. 143. What does an author want? • testing ‣ debugging ‣ parameter tweaking ‣ replaying ‣ but what is actually the author’s role in interactive storytelling? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • feedback from the users • artistic control
  144. 144. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Systems
  145. 145. General scheme of an IS software 1. reasoning (decision-making, planning) 2. behaviour 3. animation (triggered by behaviour) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Szilas, 2007)
  146. 146. Four-level story engine 1. story engine (flow of the story) ‣ narrative function the next scene should fulfil; gets story acts 2. scene action engine (play scene using a narrative function) 4. actor avatar engine (Spierling et al., 2002) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 3. character conversation engine (sends stage directions)
  147. 147. Four-level story engine (cont’d) axis: predefined – autonomous 1. strict – dynamically chosen scene 2. predefined scripts – generated scripts 3. dialogue – intelligent agent 4. stored animations – adapted animations © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed •
  148. 148. • CrossTalk • Façade • Interactive Drama Engine • Makebelieve • SAGA • Storytron • Virtual Storyteller © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Reviewed systems
  149. 149. CrossTalk • interaction triangle: three screens ‣ virtual exhibition hostess ‣ changeable virtual exhibition visitors ‣ touch screen for the user’s choices © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Klesen et al., 2003)
  150. 150. Narrative structure vs. story content 1. scene flow definition 2. scene content creation © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ author’s scripts ‣ automatic dialogue generation
  151. 151. SceneManager • scene ‣ pieces of user-edited dialogue ‣ coherent and closed unit wrt. message, agent characterization or punchline • compound scene = linked atomic scenes • scene group = set of equivalent atomic • scene flow: narrative structure linking the scenes © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed scenes
  152. 152. SceneManager (cont’d) • scene node ‣ prescribed ‣ customically created ‣ interrupt ‣ conditional ‣ probabilistic © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • scene transition
  153. 153. SceneManager (cont’d) • user input © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ request and wait ‣ time-out events ‣ interrupt (seamless interaction) ‣ concurrent event handling (affect long-term behaviour)
  154. 154. Dialogue strategies: plan operators © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • context: goal and precondition • dialogue content • characters: role & personality • role & meta-role (trick for immersion)
  155. 155. Façade • story set-up ‣ player takes the role of a close friend of Trip and Grace, a couple whose relationship is in trouble ‣ events takes place at Trip’s and Grace’s home where the player is invited to have a cocktail ‣ moving and interacting in a 3D environment ‣ typing in utterances (Mateas, 2002; Mateas & Stern, 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • player’s control
  156. 156. System structure • story comprises dozen carefully scripted interactive narrative scenelets • time is discretized into beats ‣ the smallest unit of a value change (i.e. an action– reaction pair) the relatively linear set pieces © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • techniques to steer the narrative towards
  157. 157. Broad-and-shallow approach • idea inherited from the Oz project ‣ broad: all necessary features have an implementation ‣ shallow: some features could have been performed better necessary intelligently, in a wide range of situations © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • characters can act believably, but not
  158. 158. Surface-text processing 1. map surface text into discourse acts © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 2. map discourse acts into character responses
  159. 159. Discourse acts negative exclamation • express of emotion • unsure or indecisive • thank • greet • ally/oppose character • don’t understand • apologise • praise/criticize • flirt • pacify • explain • advice • refer to • ask to share intimate thoughts • say goodbye • miscellaneous discourse act • can’t understand © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • agree/disagree • positive/
  160. 160. Interactive Drama Engine • prototype system ‣ non-linear narrative ‣ 3D characters ‣ graphical user-interface © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Szilas et al., 2007)
  161. 161. IDE architecture Narrative engine Narrative structure Action generation Action selection Behavioural engine Narrative GUI Game engine Player © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Text generation
  162. 162. Makebelieve • virtual guide system, which uses ‣ Jess/CLIPS reasoning system ‣ OpenMind common sense data ‣ Unreal Tournament engine © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed (Ibanez et al., 2003)
  163. 163. Story element • name • type of event • location • attributes (nature of • special environment • basic concepts • subject: of the fact • object: of the fact (defined in knowledge base) • date • granularity: ‘size’ • effects: caused by this © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed the element) condition
  164. 164. Method 1. initial situation; input 2. select a story element 3. add related story elements (causation) 4. translate according to the guide’s attitude 5. consider common sense rules 7. generate storyboard © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 6. extend story with common sense
  165. 165. SAGA • no predefined story • users interacting with autonomous character collaboratively play the role of the author • director: guide the accomplishment of a (Machado et al., 2004) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed meaningful story
  166. 166. SAGA system • based on Propp’s narrative morphology • story definition ‣ initial story situation ‣ variable story schema goals → plan → hierarchy of goals and actions © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • function → plot point → set of generic
  167. 167. Director agent 1. update situation 2. conflict? → select a new episode 3. current plot point achieved? → select the next plot point 5. new story element introduction needed? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed 4. reflection event needed?
