- Egyptians believed the god Thoth invented hieroglyphics.
- hieroglyphics came from the Greek "hieros" meaning sacred and "glypho" meaning inscriptions.
- 3,400 BC has been dated the earliest known example of writing.
- and 396 AD has been dated the latest known inscription of writing.
- it was first used by Clement from Alexandria.
Picture of: Hieroglyphs
- Horus was an important falcon headed god.
- the eye of Horus symbol was used to protect from evil.
- and it was also used as a fraction system.
- the eye of Horus represents a human eye and markings on the cheek of a falcon.
Picture of: Eye of Horus
Eye of Horus:
- the fraction system was based on the "eye of Horus".
- it was used to record prescriptions, land and grain.
- each part of the eye of Horus added together equalled to a value of 1.
- fractions were created by putting together different sections of the eye.
- each section of the eye was based on halves so one part of the eye would be 1/2 then the next 1/4 and 1/8 etc.
Picture of: Eye of Horus fraction system
- the Egyptians used paper (papyrus) to right on, which was made of a marsh plant called papyrus reed.
- but school boys used broken pottery bits or wipe-off boards because they were cheaper than papyrus.
- the Egyptians used pigment powder which was made from a plant and it makes paint or ink when it is mixed with a liquid.
- they also used three pen cases to hold reeds they used to write with and two carved circles held red ink and black ink.
Picture of: Three Pen Cases
Egyptian Numbering System:
- the Egyptian number system was based by units of 10.
- instead of writing numbers down they used pictures to represent them.
- the higher numbered values were always written in front of smaller values.
Picture of: Number System
- Egyptians used more than 2,000 hieroglyphic symbols.
- each symbol represented common objects in ancient Egypt.
- the symbol usually represented a sound or idea that related to the object.
- these days we use a type of hieroglyphic writing called "rebus".
- rebus is a type of writing we use that sounds out what we are trying to say instead of writing it.
Picture of: Rebus
- a cartouche was a place to hold the name of a pharaoh.
- in the 5th dynasty they put the two most important names of the pharaoh in the cartouches.
- they put his birth-name (nomen) and throne name (prenomen) in the cartouches.
- the cartouche represents everything encircled by the sun.
- but it also was a protective symbol to the king.
- the Rosetta Stone was a stone that had three different scripts on it and two different languages.
- the first script was hieroglyphic, which was used for important and religious documents.
- the second script was demotic, which was the common script of Egypt.
- the third script was Greek, which was the language the ruler of Egypt spoke at the time.
- the Rosetta Stone was found in 1799 by French soldiers in a small village called Rosetta.
- on the stone it says it lists how good the pharaoh has been to his people of Egypt
How they solved how to read Hieroglyphs
- in the 4th century the emperor Theodosius closed the temples and that's when everyone forgot how to read hieroglyphs. - then in the 19th century a man named Jean-Francois Champollion uncovered the mystery of the hieroglyphic script.
Picture of: Jean-Francois Champollion
Scribes were men who learned to read and write heiroglyphs and heiratic
They were the only people in Egypt whoknew how to read and write hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs would usually appear on temples and in the tombs of pharoahs
Scribes were the ones that kept records of the government and wrote letters for the pharaoh.