2014 staar review

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2014 staar review

  1. 1. Exploration & Colonization (1215-1763)
  2. 2. Magna Carta - 1215 -Limited power of the king - Said parliament decides tax - Gave citizens right to a fair speedy trial English Bill of Rights - Lords and elected representatives Parliament Citizens’ Rights British Documents/Gov’t that influenced us:
  3. 3. Columbus Discovers Americas in 1492
  4. 4. Columbian ExchangeEffect of the exchange: Good: New crops and farming methods to Europe Bad: Diseases spread through the Americas
  5. 5. Columbian ExchangeEffect of the exchange: Good: New crops and farming methods to Europe Bad: Diseases spread through the Americas
  6. 6. Names for England - England - Great Britain - Britain - British - English
  7. 7. 1. Reasons for English Colonization • Social- • Economic- • Religious- (Glory) (Gold) (God)
  8. 8. 8. Mercantilism • Economic system where colony can only trade with Mother Country (England). Hurt the colony’s economy
  9. 9. 2. Jamestown, Virginia- 1607 • First permanent English settlement in North America. Hardships - Undrinkable Water - Disease - Swampy Land - Indian Attacks - Starvation (FAMINE)
  10. 10. 3. Virginia House of Burgesses • First representative assembly in the colonies. Representative = Someone who is selected to speak for the people
  11. 11. 5. Representative Government • Power is held by the people who elect representatives to look out for their interests.
  12. 12. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • Wrote by Thomas Hooker • The first CONSTITUTION written in the Colonies Constitution= a plan for how your government works
  13. 13. 4. 1620 • Founding of Plymouth Bay Colony • Pilgrims escape religious persecution • They signed the Mayflower Compact- Early example of self government. Persecution= being treated badly because of your beliefs
  14. 14. Religion in the ColoniesMassachusetts – The Pilgrims were PURITANS and did not allow any other beliefs. Rhode Island – Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson created a colony of RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. (Est. future principle) Pennsylvania – The Quakers lead by William Penn believed in PEACE no matter what Maryland – CATHOLICS came here so they could practice there beliefs.
  15. 15. Triangular Trade • Buying and selling of humans for forced labor. Middle Passage The terrible journey for slaves from Africa to America. Packed, dirty ships with little food.
  16. 16. 10. Colonial Economies • Northern (New England)- Industrial, ship building, fishing. • Southern- Agricultural. Economy: crops like cotton, indigo, corn, tobacco, grain, rice WHY? Rich soil and flat lands Economy: Factories Textiles, Lumber, Merchants (trading) WHY? Rocky soil and hills
  17. 17. 6. Plantations • Large farms that usually grow one kind of cash crop. • Like small cities with a Church, butcher, and everything you need • Used slaves as main labor
  18. 18. 7. Cash Crops • Grown in large fields to make money. Harvested by slaves.
  19. 19. Tutoring Today
  20. 20. Movie time with Mr. Klein
  21. 21. Revolution (1763 to 1783)
  22. 22. Causes of War: 1. Colonist wanted to move west into French land. 2. Made France mad. 3. War started French and IndiansVS British and Colonists French and Indian War
  23. 23. - Wrote by Benjamin Franklin - Colonies unite to Fight French Albany Plan of Union
  24. 24. Effect of the French and Indian War • England Wins • Doubles size of Colonial Land • England has HUGE debt
  25. 25. Problems from French & Indian War Proclamation of 1763 Proclamation Line = England’s war debt means higher taxes for colonies.
  26. 26. “Taxation Without Representation” Colonies were most angry about not having a representative in Parliament. Parliament= England’s representatives. They decide taxes and laws.
  27. 27. 13. King George III • King of England during the American Revolution.
  28. 28. 1.Navigation Acts 2.Proclamation of 1763 3.Sugar Act (Tax) 4.Stamp Act (Tax on paper) 6.Boston Massacre 5.Townshend Acts (Group of Taxes) 7. Tea Act 8.Boston Tea Party 9.Intolerable Acts (Blockade on Massachusetts) “Taxation without representation!” Causes of American Revolution
  29. 29. Boston Massacre Bloody Massacre • Violence in Boston killed Crispus Attucks and fueled the fire for revolution.