  168. 168. Storytron • components ‣ authoring tool SWAT ‣ storyworld library • launched 2006; discontinued 2011 • originally developed under the name (Crawford, 2005) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Erasmatron
  169. 169. Virtual Storyteller • multi-agent framework (Theune et al., 2004; Swartjes & Theune, 2006) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ plot generation ‣ natural language generation ‣ presentation by an embodied agent
  170. 170. Plot generation • select “episodic script” from a database ‣ setting: location, characters,objects ‣ goals ‣ constraints before carrying out a plan © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • character asks the director’s permission
  171. 171. Plot generation (cont’d) • within episode characters are free to choose action © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ subjected to probabilistic emotions (OCC-model) ‣ example: 90% fear means 0.9 probability of choosing a cowardly action
  172. 172. General transition model (GTN) ‣ G – goal ‣ A – action ‣ O – outcome ‣ E – event ‣ P – perception ‣ IE – internal event • causal relationships ‣ φ – physical causality ‣ m – motivation ‣ ψ – psychological causality ‣ e – enablement © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • elements
  173. 173. GTN (cont’d) ψ IE φ/e E φ P ψ m G ψ m/e m A φ φ/e ψ O © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ψ ψ
  174. 174. Decision-making in interactive storytelling • six general properties of story events • cf. the six questions in journalism ‣ who? what? when? where? why? how? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ idea: what is the occurring action ‣ actors: who or what is acting or being acted upon ‣ time: when does the action occur ‣ place: where does the action occur ‣ actions: what changes ‣ reasons: why does the action occur (Thue et al., 2008)
  175. 175. Story decisions and design decisions story decision property design decision idea what should happen? result what was decided? actors who should be involved? chooser who made the decision? time when should it happen time when was the decision made? place where should it happen? — — actions how should it happen? method how was the decision made? reasons why should the actors act? justification why was the decision made in that way? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed property
  176. 176. Story decision properties for Façade chooser time method justification idea author offline imagination no restrictions actors author offline imagination no restrictions follow dramatic principle / respond to player player & author online & offline place author offline imagination no restrictions actions player & author online & offline interruptible scripts allow player interactions reasons author offline imagination no restrictions © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed time tension arc / player interest
  177. 177. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Discussion and conclusion
  178. 178. Adaptation for interactive stories media • adaptation types ‣ scissors adaptation ‣ distilled adaptation ‣ expanded adaptation ‣ straight adaptation ‣ wild adaptation • adaptation in interactive storytelling: expanded or wild ‣ formalize the story into an abstract form ‣ make a creative interpretation and adaptation (Spierling & Hoffmann, 2010) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • translation between
  179. 179. Multiuser interactive storytelling • multiple users in application means handling conflicts ‣ intervowen stories that consistent, responsive and compelling ‣ solving the too-many-heroes problem ‣ maintaining persistency ‣ preventing cheating (Smed, 2011) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • challenges
  180. 180. Too many heroes • how to guarantee dramatically compelling story to everyone? • each human-controlled character needs a ‣ each new brings along extras ‣ limit the number of human-controlled characters © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed group of computer-controlled characters to support them
  181. 181. Persistency • how do we handle players entering and leaving at any time? ‣ user’s character vanishes from the storyworld ‣ user’s character becomes a computer-controlled character ‣ user can give tactical level instruction to character to follow during the absence © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • when the user leaves the storyworld
  182. 182. Cheating • every action within the storyworld should be valid • limitations exist ‣ e.g. zombie attack and “I’ve been shot” in Façade ‣ is collusion cheating in an interactive story? © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • how about multiple users?
