Vicam Ia Column For Mycotoxins

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Vicam Ia Column For Mycotoxins

  1. 1. Seminar Schedule 1. Information about VICAM 2. Information about mycotoxins
  2. 2. • Established in 1985 by leading scientists at Harvard and MIT together with executives from the food industry • Shipment of first mycotoxin testing product line - 1987 • Shipment of first microbiological testing product line - 1991 • Established distribution in 97 countries worldwide - 1999 VICAM HISTORY
  3. 3. VICAM CORPORATE MISSION • Committed to innovative, rapid tests for the food industry • Design tests with superior quality, value, reliability, ease-of-use and performance • Customer Service • Seek our customer’s input
  4. 4. Product Line History AflaTest 1987 1988 1991 1992 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 Coming Soon AflaTip Afla B DONtest HPLC OchraTest ListerTest Afla M1 DONtest TAG AlfaOchra T-2 TAG Salmonella Screen/ Salmonella Verify Salmonella Screen/ SE Verify Mold Tests Patulin TestFumoniTest ZearalaTest AflaTest WB ZearalaTest WB OchraTest WB AOZ WB T-2 HPLC Amylease Test 2002 2003
  5. 5. New Products AOZ column for HPLC Wide bore AflaTest, OchraTest, FumoniTest, and ZearalaTest columns for HPLC T-2 HPLC column
  6. 6. VICAM FACILITIES/OFFICES
  7. 7. Regulatory Relationships with: •AOAC •FDA •FGIS •USDA •Laboratoire de Médecine Vétérinaire, France •Laboratórios de Veterinária de Portugal •Agriculture Laboratory, Netherlands •Insituto Superiore di Sanita, Italy •FDA, Taiwan •Ministerio de Salud, Chile •Ministerio de Salud, Colombia •Health Canada •Veterinary lab, South Africa •Ministère de I’Agriculture, France • EECC •Ministère de I’Agriculture, Belgium •Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore, Singapore •Health Sciences Authority, Singapore •Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Australia •National Standard Method of China
  8. 8. Mycotoxin Tests • AflaTest – AflaB, Afla-P, AflaM1, AflaTip, AflaTest WB. • OchraTest: OchraTest, OchraTest WB. • FumoniTest • ZearalaTest: ZearalaTest, ZearalaTest WB. • DONTest: DON FQ, DONtest HPLC • T2: T-2 TAG, T-2 HPLC • Combined columns: AflaOchra, AOZ,
  9. 9. VICAM Committed to: • Development of innovative, rapid tests • Quality • Market development • Customer/Distributor Service
  10. 10. Mycotoxins Mykes: Greek for fungus/mold Toxicum: Latin for poison/toxin
  11. 11. Mycotoxins of economic, health and agricultural significance Mycotoxins are metabolic products of food spoilage fungi that induce toxic responses when consumed by animals or people. Hundreds of mycotoxins have been identified; They will fall into many different chemical classes, and induce a wide variety of toxic responses.
  12. 12. Figure 6.1. Factors affecting mycotoxin occurrence in the food chain (Pestka and Casale, 1989). Mycotoxins economic and health risks Biological Factors Susceptible Crop + Compatible, Toxigenic Fungus Environmental Factors Temperature Moisture Mechanical Injury Insect/Bird Damage Fungus Harvesting Crop Maturity Temperature Moisture Detection/Diversion Storage Temperature Moisture Detection/Diversion Distribution-Processing Detection/Diversion Animal ProductsHumans Animals
  13. 13. Ecological parameters affecting mycotoxin production Moisture Spore Load Temperature Competing Microflora Substrate CO2/O2 Time Mechanical Damage Insect Damage
  14. 14. Adverse economic effects of mycotoxins producer costs LIVESTOCK (beef, swine, poultry) and dairy • Higher mortality rates • Reproductive failures (abortions) • Reduced feed efficiency • Overall quality loss • Lower milk production • Nonmarketable milk CROPS • Yield Losses • Restricted Markets • Increased production costs • Increased post harvest costs
  15. 15. Aflatoxin • Produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus • Five key aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1 • Found in corn, grains, cottonseed, peanuts, tree nuts, spices, milk • Liver damage • IARC- class 1 human carcinogen
  16. 16. Aspergillus flavus Figure 4.1 Growth of Aspergillus flavus (yellow-green fungus) from two of five surface sterilized peanuts placed on a nutrient culture medium. Photograph courtesy of R.J. Cole, USDA, ARS, National Peanut Research Laboratory, Dawson, Georgia.
  17. 17. Aflatoxin B1
  18. 18. Effects of aflatoxins Figure 2.2 Livers from guinea pigs given increasing doses of aflatoxins over the same period of time. From left to right beginning in the upper left corner to the lower right corner with a liver from a guinea pig given the greatest dose of aflatoxins. Note the increasingly pale livers with increasing dose of aflatoxins. Photograph courtesy of J.L. Richard, USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa.
  19. 19. Aflatoxin B1 Courtesy of D.P.H. Hsieh, University of California, Davis. Drawing by G. Hedberg, USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa. Aflatoxin B1 binds to DNA at the guanine base in liver cells, corrupting the genetic code that regulates cell growth. Out-of-control cells grow into tumors that eventually become cancerous.
  20. 20. U.S. federal government action level for aflatoxin Food for human consumption 20 ppb Milk for human consumption 0.5 ppb Dairy, immature pigs and poultry 20 ppb Breeding Animals 100ppb Finishing Swine 200ppb Beef Cattle 300 ppb
