Chapter 8**


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Chapter 8**

  1. 1. FINANCIAL SERVICES AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: VALUE CREATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE J. Kimball Dietrich CHAPTER 8 Value Production in Credit Services Introduction Each of the links in the value chain has the potential to produce value for financial institutions providing credit services. These activities can be carefully analyzed to appreciate sources of competitive advantage. Some relevant issues are: • 00000000How can pricing and terms of credit agreements be used to induce customers of different risk characteristics to reveal themselves to arrangers of credit? • Why are credit customer relationships important to providers of credit services? • What are the sources of value in credit origination and how can funding be separated from originating credit arrangements to increase value produced? • 00000000Where does "financial engineering" as a value producing activity fit into credit? More efficient allocation of value producing activities is the economic basis of growth and survival in the dynamic credit markets of today. This chapter examines how value is produced in performing the links in the value chain associated with credit services. In analyzing the above questions, recent insights provided by information and financial economics are brought to bear. Financial institution managers must always be addressing the issue, "What are we good at?" A detailed look at the elements involved in providing credit activities provides clues as to where to look for maximum competitive advantage. We begin with an overview of value creation and then look at the complex pricing and term setting which takes place in credit arrangements as a way of inducing customers to reveal hidden characteristics. Next, the role of information in customer relationships and monitoring and controlling is explored. A discussion of the sources of competitive advantage in originating credit precedes an analysis of alternative ways of unbundling funding from other activities in the value chain for credit services. Finally, risk shifting and sharing using financial engineering is reviewed. 8.1 Loan Contract Design and Value Production Credit services consist of arranging funds for borrowers which are expected to be paid back to the lender with interest. Business funds are advanced as loans, notes, bonds or other legal contracts as part of a credit relationship. Funds raised through credit services are distinguished from funds raised in the form of equity which is not a fixed claim and includes some say in the management of the firm. Individuals must raise funds in the form of credit since 1
  2. 2. they cannot sell equity. Firms, however, have a choice of the ways in which to raise funds. The question why firms raise funds by issuing credit or debt instruments as opposed to issuing additional ownership claims in the form of stock is a complex one and has been the source of much analysis.1 Funds raised in the form of credit are tax advantaged to firms in most countries since interest is a tax deductible expense. Since credit instruments are fixed commitments, equity investors keep all residual earnings and can leverage a firm's earning power. On the other hand, failure to make credit payments can cause bankruptcy and reorganization or liquidation of the firm and loss of credit for individuals. Funds raised in the form of credit for both individuals and firms have advantages and disadvantages to both the borrower and the lender who have different interests and concerns. These differences must be resolved in order for credit to be advanced. No relationship can avoid bad outcomes for all parties under all circumstances but credit markets have evolved standard ways to deal with many problems encountered in raising funds in the form of credit. Most retail and wholesale credit arrangements are covered by a contract. As pointed out in previous chapters, contracts can be explicit written documents signed by corporate officials and recorded or they can be implicit in a system of laws (like the Uniform Commercial Code), regulations (like banking regulations), and conventions, as in trade credit. Chapter 6 introduced "contract theory" as analysis of ways of resolving differences in the interests of lenders and borrowers as principals and agents in financial relationships which cause problems of adverse selection and moral hazard. As discussed in Chapter 7, the ultimate source of value in credit comes from differences in the value or ability to exploit the usefulness of assets to economic decision-makers. This chapter discusses sources of value in credit relationships. Carefully fashioned lending agreements or standardized credit products marketed to the retail market may solve or mitigate problems of asymmetric information and moral hazard by eliminating or reducing them. Higher earnings can be made by lenders who arrange loans under contract terms which reduce problems relative to other lenders who either make less profitable deals or stay out of the market altogether. Value produced by financial service firms which solve agency and information asymmetry problems can be used to build market share by reducing rates and fees without incurring greater losses, in which case the borrowers benefit. Alternatively, the value produced may be retained by concentration in a unique market niche producing excess returns. If contracts can be replicated by competitors, imitators will eventually erode excess returns from innovations in contract design in credit markets. In all cases, value is created in the economy by allowing credit customers better portfolio composition than would be possible if agency problems in credit services could not be reduced. Portfolio Lending and Private Placements The usual image of arranging credit for retail customers starts with a visit to a bank or thrift institution to get a loan. In a corporate setting we imagine bank officers and corporate officials hammering out a deal. Banks and thrift institutions are major portfolio lenders. They raise money in deposit markets and invest directly in loans, as discussed in Chapter 7. In many traditional credit arrangements, originating lenders market, price, deliver, and monitor loans funded with deposits, bearing any risks associated with the deal. In this environment, providers 1 See, for example, Stewart Myers' Presidential Address to the American Finance Association (1984.) 2
  3. 3. of credit services perform all of the activities in the value chain for credit service. Much less well known is the role of insurance and finance companies and other non- traditional firms providing credit services. One reason for this is that many insurance company loans are not called loans but are called corporate bonds. Many insurance company bonds are not publicly traded securities such as we discuss in the next chapter. Rather, many of these bonds are private placements that result from credit relationships. Private placements are purchases of credit instruments by a small number of investors, often only one insurance company or pension fund. The resulting bond or note does not have to be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a security as we discuss in Chapter 15. Private placements are very much like loans. In one typical private placement, for example, representatives of the investment function of an insurance company will bargain extensively with the borrowers. Borrowers from insurance companies and pensions funds are usually longer term borrowers like real estate investors or developers of large projects. Terms and conditions for the bonds, loan or note are negotiated in long sessions with lawyers, accountants, and financial analysts from both sides. When the deal is done, the loan contract or bond is added to the portfolio of investments of the lender and funds advanced to the borrower out of sources available to the lender, like insurance reserves. The point is that there is no essential difference in credit services provided by traditional bankers and other well known sources of traditional portfolio lending or emerging portfolio lending from non-traditional lenders, like finance companies and pension funds. Value is created in the deals in the same way, by resolving agency problems and funding positive net present value projects. In all of these cases, the portfolio lenders also hired and paid the lending officers who negotiated the deal. Portfolio lending by deposit-taking institutions and insurance companies is losing market share in developed economies. Investment bankers, commercial banks, fund managers, and others now establish relationships with institutional and retail borrowers but do not provide funding or even all of the activities in the value chain for credit services. Credit may be arranged by coordinating the activities of many financial service firms. Marketing and communication with borrowers and pricing and term setting may be provided by one firm or institution while other activities may be provided by others, like pension funds providing financing and bank trust department production and delivery. Unbundling credit services means distribution of activities in the value chain to several service providers. Unbundling allows the most efficient allocation of activities and is proceeding rapidly in the most advanced credit markets. 8.2 Pricing and Term-Setting in Credit Services When announcing or negotiating terms on credit arrangements, lenders are exposed to adverse selection as borrowers choose the most advantageous terms. After obtaining credit, borrowers take actions which are not in the lender's interest, exposing the lender to moral hazard. In this section we show how careful pricing and setting of terms of credit arrangements may reduce or eliminate problems of adverse selection and moral hazard. Borrowers may be induced to reveal their intentions or attributes by their choice of a contract among several offers. Their choice can in some instances identify their hidden 3