  30. 30. Two types of Colonists Loyalist Patriot Stay with ENGLAND!! REVOLUTION! Revolution= A major change
  31. 31. 15. Samuel Adams • Opposed British taxation. • Helped form the Sons of Liberty. Sons of Liberty= a group who wanted REVOLUTION. Responsible for the Boston Tea Party
  32. 32. 16. Patrick Henry Known for his “Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death” speech.
  33. 33. 17. Thomas Paine • Wrote “Common Sense” which gave reasons to fight for independence.
  34. 34. Declaration of Independence (1776) - Letter to the King from the Colonies - A break up letter Listed the Grievances: 1. Tax w/out Reps 2. King has all power 3. Protesting Illegal 4. Search w/no warrant 5. Quartering of troops 6. No trial by jury
  35. 35. 18. Thomas Jefferson • Wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776. • Believed all humans had Unailienable Rights: Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  36. 36. Unalienable Rights • Rights that cannot be taken away. • All people’s God given rights when they are born. • In the Declaration of Independence they are- “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness”
  37. 37. 20. George Washington • Commander of the Continental Army.
  38. 38. Battle of Lexington and Concord • Opening battles of the American Revolution. • Looking for Samuel Adams, John Hancock and Weapons • “Shot heard around the world” Start of the REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1775)
  39. 39. Battle of Saratoga • Battle which was the turning point of the revolution. • France began to help the colonies after this victory. Victory
  40. 40. 23. Benjamin Franklin • Helped convince France to help the colonists fight the British.
  41. 41. Winter at Valley Forge • Where Washington’s army spent a difficult winter but emerged a stronger force. • Training = Stronger Army
  42. 42. Battle of Yorktown • Ended the American Revolution. • Cornwallis (British General) surrenders
  43. 43. Treaty of Paris (1781) • British recognized American independence. • Mississippi River became the western border of the U.S. United States France Spain
  44. 44. Movie time with Mr. Klein
  45. 45. the Constitution (1783 to 1787)
  46. 46. Articles of Confederation • 1st U.S. Constitution • Weak National government. Enforce laws Power to tax National Courts National Army Remember: Constitution means a plan for how the government works
  47. 47. Northwest Ordinance • Set up an orderly system to bring in new states.
  48. 48. Shays’ Rebellion Events: 1. Farmers rebel because of taxes 2. Federal Government cannot stop them 3. Congress realizes Articles of Confederation sucks.
  49. 49. Convention of 1787 Philadelphia Convention • Called to revise the Articles of Confederation • Trashed the Articles of Confederation • New Constitution was written.
  50. 50. -Wrote the Virginia Plan -Father of the Constitution James Madison -Studied for a whole year about history and politics
  51. 51. Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan - 3 Branches - # of Reps based on population - 3 Branches - Equal #of reps for all states Two different plans for New Constitution
  52. 52. Great Compromise: 1787 (Mixed the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan) This is bi-cameral: Two houses of Congress Article 1 Article 2 Article 3
  53. 53. Makes Laws Makes Taxes CongressLegislative Branch: Job:
  54. 54. Enforce Laws/Command Army PresidentExecutive Branch: Job:
  55. 55. Interpret (explain) the laws All courtsJudicial Branch: Job: Highest Court: Supreme Court Highest Judge: Chief Justice
  56. 56. Three-Fifths Compromise • Settled how slaves would be counted for taxation and representation purposes. • Every 5 slaves would be counted as 3 people in population
  57. 57. 1787 2 Groups fought over the ratification of the Constitution FederalistFederalist Anti-FederalistAnti-Federalist • Liked the Constitution as it was written • Believed in a stronger Federal government • Against the Constitution. • Feared a loss of states rights • Wanted a Bill of Rights
  58. 58. Federalist Papers Written by these guys to convince anti-federalist to ratify the Constitution James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay
  59. 59. Patrick Henry -Gave speeches against RATIFICATION -Did not go to the Constitutional Convention because he “smelled a rat” George Mason -Leader of the Anti- Federalist -Believed in restricting the federal governments power -Wanted a Bill of Rights for peoples protection -Virginia Delegate Anti-FederalistAnti-Federalist
  60. 60. Bill of Rights • First 10 Amendments to the Constitution. • Protects Unalienable rights. 1. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, petition 2. Right to bear arms 3. No quartering of soldiers 4. No search and seizure w/out warrant 5. Right to due process / remain silent 6. Right to a speedy trial 7. Right to a trial by jury 8. No cruel and unusual punishment 9. You have more rights then these 10. Rights not given to the Federal government is given to the states
  61. 61. 7 principles of the Constitution
  62. 62. 1. Limited Government • All authority figures must obey the law.
