Trojan Brand Condoms (Consumer Behavior)

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This is my Consumer Behavior project. We were to select a brand and provide a complete analysis of the consumer behavior.

This is my Consumer Behavior project. We were to select a brand and provide a complete analysis of the consumer behavior.

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  • 1. Group Project : TROJAN Consumer Behavior BAMK 365 Spring 2009 Dr. N.D. Kling Lyles LJ Armour Charline Boccara Michael Hamling Josh Leiker
  • 2. Table of Content I. Trojan Brand Condoms History & Quick Facts ................................................................. 4 1. Trojan Brand Condoms History .......................................................................................... 4 2. Quick Facts ......................................................................................................................... 4 II. Decision Process ................................................................................................................. 6 1. Situational Factors .............................................................................................................. 6 a. Communications situation – Sex education .................................................................... 6 b. Purchase Situation – In advance or as needed................................................................. 6 c. Usage situations – Health, pregnancy prevention or both ............................................... 7 d. Disposition- Not a concern with Trojan condoms .......................................................... 8 Recommendation ................................................................................................................ 8 2. External Influences ............................................................................................................. 9 a. Cultural variations – African-American, Latino, White ................................................. 9 b. Values ............................................................................................................................ 10 c. Demographics................................................................................................................ 11 d. Group Influence............................................................................................................. 12 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 12 3. Internal Influences ............................................................................................................ 13 a. Perception ...................................................................................................................... 13 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 14 b. Learning ........................................................................................................................ 15 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 15 c. Motives .......................................................................................................................... 16 d. Personality ..................................................................................................................... 17 e. Emotions........................................................................................................................ 17 f. Attitudes ........................................................................................................................ 18 2
  • 3. 4. Problem recognition – active problem .............................................................................. 18 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 19 5. Information Search............................................................................................................ 20 6. Alternative evaluation and selection ................................................................................. 21 a. Affective vs. Attribute ............................................................................................... 21 b. Other Available Brands and Methods ....................................................................... 23 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 23 7. Outlet selection and purchase ........................................................................................... 23 a. Outlet Choice vs. Product Choice.............................................................................. 23 b. Convenience & Point of Purchase Displays .............................................................. 25 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 25 8. Postpurchase processes ..................................................................................................... 26 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 26 9. E-Commerce ..................................................................................................................... 26 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 27 10. Survey............................................................................................................................ 27 a. Questionnaire ................................................................................................................ 28 b. Results ........................................................................................................................... 29 Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 31 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 32 3
  • 4. I. Trojan Brand Condoms History & Quick Facts 1. Trojan Brand Condoms History Trojan Brand Condoms was originally created by The Carter Medicine Company, and in 1937 they renamed themselves to Carter-Wallace Inc. 28 year‘s later Carter-Wallace produce Trojan Condoms and many other brands. In 2001 Church & Dwight CO., Inc acquired Carter- Wallace, a deal worth $610.5 million dollars. Trojan Brand Condoms are now being manufactured by Church & Dwight CO., Inc. they are Americas #1 condom. Trojan Brand Condoms have been around for more the 90 years. 2. Quick Facts Trojan Brands Condoms are known all across America, but here are some things that many consumers may not know about the product. The manufacturing of Trojan Brand Condoms is a six step process;  Step #1: Building strength with vulcanization No, vulcanization has nothing to do with pointy-eared aliens. It‘s the process we use to compound raw latex, giving it strength and elasticity. We pump raw latex into compounding kettles, add other materials and turn up the heat. We then store the liquid latex compound in stainless steel tanks.  Step #2: A quick dip, on to the oven, then a bath Many a health spa would be jealous. We dip clean glass molds into the latex bath, then cure them in an oven at 175 ºº Fahrenheit. From there, the glass molds are given a hot-water bath. Then, rotating brushes remove the condoms from the molds.  Step #3: On the dry side The condoms are dried in batches of about 50,000 in large dryers for two hours.  Step #4: Electronic testing 4
  • 5. Electronic testing machines make sure every TROJAN® condom is up to snuff. Each condom travels on a stainless steel mold into a water solution charged with an electric current. If current passes through the condom to the mold, there‘s a hole in the condom and it‘s off to the ―reject‖ bin.  Step #5: Foiled The condoms that ace the electronic test are individually sealed in foil pouches, and coded with a lot number and expiration date. Pouches are inspected by hand as they travel off the line.  Step #6: Hitting the shelves We insert pouches into cartons and code them with lot numbers and expiration dates. We then bundle the cartons and ship them to retailers. Trojan Brand Condoms also provides consumer with the exact day and year their product was manufactured. www.Trojancondoms.com explains Julian date code for the example date Oct- 2005 2340U. “Then the next three digits (234) represent the day of the year of manufacture and the fourth digit (0) represents the year of manufacture. The letter or letters represent machinery used in the condom’s manufacture.” 5