  4. 4. attributes and allow credit service firms to control their exposure to risks and to fine-tune expected returns from different classes of borrowers. Contract terms may induce borrowers to act in lenders' interest and provide a contractual basis for control of moral hazard due to actions by lenders. Commitment Fees vs. Compensating Balances Adverse selection occurs when a firm offering credit services under contract terms cannot tell "good" customers from "bad" customers on the basis of observation and required information disclosures. It may be possible to offer different contract terms such that potential borrowers will reveal the type of customer they are by their choice of contract, called self revelation (See Chapter 6). Chris James (1981) analyzed the terms of bank revolving credit agreements to show how terms of credit arrangements can be fixed such that borrowers voluntarily choose contracts which are in the best interest of the financial firm offering the loan terms. In James' analysis, "good" loan customers know that their creditworthiness is not likely to change over the period of the revolving credit agreement. "Bad" customers know there is a chance that their credit rating will deteriorate, perhaps because a large order on their books will be canceled. From the point of the view of the lender, customers look the same. James shows how the lender can induce customers to reveal their type by offering customers a choice of commitment fees or compensating balances in the revolving credit commitment. The choice must be finely tuned to induce the self-revelation and produce a separating equilibrium so that good and bad customers voluntarily choose the contract designed for them. Successful self-revelation reduces the cost to the lender of the possible deterioration in some of its customers' credit rating. The basic idea of James’ analysis can be illustrated with an example. The example assumes that bad firms have a fifty percent probability of a bad event like an order cancellation and will need more credit than is included in their line. Since their credit quality will have deteriorated with the bad event, they will have to pay high interest rates on borrowing above their credit line, assume 20 percent interest rate. Compare the expected costs of a credit lines offering a ten percent compensating balance versus a quarter point (.25 percent) commitment fee. A ten percent compensating balance has an expected cost of one percent of the line (.5 probability times 10 percent times 20 percent) against a commitment fee of .25 percent. Bad firms would prefer commitment fees to compensating balances because a quarter percent is less than one percent. Higher compensating balances would increase expected costs to the bad firm even more. Good firms have a lower probability of borrowing more the line at higher rates. Assume good firms have only a ten percent chance of needing the extra credit. In this case, the .25 percent commitment fee has an expected cost more than the expected cost of a ten percent compensating balance of 20 percent, namely .2 percent of the line (.1 times .1 times .20). Good firms prefer compensating balances to the commitment fee of .25 percent. Figure 8-1 is adapted from James' analysis and shows expected costs of different levels of compensating balances as a percent of the line for good and bad firms on the vertical axis. Commitment fees are fixed as a percent of the line of credit. The diagram shows that there is a range of compensating balance requirements where the expected costs to good firms of balances 4
  5. 5. is less than commitment fees while compensating balances have higher expected costs to bad firms than commitment fees. Terms can be defined so that in choosing the lowest expected cost terms, firms reveal themselves by type in a separating equilibrium. The James analysis illustrates how pricing of lines of credit can induce credit customers to reveal their risk type. If good customers choose compensating balances and bad customers choose commitment fees, credit service firms identify types of firms. The terminology bad and good does not mean that bad firms are not profitable. In fact, fine-tuning the pricing of the line of credit can make the credit service firm and bad firms both better off in terms of expected profits and costs of funds. There is a limit to such fine tuning of the terms on loans: the lending firm must not charge too much in either fees or balances because all customers would choose one or the other contract, losing the benefits of identifying customer types in the separating equilibrium. Competitive conditions may rule out a separating equilibrium as well. The key concept here is term setting and pricing strategy can be a means to induce self-revelation by credit customers and that such a strategy may be profitable for credit service firms. Collateral Yuk-Shee Chan and Anjon Thakor (1987) analyze the role collateral can play in credit given the existence of hidden information and moral hazard with potential borrowers. In their analysis, potential borrowers have identified projects with positive expected returns which they want to finance completely with debt. Projects have different risks which borrowers know and borrowers' actions in terms of how much effort they devote to project success are not observable. Since lenders cannot tell the difference between high and low risk investment opportunities on the basis of lender disclosures, there is a hidden information problem. In the absence of well- designed loan contracts, borrowers might take loan funds and not put in full effort to make the investment work, hence there is a moral hazard problem. In the Chan and Thakor analysis, economic value comes from expected returns from making possible credit financing of risky projects which have positive expected returns on average in the face of these problems. Financial intermediaries or loan originators can finance the projects with funds from deposits or other sources. These funds may be raised in competitive markets in unlimited amounts at the competitive rate. The funds may come from markets characterized by limited supplies meaning that higher returns must be offered by financial institutions to raise a larger supply of lendable funds. The amount of funds invested and return to depositors and interest rates and other terms imposed on credit arrangements represent an interaction of supply and demand conditions in the market for funds. This interaction is important in the Chan and Thakor analysis. Requiring collateral changes payoffs to borrowers investing in risky projects. These changes can be used to influence the demand for credit in Chan and Thakor. The gross return (one plus the net return) on a project is R. Once the project return is known, the borrower either pays the loan balance plus the interest rate charged by the lender (i) or surrenders the collateral posted, C. The payoffs to the lender and borrower depend on the total project return, as illustrated with an example in Panel A of Table 8-1. For the example, if a low risk project has gross returns of either 110 or 120 percent and collateral is $101 for a $100 loan at one percent. The borrower always pays off the loan and keeps the collateral and the project return above the 5
  6. 6. loan interest rate. In the example in Table 8-1, low risk projects have equally likely returns of 10 or 20 percent while high risk project returns are either -15 or +35 percent as shown in Panel B of the table. Borrowers know how risky projects are and can take actions which affect the outcome to raise returns one percent. These actions are costly or unpleasant. This is a realistic characterization of many business situations. The success of a business is directly related to the borrowers' effort but the effort is hard work and may not be observed easily by a lender. A loan contract in Chan and Thakor's analysis consists of an offer of loan terms in the form of loan interest and collateral or (i,C) pairs. For example, 13 percent and $113 collateral for a $100 loan or 14 percent and $20 collateral are two possible contracts. These terms correspond to Case C in Panel B of Table 8-1. Borrowers weigh expected returns from projects against loan terms and effort required to undertake the investment. The effect on loan terms in credit markets with different supplies of funds is illustrated by the example in Panel B of Table 8-1. Case A in the table is when enough funds are available at low rates to finance all available low and high risk projects. In this case, all loans are fully collateralized and all borrowers, both high and low risk, have the same easy credit terms, in the example one percent interest and $101 collateral on a $100 loan. There is no risk to lenders. All the benefits of effort are kept by borrowers so they put in maximum effort into projects. Case B is a situation where there are not enough funds to finance all the low risk projects. The terms, 12 percent and collator of $112 for a $100 loan, discourage high risk