  63. 63. 40. Republicanism • People hold the power through the election of representatives. People Elect Representatives
  64. 64. 41. Checks and Balances • Prevents one branch of the government from becoming too powerful. EXAMPLES:
  65. 65. 42. Federalism • The sharing of power between a national government and states.
  66. 66. 43. Separation of Powers • Each branch of the government is assigned specific powers. L Make Laws E Carries out Laws J Court System
  67. 67. 44. Popular Sovereignty • Political power rests with the people. • Exercised through voting. Power ofPower of the Peoplethe People
  68. 68. 2/3 of States-OR- Ratified by ¾ States Amendment Process 2/3 of Congress
  69. 69. Early Nation (1787- 1845)
  70. 70. 1789 George Washington -Sets Precedents -Creates cabinet -Neutrality -Farewell Adress First president-
  71. 71. Hamilton’s - 4 part Financial plan Part 1: Pay off War Debt Part 2: Whisky Tax Part 3: Protective Tariffs Part 4: Create a National Bank
  72. 72. 48. Bank of the United States • Bank chartered by the National government to provide bank notes to be used as money and to regulate state banks. • A big fight between Jefferson and Hamilton
  73. 73. Whisky Rebellion • Americans near Pennsylvania angered by the tax on Whisky • Stopped by the Federal Government (Different then Shay’s Rebellion)
  74. 74. A Fight Started V.S. America says, “Neutrality! ”
  75. 75. Washington’s Farewell Address • Warned against political parties, foreign entanglements, regional differences, and having a debt. 1. Alliances that will drag us to war 2. Political parties that will tear us a part 3. Sectionalism or Geographical differences 4. Getting into Debt
  76. 76. John Adams -2nd President - XYZ Affair - Sedition Acts
  77. 77. XYZ Affair 3. -American’s want war - Adam’s wants peace 1. France stealing US ship cargo 2. Adams sends reps to France 4. Adams signs treaty 5.Americans write bad stuff about Adams
  78. 78. Alien and Sedition Acts Adams has congress make a law that makes it illegal to speak against the government. Against 1st Amendment right.
  79. 79. Thomas Jefferson -3rd President -Louisiana Purchase -Louis and Clark - Embargo act of 1807 -Believed in Neutrality
  80. 80. • Thomas Jefferson buys the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million. • Doubled the size of the U.S. Louisiana Purchase - 1803
  81. 81. Lewis and Clark Sacagawea
  82. 82. British ships started to stop American ships to look for soldiers who ran away from Britain. They also started to kidnap US sailors and force them to fight with them. Impressments
  83. 83. Embargo Act To stop this from happening Jefferson made the.... This act said that ships could not trade with anybody from Europe. This act did not work and really hurt the Economy
  84. 84. Marbury v Madison • Chief Justice John Marshall-Supreme Court case which est. Judicial Review. ( Constitutionality of the Law) • Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional. M & M’s = Jolly Ranchers Marbury vs. Madison = Judicial Review M & M’s = Jolly Ranchers Marbury vs. Madison = Judicial Review
  85. 85. James Madison -4th President -War of 1812 1st to declare war
  86. 86. Causes of the War of 1812 1. Impressments 2. England encouraging Indian attacks 3. England blocking trade with France 4. Warhawks – Like Calhoun
  87. 87. U.S. win the War of 1812 This starts the Era of Good Feelings
  88. 88. James Monroe -5th President -Monroe Doctrine -Missouri Compromise
  89. 89. 53. James Monroe • His doctrine stated European countries were to stay out of the Western Hemisphere.