  • 6. II. Decision Process 1. Situational Factors a. Communications situation – Sex education “Sex education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy.”1 Sex education is also about developing young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behavior, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It is widely accepted that young people have a right to sex education, partly because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. Obviously, sex education includes the use of condoms. Sex education may be taught informally, such as when someone receives information from a conversation with a parent, friend, or through the media. Formal sex education occurs when schools or health care providers offer sex education. Sometimes formal sex education is taught as a full course as part of the high school. Other times it is only one unit within a more broad biology class, health class, or physical education class. But sex education remains a controversial issue in the United States – especially because of the values‘ issue, as we will see later. b. Purchase Situation – In advance or as needed The purchase situation refers to the situation in which a purchase is made. The situation in which a purchase is made can influence consumer behavior. “A shortage of time, such as trying to make a purchase between classes, can affect the store-choice decision, the number of brands considered, and the price the shopper is willing to pay.”2According to our survey, a large majority of people purchase condom in advance which means that marketers have a real opportunity to influence consumers‘ purchase. But the purchase situation remains embarrassing for a large part of the population. While no prescription is required, nor ID needed, the purchase itself makes condom use particularly 1 http://www.avert.org/ 2 Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 10th ed., Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best, P.486 6
  • 7. difficult for some individuals, “because purchase is assumed to precede subsequent use in a sexual encounter”.3 This suggests that the purchase conditions are an important factor into condom use reluctance. Committed purchasers develop strategies that help complete the transaction. Males and females rely on similar purchase strategies. Female purchasers express more concern about the purchase and overall require more strategies, such as ―hiding‖ the condoms among other items. To conclude, Trojan should really take into account the acquisition of the product. c. Usage situations – Health, pregnancy prevention or both “Marketers need to understand the usage situation for which their product are, or may become, appropriate.”4 Thanks to this knowledge of the market, marketers can communicate and insist on the brand and products satisfaction in each relevant usage situation. It is a well- know fact: latex condoms are the most effective way to prevent pregnancy and to protect against STDs and HIV. On one hand, with the spread of AIDS and other STDs, latex condoms may have a greater role in disease prevention than in contraception. On the other hand, the risk of pregnancy also plays a huge role in condom purchasing decision. Indeed, the breakage rate for condoms is two out of 100, and condoms stay one of the most effective means to avoid non-desired pregnancy, and the only one to provide protection against AIDS and other STDs – excepted abstinence. Plus, we have to notice that condom use changes with age. It may be hard to believe, but adolescents – aged under 18 – use condoms more than young adults. The authors believe that, as they get older, adolescents start to establish themselves in longer-lasting couples, and start to change their contraceptive use (to hormonal methods, for example, instead of condoms). “Among young people, the fear of an unwanted pregnancy makes them take greater protective measures,” report a researcher for the Galician. “However, as people get older, they become more relaxed in the use of prophylactic methods, and use other methods more, such as the Pill.” This is a well-known phenomenon – people with fewer partners believe they have a lower risk. However, it is obvious that, in reality, monogamy does not completely remove all risks. Then, most of the advertising campaigns have to be directly addressed to teens, and to some extend to young adults. Most of the people who used a condom reported a combination of reasons for doing so. Both disease prevention and contraception are their motivation. But, the reasons vary if we consider 3 The impact of embarrassment on condom purchase behavior, Dahl, Gorn, & Weinberg, 1998 4 Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 10th ed., Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best, P.486 7
  • 8. those within ongoing relationships versus those outside of an ongoing relationship. For those within ongoing relationships, pregnancy prevention had great importance: only 10% stated that disease prevention was their only reason for using condoms. In contrast, for those whose last sexual encounter occurred outside of an ongoing relationship, disease prevention was most important: Only 11% stated that pregnancy prevention was their only reason for using condoms. Finally, according to our survey, most of people are more concerned by birth control opposed to health when using condom. So, preventive health strategies must focus on the use of condoms, not only to prevent pregnancy, but also as a means of preventing sexually- transmitted diseases. d. Disposition- Not a concern with Trojan condoms “Consumers must frequently dispose of products or product packages after or before product use. [And] decisions made by consumers regarding the disposition situation can create significant social problems as well as opportunities for marketers.”5 But in the case of Trojan, disposition situation is not really relevant. Indeed, condom is a one-time usage product, and there is any issue associate with the purchase of new condoms. Plus, condoms are available without a prescription, can be bought at most drugstores, in vending machines in some restrooms, by mail order, and at certain health care clinics, and they are inexpensive. The only thing is that condoms have an expiration date which tells consumers when it is safe to use the condom until. Recommendation Sex education – Nowadays it is a fact: more and more teens are engaging into premarital sex. This underscores the need for sex education to students. Sex education can help them make better informed decisions about their personal sexual activities. And sex education also helps to lessen risk behaviors in teenagers like engaging in unprotected sex which result in unwanted pregnancies and STDs. That is why we think that Trojan should engage a vast sex education program which could also increase the brand image. 5 Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 10th ed., Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best, P.487 8