investors who will not apply. The shading in Case B indicates that high risk investors have negative expected returns with those terms. There are more low risk investors applying for loans than funds available, so loans will be rationed arbitrarily. Low risk investors reveal themselves by applying for loans, but since in the analysis they are all the same, some low risk applicants simply do not receive funding. When some qualified credit applicants do not receive loans it is called credit rationing. The last case analyzed by Chan and Thakor, Case C, illustrates how collateral can induce self-revelation by project risk type. This is the case when there are more than enough funds to finance loans to all low risk projects. Low risk investors are willing to pledge more collateral in order to receive a lower interest rate, namely 13 percent with collateral of $113 for a $100 loan. In our example, high risk project borrowers accept terms of 14 percent and $20 collateral which has positive expected return for them. In this case, the higher amount of funding means that all low risk and some high risk projects are financed with loans, but some high risk projects are not funded. High risk credit is rationed and high risk borrowers have a reduced expected return from extra effort. Loan terms consisting of an interest rate and collateral are widespread in both retail and wholesale markets. As discussed in Chapter 7, secured lending is typical in retail lending, as in the case of home and auto financing. In these cases, the amount of collateral is stated in terms of the down payment. If a down payment of 20 percent on a car is associated with, say, a 12 percent loan rate, this means that the loan is has 125 percent (1/.8) collateral. In terms of the Chan and Thakor analysis, the borrower is offered (12%, 125%) rate/collateral contract. A 10 percent down payment loan might then be associated with a 14 percent interest rate (collateral equal to 111 percent), or (14%,111%). As noted in Chapter 7, collateral is extremely important in business lending, in areas as different as working capital financing and real estate development. 6
  7. 7. Several major points concerning value production in credit services can be derived from our review of the Chan and Thakor analysis. First, clever bargaining using collateral terms on loans can reduce the costs to lenders of moral hazard and hidden information. Second, the supply of funds materially affects who keeps the economic value from making the investment projects. In competitive markets for funds, the borrower and the financial institution arranging the credits keep the economic value. In cases of limited supplies of funds, savers providing funds get to keep some or all of the economic value. Third, the use of separating contracts, that is contract terms which induces self-revelation of borrower type, or pooling contracts, in which they are not distinguished, is a result of the supply of lendable funds. It only pays to separate the types of borrowers in cases where funds are limited in supply such that high rates of return to investors will raise only enough funds to lend to low risk customers or low risk customers and a small percentage of high risk customers. If market conditions are such that the weighted average return required for funds is low enough such that both high and low risk customers can be funded, a pooling contract will be economically optimal. Additional Terms In Credit Relationship Credit arrangements between lenders and a firm involves at least three parties: lenders, the owners or equity investors of the firm, and the management of the firm. A range of conflicts of interest arise in the complex of principle-agent problems between these parties. The most obvious example of these problems is the moral hazard faced by lenders. As Fisher Black (1976) writes: There is no easier way for a company to escape the burden of a debt than to pay out all of its assets in the form of a dividend, and leave the creditors holding an empty shell. In the presence of such incompatible incentives and information asymmetries, issuing debt with acceptable risk to investors is not easy. The conflicts between the various parties in debt contracts are not always obvious. For example, management may simply not undertake positive net present value projects when the benefits of the higher earnings and lower risks of the firm due to the projects simply improve the quality of existing debt claims. New loans may be taken at terms which affect the riskiness of old loans. A dramatic case is the financing of RJR Nabisco, where the increased leverage and changed nature of the firm caused bondholders to suffer losses on the value of their bonds. Loan contracts may be written that reduce or eliminate some of the conflicts between lenders, managers, and owners of firms. Clifford Smith and Jerrold Warner (1979) analyze the contract provisions or covenants in loan contracts which can mitigate conflicts of interest. Economic value is created in credit contracts if they result in credit being advanced for positive net present value projects which otherwise would not be undertaken. The value created is available for distribution to lenders, borrowers, and managers depending on their bargaining power as in the Chan and Thakor analysis. Smith and Warner classify the types of actions managers and owners may take against bondholders' interests into four major categories: (1) dividend payments; (2) claim dilution; (3) asset substitution; and (4) underinvestment. We have introduced the dividend conflict above. This conflict can be less obvious than simple emptying of the firm. Dividends reducing future 7
  8. 8. investment reduce the value of the earning assets securing any debt. Lenders are concerned that the value and safety of their credit will be diluted by additional borrowing, perhaps promising a higher claim on the assets of the firm. Asset substitution can reduce the value of debt by increasing its risk and may benefit stockholders whose shares increase with the possibility of much higher returns. Possible lower returns do not offset the effect of positive aspect of risk for shareholders because of limited liability.2 Finally, underinvestment may result from a reluctance by shareholders to undertake investments which have positive net present values at the required return on debt but are not worth it for shareholders. In order to control or reduce the problems caused by the conflicts discussed above, sophisticated creditors or their agents insist on terms which include detailed requirements or obligations of borrowers in loan contracts or bond indentures. Failure to observe these covenants causes default on loans. Legal action in extreme cases leads to seizure of the assets of the firm. Table 8-2 provides a classification of a wide variety of commonly used contract provisions according to the four categories provided by Smith and Warner. Smith and Warner analyze the economic consequences of restrictions in loan and debt agreements and conclude that restrictions in loan contracts, such as those in Table 8-2, can resolve conflicts between the parties in a loan. They also find that these restrictions have economic costs in terms of reduced flexibility. Since the restrictions are costly, Smith and Warner conclude that contract provisions provides benefits to contracting parties or they would not exist. These contracting costs are valuable because they resolve the bondholder/shareholder conflicts. Resolution of these conflicts in actual situations requires ability and experience to assess risks and choose appropriate clauses to include in contract provisions. Negotiating these contracts is a value-producing service provided by financial institution personnel. Value produced in negotiating terms of credit arrangements is derived from making investments in positive net present value projects possible when there are conflicts of interest. Skills necessary to negotiate these deals are not easy to come by. Training credit officers who gain necessary experience to craft the best possible loan agreement without discouraging the borrower and safeguarding the lender's interests, is expensive. When credit personnel are trained, they must be paid well to keep them and benefit from their experience. 8.3 Value Creation in Information and Monitoring: Relationships Myron Slovin et al (1993) estimate the value to corporate borrowers of credit relationships. Their evidence is based an analysis of the stock price performance of 53 customers of Continental Bank in Chicago. The authors document an average fall in stock prices of the bank customers of about 9 percent when the bank collapsed in 1984. The reduced value in the share prices of these bank customers is an estimate of the value of the relationship they had with their bank and is evidence of the value of banking relationships to business borrowers. What are the economic bases for this value to credit customers? We explore several 2 Common stock is often compared to a call option, which we discuss in Chapter 18 and 19. Increasing the variance of the return of a stock will increase the value of the option on the stock. If common stock is compared to an option, with the exercise price equal to the face value of debt, increasing asset variance through investment policy can increase the value of the stock. See Black and Scholes (1973.) 8
