Joshua Arnold – Using Cost of Delay

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A retrospective looking at the implementation of Cost of Delay as a means to improve decision-making, improve the sense of urgency and encourage the breaking down of work as well as scheduling or prioritisation using CD3.

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Joshua Arnold – Using Cost of Delay

  1. 1. Cost of Delay: A retrospectiveImplementing an economic decision frameworkJoshua ArnoldLESS2012 – Tallinn, Estonia
  2. 2. Safety First!These are the views of Joshua Arnold• My experience, viewpoint, thoughts• Trust you to respect the client: don‟t share specifics @joshuajames joshua@ecolojic.com uk.linkedin.com/in/joshuaa
  3. 3. Together > Σ(parts)
  4. 4. “The Don”
  5. 5. Context & ScopeCompany, Culture, Technology, Process
  6. 6. A Container LogisticsCompany• >600 vessels• 3,800,000 TEU• 35,000 port calls• $26B Revenue
  7. 7. People• Logical Reasoning• High sense of urgency• Open, but structured• Willing to learn• Generalists
  8. 8. The IT Department• ~$500m Budget• ~$100m Development• Thin outsourcing• Legacy & SOA• Standard process?Demand > Supply
  9. 9. Scope: Lightbulb to live Prioritise new Reduce batching Break down Limit the Work ideas quickly to smooth flow the work in Progress Triage Dynamic Refine Realise Release Priority <1 week List Prioritise by Manage Get the point Increase knowing the capacity with of writing quality with Cost of Delay a pull system code quickly fast feedback The end-to-end innovation process
  10. 10. Making the casePilot: getting to $ benefitsPilot: Cost of Delay and CD3Roll out to other teams Results to date What went well? What should we do differently? What did we learn? What still puzzles us?
  11. 11. Oct 2010 600 Long value pipeline Cycle-time from Lightbulb to Live# Requirements 400 200 0 Days
  12. 12. Oct 2010 Work-in-progress Analysis State # RQ Idea! 729 New 897 Being Drafted 416 Ready for Review 422 Ready for Guesstimation 181 Ready for Prioritization Analysis 2980 335 Ready for Estimation 68 Ready for Authorization 219 Authorized Estimation 502 215 Development Initiated 242 Development Complete Development 326 84 Testing (total of all states) Testing 395 395 On Hold Waiting 471 471* Requirements currently work-in-progress
  13. 13. Oct 2010 Demand is increasing IT Development Budget (forecast) Scaling up might help but won‟t be enough to deal with the forecast increase in demand 2010 2011
  14. 14. SLT: Prune the Tree: Selected Lean/Agile Practices
  15. 15. Business Case Details What impact is this problem having on our customers/the business/the employees? What are the key deliverables to be expected? What other indirect benefits may arise from this work? > $9m by delivering functionality earlier due to delivering in smaller more frequent increments. Development expenditure in 2010 is $62m. MLSP Benefits Tracking team found that the hard benefit to cost ratio for IT investment was 1.8. Therefore the current hard benefits (over three years) for expenditure of $62m is approximately 1.8 X $62m = $111.6m Therefore the benefits per year are approximately $111.6 ÷ 3 = 37.2 By delivering half of the functionality in half of the time, we release value earlier and gain benefits earlier. The formula for this is: Additional benefits = ½(1-Cn/Co) x Original Benefits – where Cn=New Cycle Time, and Co= Old Cycle Time. When Cn/Co = ½ then the additional benefits are ¼ of the original benefits = ¼ x $37.2m = $9.3m > $4m by improving prioritization of work Key assumptions: • Development budget continues at 2010 levels ($62m) • Project have same hard benefits:cost ratio as the MLSP Benefits Tracking team measured in 2009 (1.8) • Benefits derived from an increase in value without any significant change in the cost of IT development. • Improvement in prioritisation will have a similar effect (+3.4%) as that seen on X-leap project. Soft benefits: > Flow improvements – a measurable improvement in cycle time, enabling MLIT to be more efficient – delivering an increase in development throughput with the same resource. > Quality improvements – a measurable improvement in VoC due to increased feedback cycles ensuring alignment of solution to expectationsNov 2010All rights reserved © 2008
  16. 16. Planning next steps • Objective: begin to apply lean product development techniques to a specific portfolio: • Probably focus on AMC as pathfinder portfolio because: – Contains System A • steady flow of development, • “notoriously” slow cycle time with significant waiting waste • will be a visible win to the whole organization if we improve this – Contains other smaller applications too – Close to coaching team – Enthusiastic Portfolio and Delivery ManagerDec 2010
  17. 17. “I thought you werenuts trying it on [Sys A]” Board Member
  18. 18. Dec 2010 Seeking Business Partner support… 1. Participation • Steering Group • Kaizen Group 2. Help us to reduce work package size • Express benefits for each Feature (not just Release level) • Break large Requirements down into smaller ones • Help adjust the approval process & funding model so that we approve/fund individual requirements/features. 3. Test the prioritisation approach • Help in putting together a backlog • Use Cost of Delay / Duration as an initial priority order
  19. 19. Making the casePilot: getting to $ benefitsPilot: Cost of Delay and CD3Roll out to other teams Results to date What went well? What should we do differently? What did we learn? What still puzzles us?
