American Occupation of the Philippines Carmel Tresvalles-PadillaCulled from the work of Arnel Rivera, MAT
Introduction In 1902, when the Philippine-American War was almost over in the metropolis (Manila), the American gov’t slowly but surely prepared the master plan on how the Philippines would be governed.
Benevolent Assimilation • The Philippines is ours not to exploit but to develop, to civilize, to educate, and to train in the science of self- government. • US Pres. William McKinley (1898)
Tungkulin ng Estados Unidos na turuang maging sibilisado ang mga “unggoy” saPilipinas.
American Governance of the Philippines(Pamamahala ng Amerika sa Pilipinas) Military Government (Pamahalaang Militar) Civil Government (Pamahalaang Sibil)
Colonial Motives: POLITICAL - To pursue a “manifest destiny” for America as a world power. ECONOMIC- To use the Philippines as a. source for raw materials for US industries. b. Market for US manufactured products. RELIGIOUS – To make Philippines as a base of operations of Protestant missionaries. MILITARY – line of defense a. Naval/air b. Refueling port for American ships servicing their interests in China.
Military Government (Pamahalaang Militar) GOAL: Control possible uprising of the Filipino people in the Philippines. Military Governor- General – head of the colonial government Serves as the US President’s representative in the Philippines.
The Governor-Generals of the Philippines Gen. Wesley Meritt Gen. Elwell Otis Gen. Arthur MacArthur (1898) (1898-1900) (1900-1901) Tasked to maintain peace and order in the colonial government in the Philippines.
Achievements of the Military government primary objective - capture Malolos Tasked to General Arthur Mac Arthur. On March 31, 1899 - Malolos was captured Aguinaldo retreated to San Fernando, Pampanga. But this is not the end of the war.Katipuneros who surrendered to the Americans
Significant achievements: pacified the country laid the foundations for the establishment of a civil government. introduced the American school system with soldiers as teachers, organized civil courts including the Supreme Court with Cayetano Arellano as first chief justice, Established local governments, and Conducted the first election under American flag.
Schurman Commission (Enero 20, 1899) Aka first Philippine Commission appointed by President McKinley on January 20, 1899 headed by Dr. Jacob G. Schurrman, President of Cornell University, make a survey of Philippine conditions for the achievement of the peaceful extension of American sovereignty to the Philippines.Jacob Schurman
FINAL JUDGMENT: HINDI PA HANDA SA PAGSASARILI ANG PILIPINAS.
not able to finish its objective due to the war and returned to the US on January 31, 1900 with the following recommendations: • Establishment of a territorial gov’t with two legislatures: upper house as half appointive and half elective and a lower house as elective. • Withdrawal of Military rule in pacified areas.
• Conservation of natural resources for the Filipinos. Establishment of autonomous local government. Opening of free elementary schools. The appointment of highly capable men for office.
Taft Commission (Hunyo 3, 1899) Layunin nito na paunlarin ang kabuhayan ng mga Pilipino at pagsasa-ayos ng serbiyo sibil ng bansa. Inirekumenda nito sa pangulo ang pagtatayo ng pamahalaang sibil sa Pilipinas na kabibilangan ngWilliam H. Taft mga Pilipino.
In 1900, the Second Philippine Commission was formed tasked to establish a civil government Headed by William H. Taft, hence, aka Taft Commission. Included in the task are: - the creation of local government units e.g. municipal with Filipino as its leader - the creation of provincial gov’t, and - implementation of the legislative powers since 1900.
In general, the Commission laid down the conditions in the establishment of a civil government. In July 4, 1901 - civil government under the leadership of Taft (as Civil Governor) was established. Taft became the Governor General in Feb. of 1903 and at the same time head of the Philippine Commission. As a civil governor and head of the Philippine Commission, he handled both the executive and legislative branches.
Unpacified areas remained under the military government. It was only in 1914 when military government in the Muslim areas was changed to a civil government.
Spooner Amendment (Marso 2,1901) Provisioned for the shift from Military government to civil government. Transferred the ruling of the Philippines to the US Congress.Sen. John C. Spooner
Pamahalaang Sibil (1901-1935)Pinasinayaan sa Maynila noong Hulyo 4, 1901 ang Pamahalaang Sibil ngPilipinas. Itinalaga bilang unang Gobernador Sibil si William H. Taft. Layunin nitong sanayin at makilahok ang mga Pilipino sa pamamahala ng bansa.
The creation of a civil government (CG) gave form to the slogan: “Philippines for the Filipinos”, “training for self-government” at “Filipinization policy” The CG opened: 1. the municipal and provincial governments’ positions 2. Central government of the colony 3. Philippine Commission, and 4. the Supreme Court to the elite and educated Filipinos
It is through politics that US enticed the elite and educated Filipinos to collaborate with the colonial government.
Civil Governors in the Philippines “Ang Pilipinas ay para sa mga Pilipino.” William H. Taft (1901) William H. Taft (1901-1904)1st Civil Governor of the Philippines
Cayetano Arellano Gregorio AranetaPunong Mahistrado Kalihim ng Kagawaranng Korte Suprema ng Pananalapi
Luke Edward Wright Francis Burton (1904-1905) Harrisson (1913-1921)
Leonard Wood Frank Murphy (1921-1927) (1933-1935)
Achievements: Gave Filipinos the chance to participate in the governance. Distributed formerly Spanish-owned lands to Filipino farmers. Gave importance to health and sanitation of the Filipinos. Taught the English language to the Filipinos.
Policies favored the elites On the right of suffrage and the right to be voted upon: - Qualifications: a. male; b. aged 23 and above; c. has been a gobernadorcillo before August 13, 1898; d. literate both in Spanish and English (both oral and written); e. has properties worth $250 or pays tax of about $15.
Conclusion Changed the lives of the Filipinos: - POLITICALLY - ECONOMICALLY - SOCIALLLY, and - CULTURALLY