  9. 9. explanations below. One explanation why investments by financial institutions are valuable to their customers is that information concerning the true value of a firm is costly to produce. Campbell and Kracaw (1980) analyze a market where firms are either better or worse than average and if there is no way to tell the difference, good firms will be undervalued and bad firms overvalued by the market. They show if there is competition in information production, managers of undervalued firms will be willing to pay financial institutions enough to cover the costs of producing information identifying them as good firms. In their analysis, financial institutions guarantee the quality of their information and transmit their findings concerning which are good firms to financial markets by investing their own funds in undervalued firms. Campbell and Kracaw's analysis therefore makes information production on firm quality an economic function of financial intermediaries. Credit service firms may be able to develop customer specific information over time which can be used to create value. Long-term credit relationships, where borrowers and lenders continue renewable credit relationships although competitors are available, are a widely observed phenomenon in credit markets. Commercial banks and other financial institutions consider their longtime retail and wholesale customers as special assets. Studies by Steven Sharpe (1990) Raguram and Rajan (1992) provide detailed analysis of the economic basis for value in long-term relationships between borrowers and lenders. Sharpe considers a case where borrowers have risky investment projects when intermediate and long-term (first and second period) results on project success are available. Intermediate results can be observed more accurately by current creditors than outsiders who mihgt compete for credit business at the beginning of the second period. Information on projects' intermediate results increase or decrease the likelihood of success over the long run. Examples of projects might be new products or technologies where initial results signal whether the products or methods have more or less risk of success in the future. Sharpe shows that initial period lenders like commercial banks who can learn inexpensively and more accurately than non-lenders about intermediate results can offer competitive terms on the initial short-term funds. The initial period lender's relatively low cost, high quality information on intermediate results can come from special reports or analysis of internal documents produced under loan agreements. In Sharpe's analysis, loans are renewable after intermediate results are reported at rates depending on the results. The rates can be lower for both successful and riskier borrowers than long-term loans (over both intermediate and long run investments) because intermediate results allow fine-tuning of risks of loans. They can be lower than those offered by competitors who cannot observe intermediate results as accurately as the first period lender. Sharpe analyzes many cases of competitive conditions in credit markets and different costs of information gathering in his theoretical analysis. The value created by the intermediate information may be appropriated by the lender under market conditions granting monopoly power on the part of the lender over the borrower. Sharpe shows how lenders' reputation for fairness may control their ability to exploit their monopoly power in competitive credit markets. This is another instance of competitive conditions determining the allocation of value produced in credit services between borrowers and credit service providers. Rajan examines two dimensions of relationships between borrowers and arrangers of credit. First, Rajan's analysis examines the ability of short-term lenders to examine intermediate 9
  10. 10. results of the project when those results show that the optimal policy is to liquidate the project at a loss, even if long-term prospects include a small probability of positive returns. Managers not forced to liquidate continue unsuccessful projects with long-term lenders' funds since they have an expected gain even with high risk projects financed entirely with borrowed money. In Rajan's model, short-term credit providers enhance economic efficiency by forcing liquidation of projects which prove to be too risky based on intermediate information. Long-term investors, without access or ability to act on intermediate information, must charge rates on credit which compensate for the cost of financing continuation of projects which short-term lenders would cancel. Rajan's second focus is on project managers' effort. Since short-term lenders can liquidate loans after intermediate results, their ability to deny or renew loans for projects successful in the intermediate period gives the short-term lender with intermediate information power over borrowers in the second period. The lender may insist on sharing the rewards of successful projects over the long term, reducing incentives for maximum effort on the part of project managers. Overall project results may be reduced below optimal levels if lenders reduce managers' incentives by demanding higher loan rates or profit participations in the second period. Rajan's analysis demonstrates that there is value in credit relationships in terms of economic efficiencies from acting on intermediate information and terminating high-risk projects. This value is offset by reduced borrower incentives to produce in the long run. Rajan's analysis illustrates a contrast between relationship borrowing, where information is shared by borrower and lender, and open-market financing, where long-term contracts induce maximum effort but continue high risk projects which lower average returns. The allocation of the value of intermediate information will be determined by the bargaining power of borrowers and creditors and the competition from long-term borrowers. Value Creation through Confidential Credit Relationships Firms and businesses borrow funds to undertake investments at a scale which they cannot finance internally or are unwilling to undertake without diversification. In some cases, the value of the project may come from the fact that no other market participants knows any details about the project. To illustrate the value of confidentiality, take the case of a publicly owned company's considering an investment to produce a new product which competes with an existing product manufactured by another firm. Knowledge of such a plan would allow the current producer to take defensive actions, such as price reductions or product improvements, if the firm knew of a competitor's plan to enter the business. The plan's profitability to the new competitor depends on keeping details secret. Disclosing information about a planned project on a confidential basis to a lender might enable a firm to borrow funds for the project. The danger is that the lender would buy stock or other securities from their current owners at current prices which do not reflect the value of the plan because the plans have not been made public. When the plan is announced, the lender who used the confidential information would reap a gain on the securities purchased from uninformed original owners. That gain would have been the old security holders' gain if the lender had not used the inside information. How can management raise funds to undertake the project and retain the benefits of its plan for the current owners of the firm's securities, especially its 10
  11. 11. shareholders, in attempting to maximize their wealth? Tim Campbell (1979) analyzes the solution of raising funds and preserving gains from implementation of projects for current shareholders when confidentiality is critical for project success. Recipients of private information who arrange funding cannot be allowed to buy stock or other securities in the company before news of the project is public. There must be enough competition among lenders using confidential information that the firm does not have to bargain away all of the gains due to the project in the form of higher borrowing costs. Lenders who arrange credit and commit to not buying common stock or other securities sensitive to future business plans on the basis of confidential information in the form of debt instruments can create value for the current owners of the firm's securities. Under current United States laws, commercial banks cannot buy common stock (see Chapter 14 for a discussion of the regulations.) Banks also have the technical expertise to analyze complex business plans disclosed on a confidential basis. The prohibition on bank stock ownership means that banks can make loans on the basis of confidential or customer-specific information and not participate in the gains to shareholders from the implementation and announcement of the company's previously confidential business strategies. Other financial institutions, like insurance companies investing in privately placed debt, are in a similar position to create value for borrowers simply by keeping information confidential. The conditions to produce value in credit are that the lender or arranger of credit not disclose the information to others and be prevented from buying other classes of securities which will increase in value from the ultimate disclosure of the information on the project. The credit service firm may do this either through an enforceable agreement or by submitting to regulations (like bank regulations) preventing ownership of different classes of securities in the same firm. The Value Produced by Monitoring The preceding discussion has introduced a number of credit contract provisions which can remove or mitigate the conflict between creditors and owners of firms concerning the use of borrowed funds and the proceeds of investments. These provisions would have no importance to borrowers if they were not enforced. It is necessary to monitor the actions of the borrower of funds to assure that the loan terms are observed. The expertise required to monitor borrowers, especially in complex business situations where financial and technical business operating data require skills to interpret, means that there may be economies in monitoring the activities of borrowers. Douglas Diamond has argued (1984) that the ability of financial institutions like commercial banks to monitor borrowers' activities is an important source of value to the economy and hence to investors in financial institutions and a reason for their existence. In Diamond's analysis there are two sources of credit to borrowers who are entrepreneurs with risky but positive net present value projects who need funds. One source is individual investors or nonfinancial firms which he calls lenders. The other source of funds is financial intermediaries who raise funds from individual investors. Individual lenders have the option of lending directly to entrepreneur/borrowers or turning funds over to a financial institution to invest on their behalf. Funds turned over to intermediaries can be in the form of deposits or other financial instruments. 11
