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  • No one is advocating borrowings as an objective a-priori
  • Transcript

    • 1. Sub-sovereign Credit Markets
      • Framework for Enhancing Local Government Financial Management, Creditworthiness
      • and Access to Capital Markets
      • Samir El Daher
      • The World Bank
      • May 1999
    • 2. Background
      • Increased decentralization in provision/ financing of services
      • Expanded local government role requiring improved fiscal, institutional and regulatory framework
      • Expanded local government role not matched by financial management and resource generation/mobilization capability
    • 3. A Simplified Model
      • Assigning responsibilities among tiers of government
      • Defining net inflows (tax sharing/transfers)
      • Defining own-source revenues (taxes/fees)
      • Defining institutional and resource gaps
      • Meeting institutional/financial challenge to:
        • Deliver services in most efficient way
        • Fill resource gap in optimal way including debt
    • 4. Decentralization and Responsibilities Assignment
      • Rationalizing revenue/expenditure assignments among tiers of government
      • Allocating clear planning, investment and operating responsibilities
      • Promoting private participation/competition in provision of local services ==> increasing efficiency and reducing resource gap
    • 5. Fiscal Decentralization -- Intergovernmental Relations
      • Rationalizing intergovernmental fiscal relations
      • Streamlining revenue sharing policies among tiers of government
      • Setting predictable rules for central government transfers/grants
      • Removing disincentives from transfer rules and reducing moral hazard
    • 6. Fiscal Decentralization Own-source Finance
      • Rationalizing local tax bases and rates
      • Improving local tax collection levels
      • Improving local capacity for strong/stable own-source generation
      • (Improving pricing of local services ==> institutional capacity issues)
    • 7. Local Government Institutional Capacity
      • Strengthening local government organizational setting for service delivery
      • Building local government staff capabilities
      • Improving efficiency of municipal assets management
    • 8. Local Government Institutional Capacity
      • Strengthening autonomy and accountability of local public entities
      • Strengthening planning and operating capability of local public entities
      • Setting performance criteria for monopoly services
    • 9. Local Government Institutional Capacity
      • Developing rational pricing policies for local services
      • Differentiating between:
        • revenue generating services (revenue-based funding)
        • public goods (externalities, tax-based financing)
      • Improving local user fees collection levels
    • 10. Local Government Institutional Capacity
      • Strengthening review process for local public investment programs
      • Improving screening/selection criteria for local investments
      • Implementing programs/projects that enhance potential access to private resources
    • 11. Local Government Budgetary Planning and Control
      • Improving local government budgeting processes
      • Strengthening capital budgeting (project finance)
      • Developing credible accounting systems
      • Implementing independent audits
    • 12. Local Government Budgetary Planning and Control
      • Improving local government payment systems
      • Improving Cash management systems
      • Improving financial control systems
    • 13. Local Government Disclosure Standards
      • Developing financial disclosure standards that provide investors/lenders with reliable information on local government entities and provide reliable basis for credit rating
      • Building data and indicators on local government finance (e.g. current revenues to current expenditures, local taxes to local revenues, local taxes to total revenues, ratios of debt service to revenues,...)
    • 14. Local Financial Management and Resource Mobilization
      • Strengthening local financial management and creditworthiness
      • Strengthening local government resource mobilization/access to capital markets
      • Accessing credit markets to fill resource gap
        • in manner consistent with macroeconomic stability
        • without creating explicit or implicit contingent liabilities at sovereign level (moral hazard)
    • 15. Regulatory Framework on Local Government Borrowing
      • Clarifying regulations on borrowing authority and access to credit by local governments
      • Improving local government credit regulations in respect to municipal collateral (legal issues/risks related to pledging inter-governmental transfers), bankruptcy and credit workouts,...