  183. 183. Motivations for rereading interactive stories 1(3) • making sense of things ‣ new fragments to be reconciled into the overall understanding of the story • finding out more • trying out “what-if” scenarios ‣ different choices can lead to different outcomes © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ there is more to the story than can be seen on the surface
  184. 184. Motivations for rereading interactive stories 2(3) • seeing things from a different perspective ‣ radical revision of - player’s model of the storyworld - character’s personality and motivation - causal connections ‣ process of looking for an interpretation of the text © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed • looking for a deeper meaning
  185. 185. Motivations for rereading interactive stories 3(3) • reflecting on the techniques used ‣ appreciating or critiquing the ways in which the text achieves its effects • figuring out how the system works (Mitchell, 2010) © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed ‣ what is the underlying role system
  186. 186. Dramatis Personæ 1986–2002 Brenda Laurel Michael Mateas Andrew Stern Chris Crawford Janet Murray © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Joseph Bates
  187. 187. Dramatis Personæ 2003– Stefan Göbel Ruth Aylett Sandy Louchart Ulrike Spierling Nicolas Szilas Ivo Swartjes Ana Paiva Mariët Theune © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Marc Cavazza
  188. 188. References Ruth Aylett, "Narrative in virtual environments: Towards emergent narrative" in Papers from the 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium, Technical report FS-99-01, AAAAI Press, pp. 83–86, 1999. Ruth Aylett & Sandy Louchart, "Towards a narrative theory of virtual reality", Virtual Reality 7(1):2–9, 2003. Ruth Aylett & Sandy Louchart, "Being there: Participants and spectator in interactive narrative", in Cavazza & Donikian (eds.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, ICVS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4871, pp. 117–128, 2007. Ruth Aylett, Marco Vala, Pedro Sequeira & Ana Paiva, "FearNot! – An emergent narrative approach to virtual dramas for anti-bullying education", in Cavazza & Donikian (eds.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, ICVS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4871, pp. 202–205, 2007. Ruth Aylett, Sandy Louchart & Allan Weallans, “Research in interactive drama environments, role-play and story-telling”, in Si, Thue, André, Lester, Tanenbaum & Zammitto (eds.) Interactive Storytelling: 4th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2011, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 7069, pp. 1–12, 2011. Cyril Brom, Klára Pešková & Jiří Lukavský, "What does your actor remember? Towards characters with a full episodic memory", in Cavazza & Donikian (eds.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, ICVS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4871, pp. 89–101, 2007. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Selmer Bringsjord, "Is it possible to build dramatically compelling interactive digital entertainment?", Game Studies 1(1), 2001.
  189. 189. References (cont’d) Marc Cavazza & David Pizzi, "Narratology for interactive storytelling: A critical introduction", in Göbel, Malkewitz and Iurgel (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Third International Conference,TIDSE 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4326, pp. 72–83, 2006. Chris Crawford, On Interactive Storytelling, New Riders, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2005. Chris Fairclough, Story Games and the OPIATE System, PhD thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, 2004. Chris Fairclough & Pádraig Cunningham, "An interactive story engine", in O'Neill, Sutcliffe, Ryan, Eaton & Griffith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th Irish International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence vol 2464, pp. 171– 176, 2002. Jesus Ibanez, Ruth Aylett & Rocio Ruiz-Rodarte,"Storytelling in virtual environments from a virtual guide perspective", Virtual Reality 7(1): 30–42, 2003. Martin Klesen, Michael Kipp, Patrick Gebhard & Thomas Rist, "Staging exhibitions: methods and tools for modelling narrative structure to produce interactive performances with virtual actors", Virtual Reality 7(1):17–29, 2003. Brenda Laurel, Computers as Theatre, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1991. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Hartmut Koenitz, “Towards a theoretical framework for interactive digital narrative”, in Aylett, Lim, Louchart, Petta & Riedl (eds.) Interactive Storytelling: 3rd Joint Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2010, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 6432, pp. 176–185, 2010.
  190. 190. References (cont’d) Sandy Louchart and Ruth Aylett, "Managing a non-linear scenario – a narrative evolution", in Subsol (ed.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Third International Conference,VS 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3805, pp. 148–157, 2005. Sandy Louchart, Ivo Swartjes, Michael Kriegel & Ruth Aylett, "Purposeful authoring for emergent narrative", in Spierling & Szilas (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5334, pp. 273–284, 2008. Isabel Machado, Paul Brna & Ana Paiva, "1, 2, 3... action! Directing real actors and virtual characters", in Göbel, Spierling, Hoffman, Iurgel, Schneider, Dechau and Feix (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Second International Conference,TIDSE 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3105, pp. 36–41, 2004. Michael Mateas, Interactive Drama, Art and Artificial Intelligence, PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2002. Michael Mateas & Andrew Stern, "Natural language understanding in Façade: Surface-text processing", in Göbel, Spierling, Hoffman, Iurgel, Schneider, Dechau and Feix (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Second International Conference,TIDSE 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3105, pp. 3–13, 2004. Janet Murray, Hamlet on the Holodeck, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1997. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Alex Mitchell, “Motivations for rereading in interactive stories: a preliminary investigation”, in Aylett, Lim, Louchart, Petta & Riedl (eds.) Interactive Storytelling: 3rd Joint Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2010, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 6432, pp. 232–235, 2010.