  12. 12. In terms of principal-agent analysis, lenders are principals who can be harmed or helped by the actions and information of users of funds. The entrepreneur is an agent who in the absence of monitoring alone knows how investments turn out and how much money is available to pay off lenders. When lenders turn funds over to financial intermediaries, the financial intermediary becomes the agent making decisions concerning the use of the lenders' funds affecting their welfare. The financial intermediary takes lenders' funds and makes loans to entrepreneurs. In the second part of this intermediated transaction, the financial intermediary is the principal and the borrower the agent. Figure 8-2 illustrates the relationships between borrowers, lenders, and financial institutions, showing how financial institutions add another layer to the relationship between users and suppliers of funds. Diamond's analysis focuses on monitoring costs associated with entrepreneurs' use of funds. Diamond assumes that information needed by any individual investor or firm, for example information on the actual performance of investments or observance of loan covenants is costly to gather and cannot be observed by others. This is a reasonable characterization of monitoring activities of banks, insurance companies, and other financial intermediaries who track the use of loan funds and follow business performance of borrowers. If borrowers violate loan agreements and they are caught by monitors, Diamond assumes that monitors can impose large costs on borrowers. These costs are important in the analysis. Threat of these economic costs or sanctions mean that expected losses from violations of the loan agreement are greater than loan balances. These sanctions can be thought of as bankruptcy costs or lost future business opportunities. Diamond demonstrates under these assumptions that the optimal arrangement is for the borrower to issue a fixed debt contract to lenders. The fixed obligation assures that borrowers make maximum effort to pay off the debt to avoid bankruptcy costs. In Diamond's study lenders are risk neutral (as described in Chapter 6) and have an alternative investment opportunity meaning they will not accept a rate of return below a certain opportunity cost. Lenders maximize expected returns above the opportunity rate without regard for risk, indifferent between investing in entrepreneurs' projects and turning funds over to professional investor/monitors (financial institutions) as long as the expected returns are the same. When entrusted with lenders' funds, financial institutions are agents in principal-agent analysis. Since the investment returns of entrepreneurs will only be observed by financial institutions, they must have an incentive to pay out those returns to lenders. If they are faced with economic sanctions or bankruptcy costs for nonperformance in the same way as entrepreneurs, Diamond shows that the optimal arrangement is for them to issue fixed rate instruments like deposits to lenders. To avoid bankruptcy costs, financial institutions undertake costs of monitoring and pay off depositors out of the proceeds of the entrepreneurs' projects if they possibly can. Diamond's analysis main result is to demonstrate the economic contribution of monitoring activities delegated to financial institutions. The value produced by financial intermediaries comes from two sources: (1) diversification from funding many entrepreneurs' projects; and (2) reduction in costs of monitoring by duplication of monitoring effort by investors and economies of scale in monitoring effort. Diversification of loans to many entrepreneurs by the financial intermediary with economies in monitoring loan contracts means an extra layer of institutions, financial intermediaries, can earn enough for their investors to pay 12
  13. 13. lender/depositors the same expected rate of return as they would earn on making individual loans with less expected costs of monitoring. Diamond's analysis is a persuasive and influential argument concerning the sources of economic value produced by financial institutions like banks. Financial institutions produce value by reducing risks for a given return by diversification of investments. They reduce the costs of monitoring and make it possible for entrepreneurs to raise funds from investors in the form of debt instruments. Positive net present value projects are undertaken which might not be otherwise. The costs of monitoring incurred by an additional layer of financial intermediaries are covered while investors continue to earn their reservation yields on investments. 8.4 Funding Credit and Risk Management Funding of credit by traditional lenders like commercial banks and insurance companies as portfolio investments continues to be an important source of credit in financial markets as we saw in the Chapter 7. Traditional lenders often rely on third parties, usually similar financial institutions, to provide part of the funds for large or risky credits to borrowers. The sharing of credit funding by similar institutions are called participations, where loan or debt instrument risks are returns are shared on a pro rata basis by the parties funding the credit. Recent financial market developments have seen non-traditional channels for the funding of credit activities achieve real importance in credit markets. In these flows of funds, non- traditional credit providers, like pension funds, mutual funds, and private investors, fund loans originated by traditional lenders, like commercial banks or investment banks. In some cases, non-traditional lenders, like finance companies, may arrange for funding of loans from non- traditional sources of funds or even traditional portfolio lenders. We examine in this section the economic issues associated with alternative ways to fund loans originated by traditional portfolio lenders or new entrants to the credit services market. In particular, we scrutinize issues associated with the separation of the funding of credits from the value production in credit services derived from pricing and monitoring analyzed in the previous sections. There are several ways that a lender may raise part or all of the funds for a loan originated by the institution. These funding sources represent a continuum starting with traditional portfolio lending, moving to loan participations with similar institutions mentioned above, proceeding to loan sales to third parties or credit guarantees arranged by borrowers for direct borrowing in the open market, and extending to loan securitization. We show this continuum and critical characteristics of each funding arrangement in Table 8-3. Loan participations, loan sales and loan guarantees can be equivalent or very different depending on the terms between the loan originator and the loan investor. If the loan is participated or sold on a recourse basis, meaning that the loan buyer can demand reversal of the sale by returning the loan to the seller, there is no difference between a loan sale and a loan guarantee. A loan guarantor agrees to repay the loan if the borrower cannot repay or refinance it. On the other hand, a non-recourse loan participation or sale is very different from the investment in a loan backed by a credit guarantee because buyers may lose their investment. Cash flows from loan funding arrangements display a wide variation. Cash flows from a loan sale or participation can be pro rata sharing of repayments of principal and interest among loan buyers or participants. Alternatively, cash flows from the loan sale or participation can be 13
