GEOG 381 Slides: Power

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  • 1. POWER
  • 2. QUICK-WRITE Some examples of power 2 mins: ungraded -for your own purposes
  • 3. WHAT IS POWER? Census Vancouver Canada Sun ‘War Protest against group terror’ Judicial Dieting execution Ethnic Taking ancleansing Power SFU class
  • 4. AMBIGUITIES Where does What is How does it power come power? operate? from? Is power What does it Where do wedistinctive? feel like? locate it? What are the Is power only geographies repressive? of power?
  • 5. CONCEPTIONS OF POWERInstrumental AssociationalRepresentational Dispersed
  • 6. INSTRUMENTAL POWER¡  Rober t Dahl: A has power over B when A can get B to do something that they would not otherwise have done.¡  The power of A can be measured by the response of B¡  D a h l , R A ( 1 9 5 8 ) ‘ A c r i t i q u e o f t h e r u l i n g e l i t e m o d e l ’ A m . P o l . S c i . R e v. 5 2 , 463-469
  • 7. INSTRUMENTAL POWER - CHARACTERISTICS¡ I ndividually centred and dyadic (cf. institutions, ‘structures’)¡ Z ero-sum: A wins, B loses¡ I ntentionality : B is conscious of the power of A¡ V isible, measurable
  • 8. HOBBES’ LEVIATHAN ¡ Social contract theory ¡ Power centralized in the sovereign state to ensure freedom. ¡ Sovereign has absolute power. ¡ Power imagined as top- down
  • 9. INSTRUMENTAL POWER - IMPLICIT CHARACTERISTICS¡  Power is a thing, possessed by individuals¡  Or, Power is a relational ef fect, not a thing.
  • 11. INSTRUMENTAL POWER - IMPLICIT CHARACTERISTICS¡ P ower and resources are easily confused.¡ R esources are the media through which power is exercised¡ H obbes’ ‘marks of sovereignty’ are distinct from the sovereign: military¡ P uissance/pouvoir
  • 12. ASSOCIATIONAL POWER¡ Talcott Parsons: critical of zero-sum power in which a fixed amount of power is distributed among participants.¡ Argued for a collective dimension to power: persons can join together to enhance their power: power can be produced and be productive.
  • 13. ASSOCIATIONAL POWER - REFINEMENT¡ Power produced through the action of people or institutions pooling their resources to secure certain outcomes¡ Not ‘power over’, but ‘power with’¡ Not power as a thing, but power as a medium¡ Power is ‘in the moment’
  • 14. HANNAH ARENDT ¡ ‘ mutual action’ ¡ P ower as positive force à power as a facility ¡ ‘ public spaces’ where alliances are formed, groups come together to move a similar set of goals
  • 15. POSTMODERN POWERRepresentational power Dispersed power
  • 16. SPATIAL REPRESENTATION AND POWER¡  Instrumental and associational conceptions tend to emphasize practice; Overlooks the impor tance of representation to power¡  Tuathail: ‘ Geo-power’: representations of space that justify or sustain prevailing power relations.¡  Por trayals of people, places, institutions, and things; how we understand the world¡  Spatial representation as sustaining prevailing forms of power.
  • 17. POLITICAL REPRESENTATION George W. Bush’s ‘Axis of Evil’ speech (January 2002).
  • 18. DISPERSED POWER¡  Opposes only top-down model of power (held by the power ful, exercised over others)¡  Power is per vasive and omnipresent: ‘capillar y’ model of power¡  Power is not ‘outside’ us but a means by which we make ourselves up.¡  Power as imminent—the routine deployment of techniques—spatial, organizational, classificator y, representational, ethical—that seek to mould the conduct of specific groups or individuals, and, above all, limit their possible range of actions. (Allen 2003: 67). Foucault on self care.
  • 19. DISPERSED POWER¡  Rule through freedom¡  Self-government¡  Government of conduct at a distance
  • 20. WHAT IS POWER? Census Vancouver Canada Sun ‘War Protest against group terror’ Judicial Dieting execution Ethnic Taking ancleansing Power SFU class