  • 9. 2. External Influences a. Cultural variations – African-American, Latino, White “Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. These values affect behaviors through norms, which specify an acceptable range of responses to specific situations.”6 There are numerous factors which have to be taken into account in purchasing and using condoms, and these ones change across different cultures. Among U.S. men and women aged 18-59 who had sex in the last year, percentage who used a condom at last sex, by selected characteristics, according to type of relationship, 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse7: Race/Ethnicity Ongoing Casual relationship relationship White 16.2% 62.0 % Black 29.9 % 65.0 % Hispanic 22.8 % 57.5 % Other 29.6 % 66.3 % According to José María Faílde, lead author of the study and a researcher at the Galician University, ―condom use among young Latino males and females has more to do with preventing unwanted pregnancies than with preventing infection with sexually-transmitted diseases‖. According to a study made on a sample of African-American adolescent males between 18 and 22, from different backgrounds and levels of education, youths noted that condoms help avoid pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease. Using condoms is also considered to be 6 Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 10th ed., Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best, P.44 7 Condom Use and HIV Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults: Data from a National Survey, John E. Anderson, Ronald Wilson, Lynda Doll, T. Stephen Jones and Peggy Barker 9
  • 10. suitable, responsible behavior. 85% of them say that their families would approve of them using condoms. This particular group could benefit from more posters on condom use in schools and public bathrooms, sex education in schools, and the availability of free, quality condoms. And condom vending machines in schools would encourage condom use. b. Values We can refer to a research8 which combines the Values Theory (VT, Schwartz, 1992) with the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) in an effort to identify cultural values supporting condom use. According to this survey, while many similarities were observed in the estimated models of condom use behavior in the two samples (Americans and Puerto Ricans), the results suggest that the Puerto Rican value of ―familismo‖ (tradition), and the US values of individualism and success (achievement and self-direction), are supportive of condom use in these respective cultures. Moreover, the conservative value of the American society plays a huge role in choosing to purchase/use condoms, or not. Indeed, in recent years, under the Bush administration, some conservatives have claimed that condoms are not very effective in protecting against sexually transmitted diseases and have pressed federal agencies to adopt this viewpoint.9 Under the Bush Administration, scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms has been suppressed or distorted to reflect this conclusion. In place of effective, disease-preventing safe-sex education, the administration has chosen to teach abstinence as the only way to prevent the spread of AIDS. According to Mitchell Warren, Executive Director of the AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition (AVAC), “There is no single magic bullet to stop HIV and AIDS—and there never will be. This means that world leaders have an ethical and moral obligation to provide people with the most comprehensive set of prevention options available.” And this should be applied no matter what the values of the society are. So, most of time, values are a brake in purchasing condoms. 8 Comparison of a culturally-tailored model of condom use behavior in Puerto Rico and the U.S., Kiene SM, Perez-Jimenez D, International Conference on AIDS 15th, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand 10
  • 11. c. Demographics “Demographics describe a population in terms of its size, structure and distribution.”10 This includes the number of individuals in the society, the age, the education, the level of income, the occupation, the family structure, the ethnic background, the gender, and the geographic location. A review of the literature on adolescent sexual behavior reveals that condom use is influenced by social and demographic characteristics, knowledge about reproductive health, self-efficacy and attitudes regarding condoms, and issues of access and affordability. Behavior patterns appear to differ according to gender, age, and education level.  Age: The likelihood of condom use decreases as youth become older and stabilizes during adulthood. Levels and consistency of condom use are highest among younger teens and then decline steadily as teens grow older. This decline in use by older adolescents, and adults, can be attributed to the fact that, ―as relationships become more stable, adolescents prefer to use the pill.”11 It has also been suggested that ―older adolescent girls grow in acceptance of their sexuality by assuming the entire responsibility of contraception.”12  Gender: ―Historically, sexually risky behaviors have more often been found in boys than in girls.”13 Boys tend to have their first sexual experience at a younger age than do girls, and socio-cultural norms also tend to be more permissive for boys. ―Given the sporadic nature of adolescent sexual activity and the fact that sexual relations are more often initiated by the male partner, the decision to use condoms is usually relegated to boys.”14 Actually, women and men have unique roles in the negotiation process – as far as the use of a condom is concerned –, women play a more active role in negotiation of condom use, while men play a more reactive role. Women generally have more favorable attitudes, with the exception of greater inhibition about buying and possessing condoms. Men engaged in preliminary condom use behaviors (carrying and keeping condoms at home) substantially more often.15 10 Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 10th ed., Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best, P.66 11 Geiss & Gerrard, 1984, Whitley, 1990 12 Gruber & Chambers, 1987, Hayes, 1987 13 Chilman, 1986, Earle & Perricone, 1986 14 Sexual behaviors and condom use: a study of suburban male adolescents Adolescence , 1994, Nguyen T. Minh Nguyet, Brigitte Maheux, Francois Beland, Lucille A. Pica 15 Gender Differences in AIDS-Relevant Condom Attitudes and Condom Use, Sacco, William P. 11
  • 12.  Education: Education is a key determinant for condom use. For both men and women, condom use is positively associated with higher levels of education. In addition, education of the male partner appeared to be more important than education of the female partner probably reflecting that it is mostly the male partner who decides on the use of a condom. The higher educated more often expressed intentions to use condom than the lower educated. d. Group Influence A group – which is several individuals who are interdependent in some way – prescribes pattern of behavior expected of a person in a given situation. Group can have influence on individuals who refer in some way to this last. Actually we talk reference group – the term comes about because an individual uses a relevant group as a standard of reference against which oneself is compared. Group influence is even more important among teens, because most of them are looking for a reference, a behavior to adopt. According to a study,16 adolescents who perceive referent-group norms as supporting condom use are almost twice as likely to use condoms during sexual intercourse. Modifying adolescents' perceived referent norms may result in increased condom use. Indeed, perception of referent group normative behavior has been identified as the only factor which significantly differentiated adolescents who use condoms from those who do not. For example, approximately 81% of adolescents who perceive referent-group norms as supporting condom use during sexual intercourse were frequent condom users; while, in contrast, only 47% of the adolescents who perceived referent-group norms as supporting unprotected sexual intercourse were condom users. Recommendation Commercials targeting women – A large majority of condoms ads are addressed to men. Usually the scenario is made as the condom make them attractive to women. But in a value- changing society, men are not anymore the only one to take the decision of using a condom. And women play a huge role in the ―negotiation‖ of condom use. By targeting them, women could feel more comfortable to buy the condom which is not quite common yet. Given the importance of the group influence in the decision to use condom or not – especially among 16 Influence of perceived reverent-group normative behavior on adolescents use of condoms, DiClemente R, DuNah R, International Conference on AIDS 12