  14. 14. divided up according to prespecified sharing rules. For example, some participants may have a prior claim on cash flows from payments of principal while interest may be divided among other participants or buyers. In all the alternatives to portfolio lending by credit service providers, there is an unbundling of the credit related activities in the value chain. Funding and risk-bearing are separated from the term setting, marketing, delivery and monitoring activities associated with loan origination and servicing. These activities can in turn be separated among participants or purchasers in different ways. Fees associated with various activities in the loan origination and servicing can be split up or concentrated according to the terms of the loan sale. There are three sources of economic value from the separation of funding and risk bearing from the other activities in credit services: (1) competitive advantage in loan origination or monitoring; (2) economic advantages from diversification or the ability to make investments restricted by regulators but possible when funding and credit origination are separated; and (3) differences in costs of funds stemming from regulatory or tax treatment or comparative advantage of financial institutions. We discuss each of these sources of comparative advantage briefly below. Competitive Advantage in Loan Origination Competitive advantages in loan origination and monitoring come from a variety of sources. The easiest to grasp is local area knowledge possessed by a financial institution, say a bank or regional office of an insurance company. Calling officers are familiar with the local economy, speak the language, and know the business environment. Local personnel know major players in various industries represented in the region or country. Local credit officials are likely to be more aware of and understand significance of national and regional trends and competitive developments. They can assess the impact of this information on credit demand and risks from lending to regional borrowers market better than outsiders. Regional knowledge translates into a competitive advantage relative to institutions without a local presence in marketing, pricing, delivering and monitoring of credit to borrowers located in the region. Locally based calling officers or branches may be able to market better to local borrowers and effectively price and deliver to credit service demanders. Local expertise and close observation can improve the effectiveness of loan monitoring and enforcement of contract terms. All of these factors can provide the local credit service provider a competitive advantage relative to lenders without a strong local presence. The competitive advantages associated with particular area knowledge becomes is especially strong in international lending. Language problems, differences in legal systems and business practices, and so on, increase the costs for outsiders to acquire knowledge necessary to compete on an even basis with local credit service providers. National boundaries provide real if surmountable barriers to competition among credit service providers, even without regulatory protection of domestic financial institutions. The competitive advantage based on information for credit service firms is not limited to regional expertise. Lending institutions can specialize in certain industries or classes of borrowers, thereby gaining special expertise in marketing, pricing, delivering and monitoring these types of credits. For example, some equipment lessors specialize in certain types of equipment use, like International Lease Finance Corporation's specialization in airplanes. Credit 14
  15. 15. service firms may develop competitive advantages in originating certain types of loan or financing. Regional developments and demands for credit in particular industries mean demands for credit services may offer investment opportunities to outside investors which are favorable in terms of lower risks or higher yields or both. Local or specialized credit institutions may not have adequante resources to fund good local projects. To take advantage of these differing investment opportunities, outside financial institutions have the option of establishing a local or special industry presence, which may be costly or prohibited by regulation, or may fund credits by working with local or specialized financial institutions which originate deals. More value may be created for both local or specialized credit service originators and outside investors by exploiting the competitive advantage of the originating institution instead of direct participation in the market. Loan sales and participations with local credit institutions may be efficent in sharing higher returns and lower risks from local opportunities to outside investors. Loans may be funded for productive investments which otherwise would not be made making possible fees and commissions earned by financial institutions through loan sales and participations. Local information based sources of value can make loan participations and sales more efficient than direct attempts to serve remote markets with branches or representative officers. They allow interregional credit flows to local or specialized financial institutions without an actual presence. Diversification of Loan Portfolios Regional and industrial variation in economic activity means substantial reduction in credit risk can be gained from diversification in these two dimensions. The value to be gained by management of risks through diversification, including those from industrial and regional variations, are discussed at length in Part IV of this book. The high cost of establishing representation in many locations or calling on many economic sectors may mean that diversification is gained most efficiently by participations or purchases of loans from other financial institutions. Diversification of loan portfolios spreads regional and industrial risks. Local institutions should not concentrate in loans specific to their region or industrial concentration. Out-of-region financial institutions want to invest in credits outside their local markets to diversify their investments regionally or by industrial sectors. Regional and industry diversification explains much of the investment flows we observe among commercial bank correspondent banking networks and loan participations. International loan syndications also provide diversification. Differences in the Cost of Funds A third source of competitive advantage exploited by loan sales and participations comes from differences in the costs of funds among financial institutions. In the commercial banking business, for example, some small banks have funds from relatively cheap transaction accounts but cannot identify enough local lending opportunities at reasonable cost to use the funds advantageously. Loans made by banks or other financial institutions with larger markets to serve may offer higher returns. Smaller banks in local markets often invest in correspondent banks' loans to share in the higher returns and/or lower risks available to them. Differences in 15
  16. 16. the cost of funds represent one of many sources of differing competitive advantages which can be exploited by financial institutions in maximizing returns and value. The competitive advantage from lower costs of funds may be especially high when we compare bank to nonbank costs of funds. As pointed out by Pennacchi (1988), banks' costs of funds are increased by reserve requirements on deposits, deposit insurance premiums, and by minimum capital requirements. Nonbank investors, such as mutual funds, pension funds, or nonbank financial institutions like insurance and finance companies, may be able to realize a larger spread over the loan rates than banks can realize when funding credits with deposits. Loan sales can produce value for banks from loan origination fees and capture of their comparative advantage in making loans. Value for loan purchasers comes from favorable spreads over their cost of funds. James (1987) has made a subtle argument concerning the source of value from loan sales and participations. James argues that banks and other financial institutions may wish to use their low risk loans as collateral for lending funded by other investors with lower average costs. In this way, financial institutions like banks can arrange credits which otherwise would not be in their interest because lower risks of the loans would only benefit current liability holders (like depositors) whose risks would be reduced if banks invested in high quality loans. Since selling loans or issuing credit guarantees for loans funded in the money market allows a lower cost of funding than funding loans with new deposits, more loans will be made. Loan Sales and Participations and Agency Problems Loan sales and participations reduce the originating credit service provider's stake in the loan outcome. This reduced stake in the performance of the loan can cause problems which we can analyze in the context of principal-agent analysis. The agent in this case is the originating financial service firm, whose activities in monitoring and controlling the borrower under the terms of the loan contract can affect the performance of the loan. The benefits of the loan go to the buyer or participant, the principal in the arrangement. Firms originating loans have more information about the loan quality than buyers of loans, another information asymmetry problem. Loan sellers may be tempted to keep good loans and sell poorer quality loans, an adverse selection problem. In loan sales or participations involving complex arrangements or long distances, loan purchasers or participants may not be able to check on how the credit originator is performing its monitoring and controlling functions. This is a moral hazard problem due to the possible underperformance of critical activities the agent's commitment is lessened due to its reduced stake. Value can be created by reducing or solving agency problems in the context of loan sales and participations. The underlying economic efficiency comes from the competitive advantage or cost differentials discussed above. Given the extent and growth of loan sales and participations among banks, correspondent banks, international syndications, and non-bank financial institutions, it is clear that these problems can be overcome. Pennacchi (1988) analyzes the economics of loan sales and participations in the context of a principal-agent analysis which we present here. In structuring loan sales or participations several alternatives are commonly observed. The first and most important is whether the sale or loan is on a recourse or nonrecourse basis, as we discussed above. If the loan is sold on a recourse basis, the loan purchaser can reverse the 16