  90. 90. Missouri Compromise (1820) • Missouri- slave state. Maine free state. • First sectional issue between the North and South. • More states mean more power in Congress.
  91. 91. Henry Clay -Congressman -Nicknamed the “great compromiser” -Wrote the Missouri
  92. 92. Westward Expansion Industrial Revolution Reforms (1845-1861)
  93. 93. 11. Free Enterprise • Economic system where there is competition between businesses with little governmental control.
  94. 94. 56. Industrial Revolution • Production of goods and products in factories by machines. • Led to more goods being produced at lower prices.
  95. 95. 57. Urbanization • Major movement of people from rural (Countryside) to cities (urban).
  96. 96. 58. Interchangeable Parts • Eli Whitney. • Parts are made exactly the same to make it easier to replace parts and produce faster.
  97. 97. 59. Agricultural Inventions • Cotton Gin- Eli Whitney- Created a demand for slaves. • Steel Plow- John Deere- Increased agricultural production. • Mechanical Reaper- Cyrus McCormick- Increased grain production.
  98. 98. 59. Bessemer Steel Process • A cheap way to make a massive amount of steel. • Encouraged the railroad and making buildings out of steel
  99. 99. 60. Transportation • Steamboat- Robert Fulton. Decreased travel time on water. • Canals- Man made waterways found mainly in the Northeast. Connected cities by water. • Railroads- Fastest form of transportation on land. Led to growth of cities and westward expansion.
  100. 100. 62. Improvement in Communication • Telegraph- Samuel Morse. Allowed people to communicate over long distances.
  101. 101. 63. Manifest Destiny • Belief that the U.S. was destined to run from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans.
  102. 102. 64. U.S.-Mexican War • Occurred over the annexation (addition) of Texas because of a BOARDER DISPUTE (President Polk) • After the U.S. victory they acquired most of the present day American Southwest (Mexican Cession).
  103. 103. President James K. Polk - 11th President - Big believer of Manifest Destiny - Promised to get the Oregon territory and Annex Texas.
  104. 104. 106 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1776 •Great Britain •US declared independence from Great Britain I - 13 Original Colonies 1
  105. 105. 107 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1783 •Great Britain •Result of the Treaty of Paris 2 2 – Northwest Territory
  106. 106. 108 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1803 •France •Napoleon needed $ •Jefferson wanted land for agriculture 3 - Louisiana Purchase 3
  107. 107. 109 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1819 •Spain •Andrew Jackson invaded it. •Spain then sold it to us for $5 million 4 - Florida 4
  108. 108. 110 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1845 •Republic of Texas (Independent Country) •Texas independent from Mexico in 1836 •Northerners feared it would become a slave state •Angered Mexico 5 – Texas Annexation 5
  109. 109. 111 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1846 •Great Britain •Claimed by England and U.S •Americans demanded “54° 40’ or fight!” •Britain compromised 49° & US accepted 6 - Oregon Territory 6
  110. 110. 112 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1848 •Mexico •Mexico is angry over the Texas Annexation AND boarder dispute •Caused Mexican- American War! •US wins •Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo awards the land to U.S. 7 - Mexican Cession 7
  111. 111. 113 US Territorial Expansion When? From Where? Why? •1853 •Mexico •U.S. needed the land to build a rail road around the Rocky Mountains •Purchased from Mexico. 8 – Gadsen Purchase 8
  112. 112. Age of Jackson and Reform Movements
  113. 113. 65. Andrew Jackson • He was the Common man’s president • Believed in a strong national government. • Hero of the Battle of New Orleans. • Changed the way people Campaigned (Parties, Speeches, Mudslinging, BBQ’s, Buttons)
  114. 114. Suffrage Requirements in the Early 1800’s Suffrage Requirements in the Early 1800’s Age of Jackson and Reform Movements Vote=Own land Vote=Pay taxes
  115. 115. 66. Democratic Party • Revolved around the beliefs of Jackson. • Strong Federal Government. • Supported by Southerners and slave owners.
  116. 116. Spoils System: • Jackson would give government jobs to people who did not deserve it if they supported him.