  • 13. teenagers, the main target –, the commercial should integrate this aspect by showing, for example, a group of girlfriends having fun and advising their friend to use a condom. 3. Internal Influences a. Perception Perception occurs in four stages – exposure, attention, interpretation, and memory. Trojan does its best to maximize consumer exposure through advertising and product placement. Consumer exposure to Trojan condoms can be random or deliberate. For example, a person might see an ad for Trojan condoms while flipping through a magazine, which is random exposure. When consumers seek to purchase a condom in a drug store, they might read the boxes of all the condom brands they are interested in. This is deliberate, voluntary exposure. As the ad or information is seen, attention occurs. One method of obtaining the consumer‘s attention is to place the Trojan brand condoms at kiosks within stores, or to have their boxes placed at eye level on the shelves. Trojan also runs humorous advertisements that consumers will enjoy watching in hopes of increasing ―interestingness‖ and reducing ad avoidance. Individual factors also impact attention. Most purchasers of condoms are very motivated to have a quality product because of the high-risk usage situation. An inadequate product can result in pregnancy or disease. This makes condoms a very unique product because it‘s inexpensive but also has temporary high involvement. Once a consumer becomes comfortable with a brand of condoms, the perception of risk lessens and the product becomes more low- involvement. Another individual factor, brand familiarity, causes consumers to be less attentive to ads for products about which they have substantial knowledge. This could be a problem faced by Trojan because it is a widely known brand. Trojan condoms account for 70.5% of condom sales in drug stores, and have more than 4 times the market share of Durex, the second runner-up (Koerner). Following attention, the consumer interprets the data. A consumer choosing a brand of condoms might interpret price, for example, to be correlated to quality. Though many consumers are very price-conscious, they may interpret the lowest priced brand as being the lowest quality and will forgo savings in exchange for confidence that the product will function properly. This is called price-perceived quality. Consumer expectations also play a role in condom brand selection. Many consumers expect the well-known brands to be of 13
  • 14. higher quality. This factor can lead consumers to select Trojan over other brands because it is very well-known. An article in Design Week called ―Do they have no shame?‖ outlined the various ways in which personal products such as condoms might be destigmatised. This is very important because many consumers view a condom purchase as embarrassing or shameful. The article by Angus Montgomery recommended using straightforward and authoritative language in advertisements, and to use a warm color palette. The article also explained that Durex softened their logo to be perceived as more unisex, hoping to become a first choice for female consumers. Durex also reached out to female consumers by packaging its high-end orgasm enhancing lubricant luxuriously, like a perfume bottle. This lubricant would most likely be purchased by women, so the attractive packaging could help the woman perceive the lubricant as a special product rather than a necessity. In Brandweek, Kenneth Hein interviewed Church & Dwight vice president of marketing James Daniels about the condom purchase process. He said that ―while most sexually active people know that they should use them [condoms], they don‘t bother. Unlike selling other things people should use—like toothpaste or car insurance—condoms carry a stigma. Some see them as dirty while others are affected physically as using a condom interrupts ‗the act.‘‖ Daniels went on to explain that most sexually active Americans know how to use condoms and why it is good for them to do so. However, condoms are only used during 24% of sex acts in America. Daniels used cultural anthropologists and clinical psychologists to explain why people use toothpaste every time they brush their teeth, but fail to use a condom every time they have intercourse. The predictable result of Daniels‘ study was that Americans still largely view sex as shameful or ―dirty,‖ and hence are embarrassed to have and use condoms. The less predictable result was that putting on a condom interrupts the sexual instincts of the male, particularly the instinct to procreate. This interruption has the effect of emasculation. This is one reason that Trojan‘s marketing is so male-oriented. Daniels concluded that the product must be viewed not only as responsible, but masculine. Recommendation Use this information to optimize marketing strategies – The study found that male consumers were so put off by the emasculation of wearing a condom that they and their partner will choose not to use one, despite urgent health concerns. Instead of promoting the condom as a necessity for health, Trojan should use the ―sex sells‖ strategy. Advertising the 14
  • 15. exciting features of condoms, along with promoting the attractiveness of a Trojan-wearing man to the opposite sex, could help men feel less emasculated by condoms. b. Learning Learning is ―the change in content or organization of long-term memory or behavior.‖ Most purchase actions by consumers are learned behaviors. Memory plays an important role in the learning process of consumer behavior. Semantic memory is the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept. For example, condoms may elicit widely different feelings from one person to the next. While one consumer‘s semantic memory creates feelings of responsibility or excitement, the semantic memory of another consumer might lead to uncertainty or shame. Short term memory (STM) is very important to marketers because elaborative activities, which serve to add new elements to concepts (such as the purchase of a product), take place in STM. Because STM can hold a limited amount of information, marketing strategies must be oriented towards refreshing information for their consumers. Learning can be high-involvement when consumers are motivated to process information on a product or low-involvement when a consumer has little or no motivation to process such information. Communication about the product should be structured differently depending on the level of involvement. A person purchasing condoms for the first time will most likely be engaged in high-involvement learning, while a person who is brand loyal will probably choose a box very quickly. Recommendation Use shaping to encourage brand loyalty – Consumers should be given samples of Trojan condoms to try, with a coupon accompanying the package. Once the consumer tries the condom and finds it satisfactory, the coupon will encourage a repeat purchase. The consumer will then become accustomed to Trojan condoms and will become a brand loyal customer. Currently, one may order a free sample of Trojan condoms online. This alienates consumers who do not visit the Trojan website. In-store promotion of the free samples would increase awareness of this offer. Signs and special kiosks featuring the availability of free samples should be posted in drug stores with convenient mail-in cards for consumers who do not wish to order the sample online. The customer should also receive a discount or 2-for-1 coupon with their sample. 15