    • 16. Local Government Financial Management
      • Improving local government financial planning
      • Improving local government assets/liabilities management
      • Improving local government liquidity management
      • Improving local government infrastructure funding strategies
    • 17. Local Government Infrastructure Funding Strategy
      • Assessing alternative funding strategies for infrastructure investments
      • Devising non-recourse project/corporate finance options that reduce claims on fiscal resources
      • Defining project return benchmarks and risk/return profiles
    • 18. Local Government Finance and Access to Capital Markets
      • Assessing potential for direct access to private credit markets to finance local government investments/operations
      • Assessing role of financial intermediaries as a means to raise private resources to finance local infrastructure investments
      • Addressing links with capital market infrastructure/issues
    • 19. Local Government Finance and Access to Capital Markets
      • Mobilizing debt funding backed by local government taxing powers (general obligation bonds)
      • Mobilizing debt funding secured by user fees and other dedicated income streams (revenue bonds)
      • Mobilizing debt funding on a corporate finance basis (balance sheet finance)
    • 20. Local Government Finance and Access to Capital Markets
      • Using short-term municipal instruments (municipal notes, commercial paper, other special instruments...) to improve cash-flow profiles and respond to seasonal expenditures/revenues mismatches
      • Establishing "special purpose districts" to provide services to developing areas
      • Establishing "tax increment districts” to fund development of rundown areas
    • 21. Local Government Finance and Access to Capital Markets
      • Using financial/legal credit enhancement structures (securitization, guarantees, bond insurance, bank letters of credit, convertible debt, derivative products,...)
      • Conferring preferential credit status on debt obligations to diversify/transfer risks
      • Increasing market acceptance and lowering interest costs of local borrowing
    • 22. Role of Financial Intermediaries for Local Governments
      • Using pool financing arrangements for local infrastructure investments
      • Leveraging the intermediary's equity through bond issuance in credit markets to lend mostly for viable, revenue-generating, projects
      • Mobilizing credit on private markets without government guarantees
    • 23. Criteria for Market-based Financial Intermediaries
      • Defining structural and regulatory conditions needed to establish market-based financial intermediaries
      • Defining elements of public support (such as central capital grants) initially needed/acceptable to assist intermediaries in leveraging their equity resources through bond issuance on private credit markets
    • 24. Criteria for Market-based Financial Intermediaries
      • Defining strategic objectives and main institutional parameters
      • Defining products range (loans, guarantees, equity participation,...) offered by intermediaries
      • Defining operational features including guidelines for portfolio diversification amongst sectors/borrowers
    • 25. Criteria for Market-based Financial Intermediaries
      • Defining main financial parameters related to intermediaries’ funding, lending and product pricing policies
      • Defining main parameters related to the intermediary’s market, credit and currency risk management policies
      • Defining steps to transform existing intermediaries into market-based operations
    • 26. Links to Capital Market Development Issues
      • Developing local government markets as a sub-set of domestic credit markets -Importance of local currency credit/finance
      • Developing local government credit markets/financial transactions requires effective financial regulations, institutions and instruments
      • Building local government ability to deal with regulations, institutions & instruments
    • 27. Links to Capital Market Development Issues
      • Using/improving domestic financial market infrastructure to tap upstream long-term funding pool for local investments
      • Defining benchmarks for pricing debt obligations of sub-sovereign entities
      • Improving compliance with regulations on issuance, registration, settlement, custody and repayment of local government debt
    • 28. Links to Capital Market Development Issues
      • Outlining, from debt issuer perspective, measures that bridge gap between demand and supply of local government securities so as to increase flow of long-term institutional funds into local investments
      • Outlining, from debt issuer perspective, requirements related to underwriting, distribution and market-making capabilities of local government securities
    • 29. Partnership Building
      • Building financial partnerships between local governments and providers of services and capital to expand flows of domestic and foreign private finance into local infrastructure investments
      • Bringing together complementary financial interests (e.g. commercial banks, securities firms, institutional investors, rating agencies, bond insurers, utilities operators)
    • 30. Central Gov. Local Gov. Capital Markets Local Gov. “ Financial Table” Net inflows from central gov. Financial gap Resources Expenditures Net inflows (tax sharing, grants, ...) E x p e n d i t u r e s 1) Optimize expenditures; 2) Reduce financial gap; 3) Fill gap at lowest cost Services mandated by central gov. Services decided by local gov. Service Delivery Capacity Impact of regulations Institutional setting for service delivery Staff capacity Financial management capacity Local Gov. “ Institutional Table” - - - Local gov. own-source revenues (taxes & user fees)
    • 31. EXT Central Gov. Productive Sector Credit Flows Other Dep. Com. Bk. Ins. Co. Mut. Fds Pen. Fds Security Health Educ. Trans . Water Loc. Gov. (GO or Rev. Bonds) Direct Issue SFI Debt Issue Other Savings

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