  17. 17. sale whenever it is advantageous to do so, most likely when the loan fails to perform or becomes riskier because of changes in economic conditions or market events. Loan sales and participations on a recourse basis reduce the principal-agent problem substantially, since the loan purchaser need only worry about the ability of the loan seller to rebuy the loan if the buyer no longer wishes to hold it. Regulators (like bank regulators) consider loans sold on a recourse basis to still be on the balance sheet of the financial institution selling the loan or loan participation. In fact, in the United States, loans sold on a recourse basis are treated like deposits and the proceeds of loan sales are subject to reserve requirements. Loans sold on a recourse basis do not really diversify the originator's credit risks. For these reasons, alternatives to selling or participating loans on a recourse basis have been developed. Pennacchi works out the economics of loan sales on a non-recourse basis. He demonstrates that loan sales or participations in which the selling financial institution retains a higher risk portion of the loan can solve the adverse selection and moral hazard problems which concern loan purchasers. By retaining a high risk position, the originating institution's exposure to the bad effects of inadequate monitoring and control activities is increased. As Pennacchi describes an optimal contract sharing loan returns on a non-recourse basis: [The sharing rule] looks very similar to the loan buyer having a debt position and the bank [loan seller] having an equity position in the loan. The contract is characterized by penalizing the bank if low loan outcomes occur and rewarding the bank if high loan outcomes (no default) occur. Giving the bank disproportionate share of the risk allows the bank to reap a disproportionate share of the gains from monitoring, enablishing a greater amount of the loan to be sold while maintaining monitoring-incentive efficiency. [p. 387] Loan participations and sales, like loans themselves, require detailed contract negotiation and bargaining. Value can be produced by financial service firms not only in solving principal-agent problems in the original credit arrangement, discussed earlier, but also in structuring the contracts required to finance the credit. Credit deals require sophisticated assessments of the various investors' and financial institutions' interests and concerns. Negotiation and bargaining related to loan funding is like other aspects of credit services, an information intensive and complex process. These all require the talents of sophisticated and experienced personnel. Open Market Sales of Loans: Loan Securitization Credit funding is also possible using loans as collateral for security issues. Larger corporate borrowers routinely use financial institution guarantees as backing to borrow funds in the open market. These guarantees, usually bank or insurance company letters of credit, are used to borrow in the commercial paper market which has grown so enormously as pointed out in Chapter 7. These corporate or government agency credit arrangements are functionally similar to loan sales on a recourse basis. We distinguish guarantees and loan sales and participations discussed above from loans used as collateral for securities issues. The economics of loans used as collateral for securities issues are different from guarantees or recourse sales of loans. Risk return characteristics of 17
  18. 18. individual credit instruments used for loan-backed securities must be understandable and acceptable to the market in order to be marketable. Investors in these securities have a passive involvement in the negotiation of the terms of their participation since they buy widely traded standardized financial instruments. To be understandable and acceptable to the market, standardization of the underlying individual credit arrangements is necessary. Some credit transactions, like home mortgages, have become so routine that claims on diversified pools of mortgages are readily tradable in securities markets. The challenge in loan-backed securities is to design standardized loans acceptable to borrowers and buyers of asset-backed securities. In addition to mortgages, car loans and credit card receivables have been used in loan-backed securities. Risk Bearing/ Sharing: Financial Engineering Products Value production in credit services comes partly from differences in risk exposure or risk preferences. Unprecedented interest rate and exchange rate variability experienced in industrialized countries in the last twenty years (discussed in Chapter 13) have dramatically increased borrowing customers' exposure to financial risks stemming from these factors. Borrower concerns with interest rate and exchange rate variability has spawned a vast number of new financial products and services, collectively called "financial engineering" (see Finnerty, 1988). Financial engineering means design and implementation of solutions to financial problems or concerns using carefully designed financial contracts. An example of a wildly successful type of these contracts is an interest rate swap. An interest rate swap is an exchange between two borrowers of their interest rate payment obligations. In a typical exchange, fixed and floating interest rate payments are swapped between two borrowers. Smith, Smithson and Wakefield (1988) describe the market for interest rate swaps and estimate market size in terms of the principal amounts used to calculate the interest obligations (called the "notional principal") in the United States at $542 billion in 1987. An interest rate swap must be arranged between two borrowers. Financial institutions create value by arranging the swap transactions and keeping track of records. Financial firms make the payments of the net differences in the interest payments between the two parties. The financial institution, usually a commercial or investment bank, becomes a so-called "counterparty" to each participant in the deal. In being a counterparty to many swap transactions, the financial institutions can manage their exposure to default and timing risks of the cash flows using hedging techniques discussed Part IV of this book. Financial engineering has become an important source of value added in credit services. Value production for the financial institutions active in the markets for financial engineering products comes from three sources: (1) structuring credit deals to reduce or eliminate specific problems or risks faced by the customer due to specifics of its cash flow needs; (2) arbitraging differences in the term structure or risk structure of financial asset prices for different classes of borrowers; and (3) efficiency in managing the risks associated with portfolios of risks. Table 8-4 illustrates an interest rate swap. Assume a real estate developer can borrow cheaply in the short-term market where rates fluctuate a lot even though cash flows from long- term lease payments are fixed in amount: the table shows the developer borrowing $1 million at the variable rate shown in the second to left column. Since variable cash commitments from 18
  19. 19. short-term borrowing increase default risk as analyzed by Anthony Santomero (1983), the developer would prefer a fixed rate. If another borrower is reluctant to make a long-term fixed rate commitment because assets are short-term, like a deposit institution, the two borrowers may both be better off by arranging an interest rate swap. Assume the deposit firm borrows $1 million at the fixed rate shown in the table. The swap counterparty takes the difference between the fixed and variable rates plus a fee ($100 in the example) from the developer when varaible rates are less than the fixed rate and the difference to the deposit firm minus the fee. When the fixed rate is below the variable rate, the swap counterparty collects from the deposit firm and passes the difference through to the developer. The improvement in the developer's and deposit firm's situations provides the value earning opportunity for the financial institutions arranging the swap. The swap arranger is the counterparty to the two borrowers. A financial institution possessing superior technical information may arrange interest rate swaps lowering net costs of credit for borrowers. For example, if risk premiums for short-term loans are lower than for long-term loans in the market, a risky long-term borrower could benefit by swapping his interest obligations on short-term loans with a low-risk short-term borrower who borrows long-term. The low-risk borrower borrowing in the long-term market swaps those interest payment obligations to the riskier short-term borrower, producing value for both parties. Financial institutions understanding the technical information