  • 16. c. Motives One important motive that a consumer has for purchasing condoms is health. Church & Dwight, owner of the Trojan brand, has been advocating the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases through its recent ―Evolve‖ campaign. Michael Johnsen wrote in Drug Store News that the Kaplan Thaler Group created this campaign ―to emphasize the use of condoms out of respect for the other partner.‖ This campaign focused largely on college students. A 40-foot long Trojan bus with an IMAx roller coaster ride traveled to colleges across the country in 2008. C&D chairman Jim Craigie stated that ―three out of four times, people don‘t use a condom…three out of four times they risk getting a disease.‖ As mentioned earlier, most consumers know how to use condoms and understand why it is important to use them. Aside from prevention of disease, the most obvious reason to use condoms is pregnancy prevention. However, society generally views babies as good and happy things, and wouldn‘t necessarily respond well to a marketing program based on the prevention of babies. Some consumers may be less motivated by the prevention of pregnancy because there are a wide variety of other methods of contraception available, such as birth control pills and IUDs. This factor makes disease prevention the most unifying motive across all markets. While some couples may rely on alternative contraceptives, no one is immune to sexually transmitted diseases. Pregnancy prevention is more of a manifest motive (or a motive that is freely known and admitted) because is not taboo in most instances for a consumer to admit that they would not like to procreate and any given time. Prevention of STDs is more of a latent motive because many consumers might be reluctant to admit that they are concerned about their partners being diseased. Marketing must be able to address consumers‘ manifest AND latent motives for purchasing a product. Trojan‘s ―Evolve‖ campaign attempted to do so with one commercial featuring a bar full of pigs and women. The pigs represented men who without a supply of condoms. In the commercial, a pig procures a Trojan condom and turns into a very attractive man, in whom a woman at the bar is very interested. To a male watching the commercial, the manifest motive is addressed because it is common knowledge that using a condom will almost always prevent pregnancy. It is obvious in the commercial that the man and woman have met recently and are not making any family plans yet. The latent motive of prevention of STDs is also addressed 16
  • 17. by the commercial through the portrayal of those who do not use Trojan condoms as disgusting pigs. Psychologically, consumers associate pigs with dirtiness and disease. Showing the pig turn into a man stresses that using condoms keeps you clean and healthy. d. Personality Trojan has worked for decades to establish a strong brand personality. A brand personality is a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand, and some brands acquire a particular type of image this way. For the Trojan brand, it starts with the name and logo. Many consumers are familiar with the history of the Trojan horse. The logo is a man‘s head with a Spartan helmet on. This symbolizes many things, all of them quite masculine. The name Trojan creates association with intelligence and victory. The Spartan helmet symbolizes both manliness and protection. All of these things add to Trojan‘s brand personality. As mentioned above, Durex reaches out to women through attractive packaging and unisex colors. Trojan does not make any effort in this direction, instead sticking with a hyper- masculine brand personality that, while potentially excluding women, may attract many men to the product. Specific dimensions of brand personality into which Trojan condoms fit are Ruggedness, Competence and Excitement. Because of the personal nature of the product, Trojan does not use some of the typical methods of communicating brand personality, such as celebrity endorsers and user imagery. Instead, Trojan uses executional factors such as humorous ads and strong logo presence. e. Emotions Pleasure, arousal, and dominance are key emotional factors in consumer behavior. Pleasure factors that could motivate a condom purchase are Competence and Pride. The consumer will want to feel smart and responsible, as well as in control of the situation to come. Condoms help satisfy these emotional needs. In the dimension of Arousal, Activation could be a motivating emotion. Activation includes feelings of excitement and activeness. One struggle that Trojan encounters is the Shame indicator from the Dominance dimension. Negative, shameful underlying feelings towards sex often reflect upon condoms. Trojan‘s advertisements generally avoid the emotional approach because of the prominence of shame in relation to sexual activity. 17
  • 18. f. Attitudes The first component of consumer attitude is the cognitive component. The cognitive component consists of the consumer‘s beliefs about a product. This is very important to consider in the case of condom purchases. For example, a consumer who believes that contraceptives are immoral might view condoms as the satanic devices. A consumer who believes that sex before marriage is wrong, but is doing it anyway, will view the purchase of condoms as shameful. This is the affective component of there attitude – the feeling elicited by the product. A person with strong hedonic motives who very much enjoys sex and sees nothing wrong with it will have a much better cognitive attitude because the condom is not shameful or evil to this person. In fact, the affective response to the condom might elicit feelings of anticipation and excitement. It is all dependent on the individual attitudes of the consumers. The behavioral component is also intertwined with the cognitive and affective components. For sensitive products such as condoms, it is difficult to estimate the response tendencies of consumers. Trojan has inferred that the response tendency of a consumer with negative cognitive and affective responses to condoms might have the behavioral tendency to purchase online. As a result, Trojan‘s website directs consumers to online outlets through which condoms may be discreetly purchased. 4. Problem recognition – active problem Problem recognition in the mind of a consumer results from a gap in desired and actual states of being which is large enough to activate the consumer decision process. For example, a person may not have any children, which is the consumer‘s current situation. The consumer‘s desired lifestyle may be to remain childless until marriage. A situational factor, sexual activity, contributes to the problem recognition process. In this instance, the consumer realizes that his sexual activity could result in fertilization. Here, the problem is recognized. The desire to resolve a problem is largely dependent on the magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states, and the relative importance of the problem. In the situation of birth control, both are very high. Having a baby versus not having a baby represents a huge discrepancy between the desired and actual states, and is also a very 18