  117. 117. 67. Daniel Webster • Represented the viewpoint of the North. • Believed in preserving the Union was most important. Remember what George Washington said about what geographical differences will do to our country.
  118. 118. 68. Henry Clay • “Great Compromiser”. • Worried how the spread of slavery would affect Western Territories. Lets make a deal.
  119. 119. 69. John C. Calhoun • Represented the South. • From South Carolina. • Believed in slavery and states’ rights. • Lead South Carolina in Nullification Crisis Long live slavery and states’ rights!
  120. 120. 70. Protective Tariff • Tax on imports meant to protect U.S. industries. • Made imports more expensive and encouraged people to buy products made in the U.S. • Good for = North • Bad for = South
  121. 121. 71. States’ Rights • Belief that states don’t have to follow Federal law if that state feels that law violates the Constitution.
  122. 122. 72. Nullification Crisis • Occurred when South Carolina refused to enforce the Protective Tariff of 1828. • President Jackson threatened to enforce the tariff with military • South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union.
  123. 123. 73. Indian Removal Act of 1830 • All Indians East of the Mississippi would be moved to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) • The Indian’s land was wanted for farming. • Andrew Jackson ignored the Supreme Court decision of “Cherokee Nation VS. Georgia” – Supreme Court said no to moving them
  124. 124. 74. Trail of Tears • The Cherokee Indians were forced to march to Indian Territory. • One fourth of them died on the trip because Jackson ignored Supreme Court
  125. 125. Jackson’s War on the Bank • Jackson did not renew the Charter (License) to the bank • Jackson took out all of the Federal Government $ and put it in State banks
  126. 126. 75. Reform Movements • Women’s Rights- Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The “Declaration of Sentiments” from the Seneca Falls, NY (NEW YORK) Convention called for equal rights for women. Stanton Susan Anthony
  127. 127. 75 Reform Movements • Public (Common) School- Led by Horace Mann. Called for education for all students regardless of background.
  128. 128. 75. Reform Movements • Temperance- Against the abuse of alcohol. Believed it caused problems like family violence and poverty.
  129. 129. 75. Reform Movements • Abolitionist- Wanted to do away with slavery. Found in the North.
  130. 130. 75. Reform Movements • Mental Illness and Prison Reform- Dorothea Dix. Wanted to improved conditions for the mentally ill and better treatment of prisoners.
  131. 131. The Civil War (1861-1865)
  132. 132. 55. Sectionalism • When one part of the country looks out for its own interests.
  133. 133. 76. Frederick Douglass • Former slave who spoke against slavery and for human rights. • Abolitionist who started anti- slavery paper “the North Star”
  134. 134. 77. Compromise of 1850 • California admitted as a free state. • Strengthened Fugitive Slave Law. • Compromise by Henry Clay – North California admitted as a free state South Fugitive Slave Law
  135. 135. 78. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. • Antislavery novel which caused many Northerners to oppose slavery. • Gave proof to terrible treatment of slaves in the South
  136. 136. 79. Kansas-Nebraska Act • Allowed Popular Sovereignty to determine Slave state or Free state • Led to violence = Bleeding Kansas
  137. 137. 80. Dred Scott v Sanford • Supreme Court case which stated slaves were not citizens and that they were property
  138. 138. 81. Election of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln elected president. • Caused Southern states to secede from the Union.
  139. 139. Lincoln’s Inaugural Addresses • First Inaugural Address- North would leave slavery alone but would act to preserve the Union. • Second Inaugural Address- Did not want to treat the South poorly after the Civil War. The war was now about abolishing slavery
  140. 140. 1861-1865 Years of the Civil War.
  141. 141. Confederate States of America • Formed by former Southern states.
  142. 142. Jefferson Davis • President of the Confederate States.
  143. 143. Ulysses S. Grant • Commander of Union (North) forces during the Civil War.
  144. 144. Robert E. Lee Commander of the Confederate (South) forces during the Civil War.
  145. 145. 88. Fort Sumter • Opening battle of the Civil War.