  191. 191. References (cont’d) Janet Murray, “Why Paris needs Hector and Lancelot needs Mordred: Using traditional narrative roles and functions for dramatic compression in interactive narrative”, in Si, Thue, André, Lester, Tanenbaum & Zammitto (eds.) Interactive Storytelling: 4th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2011, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 7069, pp. 13–24, 2011. Federico Peinado & Pablo Gervás, "Automatic direction of interactive storytelling: formalizing the game master paradigm", in Cavazza & Donikian (eds.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, ICVS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4871, pp. 196–201, 2007. Ken Perlin, "Toward interactive narrative", in Subsol (ed.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Third International Conference,VS 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3805, pp. 135–147, 2005. Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA, 1968. Mark O. Riedl, Narrative Generation: Balancing Plot and Character, PhD thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA, 2004. Marie-Laure Ryan, "Interactive narrative, plot types, and interpersonal relations", in Spierling & Szilas (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5334, pp. 6–13, 2008. Jouni Smed, “Once upon a time: The convergence of interactive storytelling and computer games”, in Cruz-Cunha, Carvalho & Tavares (eds.) Business,Technological and Social Dimensions of Computer Games: Multidisciplinary Developments, Information Science Reference, Hershey, PA, USA, pp. 115–123, 2011. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Stéphane Sanchez, Olivier Balet, Hervé Luga & Yves Duthen,"Autonomous virtual actors", in Göbel, Spierling, Hoffman, Iurgel, Schneider, Dechau and Feix (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Second International Conference, TIDSE 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3105, pp. 68–78, 2004.
  192. 192. References (cont’d) Ulrike Spierling, "Editorial: Digital storytelling", Computers & Graphics 26(1):1–2, 2002. Ulrike Spierling, Dieter Grasbon, Norbert Braun & Ido Iurgel, "Setting the scene: playing digital director in interactive storytelling and creation", Computers & Graphics 26(1):31–44, 2002. Ulrike Spierling, "Adding aspects of 'implicit creation'' to the authoring process in interactive stories", in Cavazza & Donikian (eds.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, ICVS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4871, pp. 13–25, 2007. Ulrike Spierling, "Conceiving interactive story events", in Iurgel, Zagalo & Petta (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. Second Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5915, pp. 292–297, 2009. Ulrike Spierling & Nicolas Szilas, "Authoring issues beyond tools", in Iurgel, Zagalo & Petta (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. Second Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5915, pp. 50–61, 2009. Ulrike Spierling & Steve Hoffmann, “Exploring narrative interpretation and adaptation for interactive story creation”, in Aylett, Lim, Louchart, Petta & Riedl (eds.) Interactive Storytelling: 3rd Joint Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2010, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 6432, pp. 50–61, 2010. Ivo Swartjes & Mariët Theune, "A fabula model for emergent narrative", in Göbel, Malkewitz and Iurgel (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Third International Conference,TIDSE 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4326, pp. 49–60, 2006. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Andrew Stern, "Embracing the combinatorial explosion: A brief prescription for interactive story R&D", in Spierling & Szilas (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5334, pp. 1–5, 2008.
  193. 193. References (cont’d) Ivo Swartjes, Edze Kruizinga & Mariët Theune, "Let’s pretend I had a sword: Late commitment in emergent narrative", in Spierling & Szilas (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5334, pp. 230–241, 2008. Ivo Swartjes & Mariët Theune, "Iterative authoring using story generation feedback: Debugging or co-creation?", in Iurgel, Zagalo & Petta (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. Second Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5915, pp. 62–73, 2009. Nicolas Szilas, "Stepping into the interactive drama", in Göbel, Spierling, Hoffman, Iurgel, Schneider, Dechau and Feix (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Second International Conference,TIDSE 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3105, pp. 14–25, 2004. Nicolas Szilas, "BEcool: Towards author friendly behaviour engine", in Cavazza & Donikian (eds.) Virtual Storytelling. Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, ICVS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4871, pp. 102–113, 2007. Nicolas Szilas, Jason Barles & Manolya Kavakli, "An implementation of real-time 3D interactive drama", Computers in Entertainment 5(1): 5, 2007. David Thue,Vadim Bulitko & Marcia Spetch, "Making stories player-specific: delayed authoring in interactive storytelling", in Spierling & Szilas (eds.) Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference of Interactive Digital Storytelling, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5334, pp. 230–241, 2008. © 2008–2012 Jouni Smed Mariët Theune, Sander Rensen, Rieks op den Akker, Dirk Heylen & Anton Nijholt, "Emotional characters for automatic plot creation", in Göbel, Spierling, Hoffman, Iurgel, Schneider, Dechau and Feix (eds.) Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment. Proceedings of the Second International Conference,TIDSE 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3105, pp. 95–100, 2004.
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