  • 19. important issue. The consumer, in this case, is very aware of the problem, which by this definition is an active problem. However, another dimension contributes to the consumer decision process in the purchase of condoms. This dimension is the problem of variety-seeking. Consumers may become bored with current products and attempt to satisfy their craving for diversity. If a consumer is not satisfied with the varieties within a brand, or does not know that such varieties are available, they may solve their variety problem by purchasing a different brand. Trojan has done well in recognizing and providing for the desire for variety. Trojan offers over 40 different kinds of condoms, such as lubricated, ribbed, flavored, and latex free. When Trojan makes an effort to induce problem recognition in consumers, they are soliciting generic problem recognition. This is because the 2 major problems that consumers recognize in this case are birth control and STD prevention. When Trojan seeks to raise awareness of these issues, the best the company can do is to increase the general market size. This is because these problems can be solved by many brands, not just Trojan. Recommendation Trojan already heavily advertises the health benefits of using condoms. However, the problem recognition for consumers simply urges them to use a condom. Trojan needs to advertise its condoms using a unique selling point that draws customers to Trojan condoms, not just to condoms in general. For example, Trojan offers a lubricated condom with a pleasure- enhancing lubricant. This would be a good feature to promote because many consumers purchase this lubricant separately. Promoting the convenience and excitement of this type of condom could increase the purchases of brand-loyal consumers and urge other consumers to try Trojan condoms for the first time. 19
  • 20. 5. Information Search Once the consumer realizes that they have a problem to solve, they will perform internal and often external searches to find all the possible solutions. A consumer who recognizes the problem of needing a condom for pregnancy prevention and health will first perform an internal search to determine whether they already have the information needed to make a decision. This search will be based on the consumer‘s personal evaluative criteria. For a person who needs to purchase condoms, the evaluative criteria may include reliability, pleasure, and size. Trojan‘s goal is to design a marketing plan that informs consumers about the various ways in which Trojan condoms can meet their evaluative criteria. Sexually active consumers will most likely have an awareness set established for condom purchases. The evoked set includes the brands and types of condoms that the consumer will evaluate further. The inept set contains brands or products that the consumer feels are unacceptable for consideration. This set, for example, might include Trojan Magnum condoms for a consumer with no need for a larger size of condoms. The inert set contains brands that the consumer knows about but feels indifferent toward. Given that Trojan condoms account for over 70% of condom sales, one can infer that the Trojan brand is in the awareness set of consumers with the need for condoms. Once the consumer addresses his or her evoked set, they will compare them based on their personal evaluative criteria. This requires the consumer to have the necessary information for their evoked set. The consumer might use the following sources of information:  Memory: The consumer could use past experiences, such as a bad experience with a defective condom or a good experience with a lubricated condom, to make a decision  Personal sources: the consumer could ask for a recommendation from a friend or recall previous advice  Independent sources: The consumer may have read a study on the effectiveness of a certain type of condom, and uses this to evaluate his or her options  Marketing sources: The consumer may base their decision on a previously viewed advertisement  Experiential sources: The consumer could request a sample for product trial 20
  • 21. If these internal searches prove insufficient, the consumer will seek information based on their evaluative criteria. One source for this information is the internet. A Google search for ―condom‖ provides the Trojan website as the foremost link. The website features detailed descriptions and graphics of all the Trojan products, as well as a substantial FAQ section. It is important for Trojan to drive customers to their website to increase brand loyalty and gain market penetration. Across brands, condoms are essentially very similar in price and variety. This lessens the chance of an external search that requires much effort. Customers are more likely to perform an external search by inspecting packaging. Trojan includes extensive detailing and information on their condom packages for this reason. For example, a consumer who is interested in a lubricated condom may take time in the store to choose between spermicidal or tingling lubricants. Many customers will be engaged in low product involvement, especially if they buy condoms regularly. However, first-time purchasers or those who are unfamiliar with prophylactics may be more motivated to learn about the product and all of their options. Similarly, consumers who view condoms as positive will be more prone to perform an external search. Those with negative views about condom purchases will be more likely to grab the first box they see with a brand they recognize. 6. Alternative evaluation and selection a. Affective vs. Attribute Given our company selection Trojan and our particular product condoms, we have determined that the majority of users have a positive affective feeling. When a consumer‘s consummatory motive comes into play along with their emotions consumers looking for our product have a positive reaction. We also determine that the primacy goal out of our sample survey group was overall health while the instrumental motive was birth control. When it comes to attribute based selections, we had to look a little deeper. Given that the general idea of a condom is for protection from unplanned births and STD‘s we have to look at the condom at its individual level. Below is a list of attributes between different condoms that are offered by Trojan provided by www.trojancondoms.com. 21
  • 22.  Material  Latex  Non-latex  Lubricant  Climax Control  Lubricated  Non-lubricated  Spermicidal  Warming  Size  Extra Large  Large  Regular  Designs  Extra sensitive  Extra sensitive  Mutual stimulation  Roomier  Standard design  Textured  Transmit body heat As you can see consumer looking for variety have plenty of options available to them. Of course each above attribute comes at a cost and not all are available in all areas. The good thing Trojan has going for them is brand loyalty so price for many consumers did not come into play. Trojan also did not have to worry about store image. Many consumers looking for this product did not care where they located their product, they were more concerned how soon and fast they could get it to fulfill their desire. 22