  146. 146. Battle of Antietam Lincoln Claims victory for Union and gives Emancipation Proclamation
  147. 147. Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln proclaims all the slaves in the Rebelling (Confederate) states FREE!
  148. 148. 89. Battle of Gettysburg • Northern victory which was the turning point of the war in the East. • Southern troops withdrew.
  149. 149. 90. Gettysburg Address • Motivational Speech by Lincoln which reaffirmed the North’s commitment to winning the war.
  150. 150. 91. Battle of Vicksburg • Northern victory • North controlled the Mississippi River.
  151. 151. 93. Appomattox Court House • Civil War ended with a Union victory when Lee surrendered to Grant.
  152. 152. Reconstruction (1865-1877)
  153. 153. 94. Reconstruction Amendments • 13th - Ended slavery and made it illegal. • 14th - Defined citizenship and gave equal protect under the law. • 15th - Granted Black men the right to vote.
  154. 154. Lincoln Shot – 1865Lincoln Shot – 1865 by John Wilkes Boothby John Wilkes Booth
  155. 155. 95. Andrew Johnson • Became President after Lincoln’s assassination. Wanted to treat the South kindly.
  156. 156. Black Codes/Slave Codes • Passed by Southern states to limit the civil rights and freedom of the freedmen. To all Freedmen: Any Freedman found without a job will be fined and possibly jailed! • Freedmen = was the name for any person freed from slavery
  157. 157. Jim Crow Laws • Laws that segregated or separated whites and African Americans (Freedmen)
  158. 158. Reconstruction Act of 1867 Union forces stayed in the South to make sure Slavery was ABOLISHED
  159. 159. 97. Freedman’s Bureau • Created to help freedmen adjust and to set up schools to educate them. They were given food, clothing and medical care.
  160. 160. 98. Homestead Act • Allowed any citizen to own 160 acres of land if they lived on it for 5 years and improved it. Contributed to people moving westward.
  161. 161. 99. Morrill Act • Gave each state 30,000 acres of federal land times the number of its members of Congress. States could sell land to fund public colleges. Colleges Established Under the Morrill Act •Iowa State •Kansas State •Michigan State •Rutgers University •Penn State University •University of Vermont •University of Minnesota •University of Missouri •University of Wisconsin
  162. 162. 100. Dawes Act • Broke up Indian tribes and promoted the assimilation of Native Americans into American society. Caused Indians to lose most of their lands.
  163. 163. Maps To Know
  164. 164. Maps To Know
  165. 165. Important Court Cases
  166. 166. Marbury v Madison • John Marshall-Supreme Court case which est. Judicial Review. ( Constitutionality of the Law) • Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional. M & M’s = Jolly Ranchers Marbury vs. Madison = Judicial Review M & M’s = Jolly Ranchers Marbury vs. Madison = Judicial Review
  167. 167. Native American Treatment • Cherokee V. Georgia- Supreme Court favors Cherokee and says they do not have to move. Pres. Jackson ignores = Trail of Tears • Worcester V. Georgia- Supreme Court decided that Georgia could not make any laws on Indian land because they were like their own country
  168. 168. 61. Commerce • McCulloch v. Maryland- Supreme Court case which stated Congress had the power to carry out its power stated in the Constitution. • Gibbons v. Ogden- Supreme Court case which stated Congress could regulate interstate (State to State) commerce. Maryland, you can’t tax the Bank of the U.S.
  169. 169. Important People
  170. 170. Benjamin Franklin Samuel Adams King George III Thomas Jefferson Ambassador to France Sons of Liberty Ruler of Great Britain Declaration of Independence Important People (Revolution)
  171. 171. Thomas Paine George Washington Abigail Adams John Adams Wrote “Common Sense” Continental Army “Remember the Ladies!” Argued for independence Important People (Revolution)
  172. 172. Wentworth Cheswell Mercy Otis Warren James Armistead Midnight rider to warn colonists/ Battle of Saratoga Propagandist for the Patriots Spy for Lafayette Important People (Revolution)
  173. 173. Bernardo de Galvez Crispus Attucks Haym Solomon Led Spanish armies against the British Fist killed in the Boston Massacre Jewish financier of the American Revolution Important People (Revolution)

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