  20. 20. Jan 2011 Improve Prioritisation
  21. 21. Jan 2011Dynamic Priority List1. Safe waiting place2. Pull system• Flexible• Visible• Value driven To improve E2E speed, needed Faster “Triage”
  22. 22. Jan 2011A framework for estimating benefits Increase Revenue associated with either improving our profit margin or Revenue increasing our market share Protect Sustaining current market share or Revenue revenue figures Reduce Costs that we are currently Costs incurring, that can be reduced Avoid Costs we are not currently incurring Costs but may do without action
  23. 23. Jan 2011Identify benefit typesIf we can‟t work out the value, is it worthless? - Need some idea of value in order to compare WHY? WHY? Increase Protect Reduce Avoid Revenue Revenue Costs Costs
  24. 24. Jan 2011Getting to $ figuresA couple of tactics… 1. Make the value equal to cost of alternativesExample: Automating a processThe value of automating the XYZ process is at least equalto the current cost of doing it manually (plus the value ofdoing it faster and without human error)
  25. 25. Jan 2011Getting to $ figuresA couple of tactics… 2. Estimate the value of the effects of the changeExample: Improvements to invoicing accuracyWe want to improve invoice clarity and accuracy, in order to:• Make it easier for customers to pay the correct amount (protect revenue)• Without delays (increase revenue) and• Use less employee time processing customer inquiries and complaints (reduce costs).
  26. 26. Feb 2011 Jan/Feb 2011 – Key Learnings • Adding work-in-progress limits effectively reveals problems but can choke flow if set too agressively • Need to actively ensure all stakeholders feel this is managed appropriately • Need a firm hand • A new prioritisation approach creates winners & losers • Losers need active management (KPIs can make this worse) • Unclear role definitions/expectations hampers the taking of ownership by the permanent team • Too much of the change is still being driven by the Lean-product-development coaches • Need to repeat it many times for it to stick • Lean Product Development concepts are deceptively simple but applying them consistently take time for people to understand
  27. 27. Feb 2011 What are we trying to accomplish? development pipeline ^ ^ ideas
  28. 28. Making the casePilot: getting to $ benefitsPilot: Cost of Delay and CD3Roll out to other teams Results to date What went well? What should we do differently? What did we learn? What still puzzles us?