  • 23. b. Other Available Brands and Methods With Trojan caring four times the market share their next closes competitor is Durex. Durex has attempted to capture a different portion of the market. Durex offers the same options above stated in the affective vs. attribute section, but they have additional attributes available as shown on their website, www.durex.com. Their biggest different or additional option is Tropical Flavored condoms. Pleasures Plus, LifeStyles, Trustex, and Inspiral are additional brands available to consumers. After speaking to several non-users of condoms we also discovered a withdraw method not relating to abstinence know as ―pull-out.‖ This is simply a process in which a male removes his penis from that female‘s vagina and ejaculates elsewhere. There is no data provided that this is an effective method against unplanned births and STD‘s. An additional method that was also brought to our attention was birth control. Many non-users of condoms also rely on birth control as their next form of protection. The only concern we found with that as a resource was that it doesn‘t prevent against STD‘s. Recommendation Given that Trojan provides many options to choose out of we recommend that Trojan would take a look at the affective motives – We believe that if Trojan should air more marketing strategies like their ―Evolve One Evolve All‖ ads that ―scare‖ consumers into using our product or show the benefits. As of right now Trojan according to their website has 67 different Trojan ads not all of which have aired on T.V. We are aware of the social risk, but understand that Trojan Condoms is a product that is often overlook and not given enough credit. If consumers are going to participate in sexual activities it is important that they protect themselves. This release of ads will not only promote their brand image, and market share, but in the long-run help society as a whole. They will be contributing to reducing unplanned birth and STD‘S. 7. Outlet selection and purchase a. Outlet Choice vs. Product Choice When it came to discovering how consumers react to choosing an outlet to purchase a product over the brand we didn‘t find any real correlation. Trojan condoms are found in any grocery store, convenient store, gas station and of course in sex shops. What we did see is, depending on which of the locations above are closer determined which outlet to go to. 23
  • 24. Trojan also allows consumer to purchase their product online from several partnering websites. That will be further explained in the E-Commerce section. Another key factor that comes into play for consumer is the perceived risk. Even thought the majority of consumers feel there is more risk when not using our product, most consumers believe that condoms have a 99.9% success rate; PubMed states that the actual success rate is 98.1%. When we compare the risk of our products to many of the risk that consumer believe are present i.e. social cost, financial cost, time cost, effort cost, physical cost we found that consumer believe our product to be a benefit rather than having any risk.  Social cost from the information we gather can be seen several ways. Parents of young kids may feel that Trojan promoting they openly would leave kids with an open mind set that sex at a young age is acceptable. While kids themselves see it as a resource, meaning that if they are going to be sexually involved, they would rather have a condom then not. Also believing that their parents would be proud that the acted responsibly  Financial cost for Trojan products is reasonable across the board. When we asked those who purchase condoms that had a long-term outlook, stating that ―I‘d rather pay 5 bucks for a box of condoms, then be paying for a child at a young age.‖  Time cost was again like financial cost. It wasn‘t something that many consumers we spoke to concerned with. The majority of the complaints came from males, where they stated that they had to leave their ―activity‖ to go purchase the product.  Effort costs are cost that we did not see relevant in our product. There was little effort involved in with the purchasing of our product or with the use of our product. Although there are instructions on each box of condoms many users don‘t often read them.  Physical cost did not show any implications to our product. The only side affect to our project would be if a consumers were allergic to latex, where Trojan has product that‘s fit those needs being non-latex condoms. Again we found that there was not a perceived risk to purchase our product but more so a risk if our product was not purchased. Throughout our search for Trojan consumers knowledge, we did notice that consumer looking for our product did have some idea of a comfortable store atmosphere. Given that consumers stated that they did feel uncomfortable purchasing condoms we found that low lighting and merchandise presentation was important. Consumers 24
  • 25. wanted a feeling that there were in a secluded area where their selecting of condoms can be somewhat hidden. b. Convenience & Point of Purchase Displays Convenience played a major role in our product. Again consumers normally went to the closes location available to them to purchase our product. With information from our survey we saw that roughly 50% of our purchase were unplanned or spur of the moment where the rest were in advance purchases. We also thought of how to attract consumer to our product with point of purchase displays. Point of purchase displays with the product presented by Trojan comes with many conflicts. Although it would appear that with a product that many are aware of and easily ready to purchase that a point of purchase display would be convenient. But after speaking to several consumers who were interview, many believed that there would be a negative social effect that Trojan as a company would have to take on. They stated that many parents or social organizations who promote abstinence would lash out against the company. We also found that some consumers would be too embarrassed to pull our product from a point of purchase display. Thus, we agree that a point of purchase display would be better to leave for a different product. Recommendation Given that we have decided that point of purchase displays are not valuable options and can be found in several locations. We recommend that Trojan began to provide coupons, or set up a multiple-item discount and partner with another product such an energy drink. With them being able to provide coupons that will allow more brand awareness and brand loyalty. While multiple-item discounts would allow consumer who wouldn‘t regularly buy a product, buy this particular product because they are given a discount to the product that they initially wanted to purchase. For example, a consumer comes into a store for an energy drink; see an additional discount for Trojan condoms if they purchase the drink and Trojan Condoms at the same time. The consumer then decides that not only can he/she get the energy drink they wanted but they will also be able to purchase a product that can be use in the future. 25
  • 26. 8. Postpurchase processes Once the consumer purchases the product, they evaluate it based on instrumental performance. Essentially with the Trojan product, it either works as a protective sexual device, or breaks. Comfort is also another relative factor influencing the consumers postpurchase evaluation. Given the relatively low price and situation, purchasing condoms is a low involvement purchase and consumers do not exhibit a large amount of dissonance after purchase. Trojan, being the brand leader in this market, has done an excellent job at turning customers into repeat purchasers with their image of reliability and quality. Affective performance can show a small influence on the consumer as well; the situation calling for this product is usually associated with positive, strong feelings and one might come to associate those feelings with this brand. Consistent quality control is very important to Trojan as any flaws in their product can lead to serious repercussions and lead to customer dissatisfaction. Recommendation Consumers typically see condoms as an item that they should use as opposed to something they want to use. Trojan should develop an ad campaign that repositions purchasing and using condoms into something that consumers feel good about doing. By tapping into the affective performance of the product, Trojan can make customers feel happy and proud of themselves for practicing safe sex. 9. E-Commerce Trojan offers links to various online stores through their website, http://www.trojancondoms.com where one can purchase their products over the internet. This can remove the ―embarrassment‖ factor which can affect a lot of customers. Since there is somewhat of a stigma placed on purchasing condoms, at least for younger consumers, this can create a considerable amount of comfort and make the consumer much more likely to purchase. The Trojan website offers an easy to use catalog showcasing their many products. Consumers can obtain information and learn about the differences in each product in the comfort of their 26