  21. 21. Aflatoxin EC Regulation Commodity B1 Total M1 Cereals for human consumption 2ppb 4ppb Baby food, formula and dietary supplyment 0.1ppb 0.025 ppb Nuts and dried fruit for human consumption 2ppb 4ppb Chilies, cayenne and paprika, pepper, Nutmeg, Ginger, and Turmeric 5ppb 10ppb Milk 0.05ppb
  22. 22. Ochratoxin • Produced by Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium viridicatum • Found in cereal grains, coffee, dried vine fruit, wine • Nephrotoxin (kidney toxin) • Linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy • Found in blood of most Europeans • IARC—possible human carcinogen
  23. 23. Ochratoxin EC Regulation Cereals and raw cereal grains 5ppb Products derived from cereals for Human consumption 3ppb Dried Vine fruit (currants, raisins and sultanas) 10ppb Roasted coffee beans and ground 5ppb Soluble coffee (instant coffee) 10ppb Wine and/or grape must based beverages 2ppb Baby food or Dietary supplement 0.5ppb
  24. 24. Major fusarium mycotoxins • Fumonisins • Deoxynivalenol • T-2 Toxin • Zearalenone
  25. 25. Fumonisin Produced by Fusarium verticillioides Found in corn and maize Equine Leukoencephalomalacia • liquefaction of brain matter in horses • aimless circling, abnormal movements, lameness, death Porcine pulmonary edema • pig lungs fill with fluid Human esophageal cancer in South Africa Cancer promoting activity in rats and mice
  26. 26. U. S. federal government guidance levels for total fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3) Corn products for 2-4 ppm human consumption Horses and Rabbit 5 ppm Swine and catfish 10ppm Breeding animal 30ppm Ruminants for slaughter 60ppm Poultry for slaughter 100ppm
  27. 27. Fumonisin EC Regulation unprocessed maize 2ppm maize flour, maize meal, maize grits and refined maize semolina 1ppm maize based foods for direct consumption 0.4ppm maize based foods for infants and young children and baby food 0.2ppm
  28. 28. Zearalenone Produced by Fusarium molds Found in cereal grains (corn, wheat, barley) Estrogenic effects, especially in pigs • male pigs show feminization • decreased litter size, abortions • interferes with conception, ovulation and implantation of fetus IARC-possible human carcinogen
  29. 29. Zearalenone EC regulation Unprocessed cereals other than maize 100ppb Unprocessed maize 200ppb Cereal flour except maize flour 75ppb Maize flour, maize meal, maize grits and refined maize oil 200ppb Bread, pastries, biscuits, maize snacks and maize-based breakfast cereals 50ppb processed cereal-based foods for infants and young children and baby food 20ppb
  30. 30. Deoxynivalenol • Also known as Vomitoxin and DON • Produced by Fusarium molds • Found in cereal grains (wheat, corn, barley and oats) • Intestinal disorders, vomiting, diarrhea • Feed refusal • Reproductive disorders • Increased susceptibility to disease
  31. 31. U. S. federal government advisory level for deoxynivalenol Wheat products for 1 ppm human consumption Grain for swine and other 5 ppm animal species (not cattle or chickens) Grain for cattle and 10 ppm chickens
  32. 32. E.U. Advisory level for Deoxynivalenol Cereal products for 0.5 ppm direct consumption Flour used as 0.75 ppm raw material in food
  33. 33. E.U. Advisory level for Deoxynivalenol Unprocessed cereals other than durum wheat, oats and maize 1250ppb Unprocessed durum wheat and oats 1750ppb Unprocessed maize 1750 ppb * Cereal flour, including maize flour, maize grits ands maize meal 750 ppb Bread, pastries, biscuits, cereal snacks and breakfast cereals 500 ppb Pasta (dry) 750 ppb Processed cereal-based food for infants and young children and baby food 200 ppb
  34. 34. T-2 • Produced by Fusarium molds • Found in cereal grains (wheat, corn, rye) • Alimentary Toxic Aleukia • Burning in mouth, throat and stomach • vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain • bone marrow destruction/decreased blood production • hemorrhaging in mucous membranes and organs • Isolated from “yellow rain” • Immunosuppressive
  35. 35. E.U. Advisory for T-2 and HT-2 • A maximum level (refers to the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin.) will be fixed, if appropriate, before 1 July 2007. • T-2 and HT-2 in cereal and cereal products particularly in oats and oat products is necessary and of high priority.
  36. 36. T-2 effects Figure 2.1 Effects of dietary T-2 mycotoxin on growth of turkey poults. The turkey poult on the left was given normal ration, and the poult on the right was given a ration containing 10ppm of T-2 mycotoxin for three weeks. Photograph courtesy of J.L. Richard, USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa.
  37. 37. Effects of T-2 (continued) Figure 2.3 Severe oral lesion in a turkey poult that consumed a ration containing 10 ppm T-2 mycotoxin for 3 weeks. Photograph courtesy of J.L. Richard, USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa.
  38. 38. Vicam Mycotoxin Tests • Fast • Quantitative • Accurate • Easy • Safe • Economical
  39. 39. Team Medical & Scientific Sdn. Bhd. 41, Jalan Anggerik Vanilla T31/T, Kota Kemuning, 40460 Shah Alam, Selangor Tel : 603-5122 5108 Fax : 603-5122 1608 Email : info@tms-lab.com Blog : tms-lab.blogspot.com Solely Distribute by :

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