  29. 29. Mar 2011 Cost of Delay Putting a price-tag on time How that value $ Business decays over time Information Value of the discovery value feature Cost of Delay While you may ignore economics, it won‟t ignore you
  30. 30. Mar 2011Cost of DelayPutting a price-tag on time $ Benefits Realised TimeFor ideas with a very long-life, with peak unaffected by delay
  31. 31. Mar 2011Cost of DelayPutting a price-tag on time $ Benefits Realised Late Entry TimeFor ideas with a very long-life, with peak unaffected by delay
  32. 32. Mar 2011Cost of DelayPutting a price-tag on time $ Benefits Realised Cost of Delay Late Entry TimeFor ideas with a very long-life, with peak unaffected by delay
  33. 33. Mar 2011Cost of DelayPutting a price-tag on time $ Benefits Realised Reduced Peak Cost of Delay Late Entry TimeShort benefits horizon, and reduced peak due to late delivery
  34. 34. Mar 2011Cost of DelayPutting a price-tag on time Reduced $ Benefits Realised Peak Cost of Delay Late Entry TimeFor ideas with a very long-life, with reduced peak due to later delivery
  35. 35. Mar 2011Cost of DelayPutting a price-tag on time $ Benefits Realised Cost of Delay Late Entry TimeFor ideas with a very long-life, with peak unaffected by delay
  36. 36. Mar 2011Cost of Delay – Example 1 RQ-9076 Improve invoice accuracy leading to: • Reduction in number of customers paying late, worth an additional $4,000,000 per annum • Reduction in number of calls currently costing 5 FTEs at $20k per FTE Increase Revenue: $4,000,000 p.a. Reduce Cost: $100,000 p.a. Delaying this requirement by 1 week is worth $4.1m/52 weeks Cost of Delay = $78,846 per week
  37. 37. Mar 2011Cost of Delay – Example 2 RQ-9077 Automating a process to satisfy new regulation that will be effective from 1st Sept 2012, in order to: • Avoid the additional manual processing resource which is estimated to cost about 20 FTEs at $20k per FTE Avoid Cost: $400,000 p.a. It‟s going to take about 13 weeks to automate, so delaying the start by 1 week beyond the last responsible moment of 1st June 2012 is worth $0.4m/52 weeks Cost of Delay = $7,692 per week
  38. 38. Mar 2011Cost of Delay – Example 3 RQ-5942 Change required to satisfy a new customs regulation effective immediately, in order to avoid: • Fine estimated to be about $XXX,XXX per vessel per week x XX vessels that are calling at certain ports. • Estimated probability of being fined ~20%. The total benefits have been calculated as $0.Xm x XX x 20% = $Xm per week Avoid Cost: $X,XXX,XXX per week Cost of Delay = $Xm per week
  39. 39. Mar 2011Trade off decisionsCoD as an aid for decision making Cost of Delay Alternative solution: = $10k/week Cost Increase: $5,000 Delivered: 2 weeks earlier Should we do this?
  40. 40. Mar 2011Trade off decisionsCoD as an aid for decision making Cost of Delay Tier 2 Infrastructure: = $10k/week Cost Increase: $20,000 Delivered: 4 weeks earlier Should we do this?
  41. 41. Mar 2011Trade off decisionsCoD as an aid for decision making Cost of Delay Vendor B: = $10k/week Cost Reduced: $50,000 Delivered: 10 weeks later Should we do this?
  42. 42. Mar 2011Scheduling decisionsIf these take the same amount of time to deliver: Requirement Cost of Delay RQ-9076 $78,846/week RQ-9077 $7,692/week RQ-5942 $X,000,000/weekWhen the time required to deliver varies, then use: Cost of Delay Divided by Duration (CD3)
  43. 43. Mar 2011CD3: Cost of Delay Divided by Duration How value decays Business value over time Information of the feature discovery value Cost of Delay CD3 Score Duration
  44. 44. Mar 2011FIFO Queuing methodFirst In First Out Project Duration Cost of Delay CD3 A 5 $1 0.2 B 1 $4 4 A C 2 $5 2.5Cost of BDelay $50 C Time
  45. 45. Mar 2011CD3 Queuing methodCost of Delay Divided by Duration Project Duration Cost of Delay CD3 A 5 $1 0.2 B 1 $4 4 C 2 $5 2.5 BCost ofDelay This example shows 27% reduction in Delay cost C compared to using CoD only 84% reduction in Delay cost $8 A compared to FiFO Time
  46. 46. Mar 2011Cost of Delay Divided By Duration (CD3)The mathematics…Two possible features, A and B that have:• Cost of delay of CODa and and CODb ($ per week)• Each blocks the pipeline for Ta and Tb (weeks) Scenario 1 (B then A) Scenario 2 (A then B) B A Tb A Ta B Opportunity Cost: CODa x Tb Opportunity Cost: CODb x TaIf Scenario 2 is better than Scenario 1, then the opportunity cost incurred bychoosing Scenario 1 will be bigger than the first:• CODa x Tb > CODb x Ta, rearranging this (divide everything by Ta x Tb)...• CODa/Ta > CODb/Tb
  47. 47. Mar 2011Why Duration, not Cost?• Dividing by cost assumes that the limiting factor is available funding• In most product development settings, it is time and the capacity of the development pipeline that is the limiting factor - time is an irreplaceable resource• Knowing how long the machine will be busy, blocked/unavailable is more valuable information
  48. 48. Mar 2011Splitting benefitsBreak large business cases into smaller pieces of value:• 70% of functionality delivered is never or rarely used• Large batches tend to snowball: include everything imaginable• Discovery: getting the requirements right up front is impossibleBreaking things down into smaller parts has other benefits…
  49. 49. Mar 2011Prioritisation in the real world• Sometimes the data doesn‟t tell the full picture• Business & IT Strategy can be used as additional leversIn the real world:• Start with CD3 as a means of initial triage• Make a manual adjustment to Cost of Delay to reflect• State reasons for adjusting
  50. 50. Making the casePilot: getting to $ benefitsPilot: Cost of Delay and CD3Roll out to other teams Results to date What went well? What should we do differently? What did we learn? What still puzzles us?