  • 27. own home without having to ask a retail associate in a store, who might not be too knowledgeable on the product in the first place. Another benefit of this is that most stores probably do not carry the entire Trojan catalog so the website offers consumers the maximum amount of choices. Each product information page also provides quick and easy links to ordering that specific product. Free samples are easily obtainable right on the home page. You can typically choose a free sample of one of their newer lines that consumers might have not had a chance to use. Using product seeding for their new lines can be a great way to generate word of mouth and give consumers a risk-free way to try a product that they might not normally use. Additionally, this adds a physical ―touch‖ aspect in deciding if the consumer wants to go with Trojan or go with another brand, perhaps one that is better known to them at the time. The ―Evolve One, Evolve All‖ campaign from Trojan, one of their largest in recent history, is an attempt to promote the message of sexual safety to as many people as possible. They are hoping to take advantage of social networking and viral marketing with their commercials being shared online. The website http://www.evolveoneevolveall.com features creative advertisements that can easily be viewed and shared by visitors, and a community where you can view and upload your own video pertaining to the campaign. Recommendation When a customer chooses to order a particular product on Trojan.com, they are given several affiliate sites that sell condoms where you can purchase the given product. Having several third-party choices to choose from may turn off the consumer. If Trojan was able to supply these condoms directly through their website, it would eliminate the ―online middleman‖ and be that much easier for the consumer to order their product. Developing a network to ship directly to the consumer should not be too difficult to build as it is already done when one orders a free sample from the website. 10. Survey We conducted our own survey to try to get a better grasp of the purchasing behavior of college students. Here is the survey administered to 52 students at the Monfort College of Business. 27
  • 28. a. Questionnaire 1. Are you a MALE or FEMALE? 2. What brand first comes to mind when purchasing a condom? 3. Do you have a favorite brand or do you choose when you get to the store? BRAND or STORE. 4. Do you research before purchasing? If yes where? A. In Store B. Online C. Word of mouth D. T.V. E. Other _____________________ F. Don‘t research 5. What is your main reason for using a condom HEALTH or BIRTH CONTROL? 6. Are condoms the primary source for protection? YES or NO. 7. Does your partner purchase the condoms? YES or NO. 8. Do you shop alone when purchasing condoms? YES or NO. 9. Are condoms easily accessible to college students? YES or NO. 10. When do you purchase condoms? A. Spur of moment B. In advance 11. Are you concerned with price when purchasing condoms? YES or NO. 12. Would you purchase Trojan Condoms from a Specialty Sex store rather than your local convent corner store if they had more variety? YES or NO. 13. Are you uncomfortable purchasing condoms in a store? YES or NO. If it were a specialty sex store would you? YES or NO. 14. After your purchase do you feel Positive or Negative? 15. When considering Trojan Condoms, what is the first thing that comes to mind? i.e. quality, price, variety, size. 16. What would persuade you to choose Trojan Condoms over other brands? Please rank the effectiveness of each method. A. Free samples B. Price C. Package look D. Location (register, kiosk) E. Product information availability 28
  • 29. b. Results Influences to Choose Trojan Condoms Men Free Sample 34% Product Info Availability 50% Price 8% Location Within Store Package Look 0% 8% As evidenced in the chart above, 50% of men said that the availability of information about Trojan condoms would influence them to choose the brand. The second most common response was an offer of free samples. None of the men responded that location of Trojan condoms within the store influenced them to choose the brand. Influences to Choose Trojan Condoms Women Free Sample 33% Product Info Availability 56% Price 0% Package Look Location Within 0% Store 11% Female respondents showed a preference for product information availability as an influence of their brand decision. As with the males, the second most popular influence was a free sample offer. 29
  • 30. 25 20 15 Positive 10 Negative 5 0 Feelings towards purchase (Men) Clearly, the overall feelings towards purchasing condoms a positive for a vast majority of respondents. 30 25 20 15 Positive Negative 10 5 0 Feelings towards purchase (Women) None of the women who responded to the survey had negative feelings when purchasing condoms. 30
  • 31. Main Reason For Condom Use 17% 38% Health Men Birth Control Men Health Women Birth Control Women 37% 8% The results to this question were particularly surprising. It is clear that the majority of both men and women use a condom for health reasons. Only a quarter of the respondents said that their primary reason for using condoms is pregnancy prevention. This was interesting because pregnancy prevention is the manifest motive for condom usage, while health is the latent motive. Recommendation The results of our surveys show us that information availability is of foremost importance to the college student segment. Trojan can do this by adding more informational material to the packaging of their products. Another way to provide more information would be to include kiosks with attention-grabbing informational panels. To enhance the informational content of the Trojan condoms on the shelves of retail locations, we recommend using dispensers similar to the coupon dispensers in many grocery stores. These dispensers would distribute slips of paper with information about health benefits of Trojan condoms, as well as the unique features of their assorted varieties. 31
  • 32. Bibliography  http://www.avert.org/  Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 10th ed., Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, Best  The impact of embarrassment on condom purchase behavior, Dahl, Gorn, & Weinberg, 1998  Condom Use and HIV Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults: Data from a National Survey, John E. Anderson, Ronald Wilson, Lynda Doll, T. Stephen Jones and Peggy Barker  Comparison of a culturally-tailored model of condom use behavior in Puerto Rico and the U.S., Kiene SM, Perez-Jimenez D, International Conference on AIDS 15th, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand  Geiss & Gerrard, 1984, Whitley, 1990  Gruber & Chambers, 1987, Hayes, 1987  Chilman, 1986, Earle & Perricone, 1986  Sexual behaviors and condom use: a study of suburban male adolescents, 1994, Nguyen T. Minh Nguyet, Brigitte Maheux, Francois Beland, Lucille A. Pica  Gender Differences in AIDS-Relevant Condom Attitudes and Condom Use, Sacco, William P.  Influence of perceived reverent-group normative behavior on adolescents use of condoms, DiClemente R, DuNah R, International Conference on AIDS  The Other Trojan War - What's the best-selling condom in America?, Koerner, Brandon, Slate, September 29, 2006 http://www.slate.com/id/2150552/  Trojan Takes on U.S Sexual Health Crisis, Brandweek, Hein, Kenneth, 1/18/2009  Do they have no shame ?, Montgomery, Angus, Design Week, 1 /29/2009 Vol. 24 Issue 4  Vendor campaigns stimulate sexual health awareness, Johnsen, Michael, Drug Store News, 12/8/2008, Vol. 3 Issue 1 32
  • 33. 33