  51. 51. Jul 2011 End of “pilot mode”Process MeasuresEnable smaller batches  From 12wks between releases to 7wks by SepEstablish dynamic prioritisation  Process established by AprilImprove prioritisation Process established by April Actively manage WIP  Process established by AprilReduce size of requirements  No max, to max 5 guesstimate points by AprilGet to prioritisation faster  From 100 days to 7 days by April Currently 14 daysResults MeasuresCycle time from Pull Baseline: 210 days, Goal 90 days. 102 days by July Requires 12 months to gain data but should get to 140 days  by July by summing process segments.Voice of Customer Requires 12 months to gain data. Quick survey to CUS BPO  staff will give indication (Apr)Improved ROI Requires 12 months to gain data Measurement has begun
  52. 52. Nov-LPD Roadmap Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug JanMobilise & Analyse M+A TeamsPilot (CSBPO & AMC) Red: Core team Yellow: Team 2Pilot A (System A) Envision + Realise (A) Green: Team 3Pilot B (System C) BPilot New Proj. (XX) New ProjectWider IT Roll outSys D Assessment AEngage OPS + FIN MSystem B 1OPS Applications 2D2I & FBR 3DCF 4N&P Applications Key Assumptions: 5 • 8 Groups of Applications (+Pilot) 6SAL Applications • Most effective to order by BPOLarge Project X • 3 support teams required 7 • A team can start supporting a newOther smaller Apps Business Area every 3 months 8Stabilise & KaizenVFQ Education Value, Flow, Quality EducationKaizen Coaching Follow-up Coaching and Ad-hoc advice
  53. 53. May 2011Jorge & Matt working with the Sys C Team
  54. 54. September 2011.Kicking off the Sys B Team
  55. 55. System B LPD Rollout Improve Prioritisation FSCM Rollout to one area Triage Refine Realise Release Live
  56. 56. November 3 FINBPO Prioritisation SessionI.
  57. 57. Vendor team in Kolkata
  58. 58. System B – (SAP Finance) 125+ RQs requirements evaluated using Cost-of-Delay 25 Released with CoD 120+ employees coached in process and practises 60+ attending daily stand-ups Releases 4 6 Kanban boards 3 Kaizen groups in operation
  59. 59. SOA Project Team: Problemstatements for validation, valuationand prioritisation using CoD & CD3
  60. 60. London teams From: Özlem Yüce Subject: Update from the London team Date: 1 February 2012 Hi all, We had the kick off session this afternoon; BPOs, DM team and the vendor participated. The session was interactive and the team is very engaged. Especially the BPOs are impatient about applying COD which is very good. Tomorrow we plan to have the COD presentation. We will also have the first prioritisation session (relative) and start identifying the data to be gathered for COD calculations before the end of this week. Ozzie & Jorgie
  61. 61. Ops Applications
  62. 62. Enterprise ArchitectureHead of Enterprise Architecture
  63. 63. Senior ManagementSent: Monday, May 07, 2012 1:52 PMWe are eagerly awaiting a change to [System A] and I cannotunderstand why it takes this amount of time to go through the reviewprocess!?The cost of delay for this change is USD XM per weekWith kind regards
Head of Operations BPO
  64. 64. Author: Joshua Arnold
  65. 65. Making the casePilot: getting to $ benefitsPilot: Cost of Delay and CD3Roll out to other teams Results to date What went well? What should we do differently? What did we learn? What still puzzles us?
  66. 66. Benefits for I.T.Headache: Controlling demand for scarce resources• Create clear focus on priorities• „less yelling and screaming‟ data-driven, more visible• Manage dependencies between teams• Change the conversation… Delivering “on time” Delivering value quickly Cutting I.T. costs
  67. 67. Benefits for the wider organisationHeadache: Getting changes fast enough• Create focus across the business on the most profitable ideas or problems• Recognise urgency in prioritisation• Uses a language that everyone can understand• Encourages focus on reducing time to market
  68. 68. Improved visibility of benefits $44.80 6x Average GCSS FACT (Before) (After) Benefits per dollar invested
  69. 69. System A: Value distribution (truncated) $2,800,000 $2,600,000 A small number of $2,400,000 features have a very $2,200,000 high Cost of Delay $2,000,000 Previous $1,800,000 Average $1,600,000 $1,400,000Cost of Delay / week $1,200,000 $1,000,000 $800,000 $600,000 $400,000 $200,000 $0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Requirements sorted by Cost of Delay
  70. 70. System A: Value by quartile Average $ Benefits Per Requirement Next 25% Next 25% Bottom Top 25% of RQs 25% $220/wk $18,600/wk $5,200/wk $230,000/wk
  71. 71. System B: Value distribution 100000 90000 80:20 80000 Pareto Principle “the vital few” 70000 60000 Cost of Delay 50000 (US$ per week) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Requirements
  72. 72. Improved visibility of benefitsHow do we know the changes are an improvement? 10x 6x Average Sys A Sys B (Before) (After) Benefits per dollar invested
  73. 73. Making the casePilot: getting to $ benefitsPilot: Cost of Delay and CD3Roll out to other teams Results to date What went well? What should we do differently? What did we learn? What still puzzles us?
  74. 74. What went well?1. Piloting with one application/business area2. Quid pro quo - quality and speed3. Flexibility via Dynamic PL4. Softly, softly, catchy, monkey approach5. Relative first; using economics to inform6. Four benefit types help guide thinking about value7. Dial up the use of numbers8. Drive to dollars (what data is needed?)9. Manual to Automated10.CoD at Feature Level
  75. 75. What should we do differently?1. Apply CoD/CD3 to support and maintenance work first?2. In parallel?3. Get EA using it earlier?4. Make the CoD for each team/project more visible?5. Get help to work out the Ave. Lifetime Value of a customer?6. Leverage segmentation data, geographical customer value?7. Teach more about benefits that are probabilistic in nature?8. Coach senior stakeholders – train them to ask the Q?9. Visualise the value/ROI for each delivery streams earlier?10. Develop guidance on refining ideas, value mining?
  76. 76. What did we learn?1. It works! Synergy with other Lean-Agile practices2. Getting to numbers and $ isn’t as hard as you think3. The four buckets cover well the type of benefits IT delivers4. It works for Support and Maintenance, upgrades etc.5. Assumptions can be standardised more than you think6. CoD for dependencies between features and teams works7. Some people really want to standardise duration units8. It changes the focus and conversation between people9. Senior stakeholders get it (and use it to escalate)!10.CD3 encourages breaking down of requirements
  77. 77. What still puzzles us?1. Will it survive without on-going support. How?2. How to easily support other benefit profiles?3. Dependencies between delivery streams which Duration?4. Do items on the DPL need to have integrity? Duplicates? Real Options? Linking and updating of dupes?5. Does Portfolio level CD3 need common units for duration?6. CD3 for the Refine/breaking down stage?7. How to handle Information Value in a consistent way8. How to consistently represent Technical Debt using CoD9. Do we need to do CoD at project level – scope?10. How to speed up the feedback loop to know it‟s working?
  78. 78. Final thought• Typical situation in product development• Go hunting: try looking at the „Fuzzy Front End‟ PoC Dev & Test Captured Go Live! (24 hrs) (82 hrs) 18 weeks waiting 11 weeks waiting 9 weeks waiting Cost of Delay = $XXX,XXX per week
  79. 79. Questions? Feedback? @joshuajames joshua@ecolojic.com uk.linkedin.com/in/joshuaa

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