can price and arrange exchange of interest obligations in the swap and extract some of the value as fees. Other financial engineering products developed and sold by financial institutions are too numerous to discuss at length. Finnerty (1988) provides an exhaustive table of products. New risk management and problem- solving products emerge daily, often flourishing and disappearing with changing market conditions. Many products, like interest rate caps or interest rate collars which restrict interest rate charges on variable rate loans or investments, have option components and are discussed in Part IV. Value produced by financial institutions comes from understanding and creating attractive risk reducing or sharing products and being able to price them. Summary Credit services produce value for financial institutions by producing value for their customers. Allowing productive investments to be undertaken requires that the risks stemming from information asymmetry and moral hazard be reduced to tolerable levels. In this chapter, we explored how pricing and other term setting involved in contract design can control borrower actions. We have discussed relationships and monitoring based on information and their role in resolving conflicts of interest between borrowers and lenders. We explored economic issues associated with funding loans with third party funds in the form of participations, loan sales, or credit guarantees. Finally, value enhancing features in the form of financial engineering can be offered separately or incorporated in credit instruments to provide further profitable opportunities for financial institutions. As with all financial services, one inevitable observation is the high degree of skill necessary to process complex credit arrangements involving technical information. Financial services are a labor-intensive business. 19
  20. 20. References Black, Fisher. 1976. "The Dividend Puzzle," The Journal of Portfolio Management, 2, pp. 5-8. Brealey, Richard A. and Stewart C. Myers. 1988. Principles of Corporate Finance (Third Edition), McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Campbell, Tim S. 1979. "Optimal Investment Financing Decisions and the Value of Confidentiality," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, XIV, No. 5, pp. 913-924. Campbell, Tim S. and William A. Kracaw. 1980. "Information Production, Market Signalling, and the Theory of Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, Vol. XXXV, No. 4 (September), pp. 863-882. Chan, Yuk-Shee and Anjan V. Thakor. 1987. "Collateral and Competitive Equilibria with Moral Hazard and Private Information," Journal of Finance, XLII, No. 2 (June), pp. 345-363. Diamond, Douglas W. 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, LI, pp. 393-414. Finnerty, John D. 1988. "Financial Engineering in Corporate Finance: An Overview," Financial Management Volume 17 (Winter), pp. 14-33. Gorton, Gary, and George Pennacchi. YEAR. "Are Loan Sales Really Off-Balance Sheet," Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance, pp. 125-145. James, Christopher. 1981. "Self-Selection and the Pricing of Bank Services: An Analysis of the Market for Loan Commitments and the Role of Compensating Balance Requirements," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, XVI, No. 5, pp. 725-746. Leland, Hayne E. and David H. Pyle. 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance XXXII (May), pp. 371-387. Myers, Stewart C. 1984. "The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance XXXIX (July), pp. 575-592. Pavel, Christine and David Phillis. 1987. "Why Commercial Banks Sell Loans: An Empirical Analysis," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (May/June), pp. 3-14. 20
  21. 21. Pennacchi, George G. 1988. "Loan Sales and the Cost of Bank Capital," Journal of Finance XVIII (June), pp. 375-396. Rajan, Raguram G. 1992. "Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's Length Debt," Journal of Finance Vol. 47, No. 4 (September), pp. 1367-1400. Santomero, Anthony M. 1983. "Fixed Versus Variable Rate Loans," Journal of Finance XXXVIII (December), pp. 1363-1380. Sharpe, Steven A. 1990. "Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, Vol. 45, No. 4 (September), pp. 1069-1087. Slovin, Myron B., Marie E. Sushka and John A. Polonchek. 1993. "The Value of Bank Durability: Borrowers as Bank Stakeholders," Journal of Finance Vol. 48, No. 1 (March), pp. 247-266. Smith, Clifford, Jr., Chalres Wl Smithson, and Lee Macdonald Wakeman. 1988. "The Market for Interest Rate Swaps," Financial Management Volume 17 (Winter), pp. 34-44. Smith, Clifford and Jerrod Warner. 1979. "On Financial Contracting: An Analysis of Bond Covenants," Journal of Financial Economics 7 (June), pp. 117-161. 21
  22. 22. Table 8-1 Table of Payoffs and Actions with Collateral Panel A: Payoffs Outcome Lender Borrower Total If R > i - C i R-i R Example (from Case (A) below) of low risk borrower bad outcome: $110 > $101 - $101 = 0 (as in all cases where C=i) $101 $9 $110.00 R<i-C R+C -C R Example from Case (C) for high risk borrowers bad outcome: $85 < $114.75 - $20 = $94.75 $105 -$20 $85.00 22
  23. 23. Panel B: Examples Low Risk Project High Risk Project Loan Terms 10% +20% -15% +35% (A) DEPOSIT FUNDS TO FINANCE ALL PROJECTS Terms (1%,$101) Lenders Return +1% +1% +1% +1% Borrowers Net +9% +19% -16% +34% Borrower's +14% +9% Expected Return Lender's Return 0 0 0 0 with +1% Effort Borrower's Return +10% +20% -15% +35% with +1% Effort (B) FUNDS AVAILABLE TO FUND SOME LOW RISK PROJECTS Terms: Either (12%,$112) Lender's Return +12% +12% +12% +12% Borrowers Net -2% +8% -27% +23% Borrower's +3% -2% Expected Return Lender's Return +12% +12% +12% +12% with +1% Effort Borrower's Return -1% +9% -26% +24% with +1% Effort (C) FUNDS TO FUND ALL LOW AND SOME HIGH RISK PROJECTS Terms (13%, $113) or (14%, $20) Lender's Return +13% +13% +5% +14% Borrower's Net -3% +7% -20% +21% Borrower's +2% +.5% Expected Return 23
  24. 24. Lender's Return +13% +13% +6% +14% with +1% Effort Borrower's Return -2% +8% -20% +22% with +1% Effort Panel B (Continued): Examples Notes to explain example: (1) The only case when both collateral and the project are surrendered is in Case (C) when the high risk borrower has the bad outcome, that is, when the collateral + payoff = $20 + $85 = $110 < $114.75; in other cases lender gets collateral or payment of loan in full. (2) The shaded boxes are the only areas of the table where the lender does not earn the full interest on the contract: in Case (B), the shaded area means the loan is not made because the borrower has a negative expected return. As noted above, Case (C) is the only case where the lender makes less than the contract amount in the low outcome case. (3) Note that the returns to lenders goes up as the demand for project financing increases relative to the supply of deposits. Depositors must earn higher returns in order to supply more funds, whereas when plenty of funds are available, borrowers earn most of the returns from their projects as in Case (A). (4) The moral hazard problem is only an issue in Case (C), when high risk borrowers do not gain full expected value of their effort (lenders gain the result of effort with the bad outcome). 24
  25. 25. Table 8-2 Types of Loan Covenants Restrictions on the Firm's Production/Investment Policy Restrictions on Investment Restrictions on investments in order to prevent asset substitution, that is to prevent changing the risk level of the assets of the firm through the acquisition of financial claims on other firms. Restrictions on Dispositions of Assets Prevents piecemeal sale of assets and prevents asset substitution. Secured Debt Limits asset substitution. Restrictions on Mergers Limits ability to raise risk to bondholders from combining assets of firms to the benefit of shareholders in both firms. Requirement for Maintenance of Assets Investments Required maintenance on fixed capital or required levels of working capital (cash, inventory and accounts receivable) may provide signals to lenders of impending difficulties. Indirect Restrictions on Production/Investment Requires extensive and expensive monitoring activities. Restrictions on the Payment of Dividends Restrict the ability to liquidate assets or issue debt to pay dividends to shareholders thus changing the risk to lenders. Usually payment of dividends or other distributions to shareholders are restricted to be paid from an "inventory" of accumulated earnings 25
  26. 26. Table 8-2 (continued) Types of Loan Covenants Restrictions on Subsequent Financing Limitations on amounts and priority of debt Prevent the issuance of debt claims which will reduce the value of the bond by increasing its risk. Limitations on Rentals, Leases, and Sale-Leasebacks Leases and rent contracts are like debt and have superior claim on earnings, consequently they can reduce the value of existing debt by increasing its risk. Restrictions on the Pattern of Payoffs to Bondholders Sinking Funds Required repayments of principal allow the reduction in the book value of the firm and may loosen the dividend restriction and investment requirements over time, which may be desirable in firms with declining asset values. Convertibility provisions Call feature can align interests of bondholders with stockholders since they can convert to stockholders. This may reduce the incentive of stockholders to increase variance of asset returns at expense of bondholders by changing investment policy, since bondholders can share in the increased stock value by exercising their conversion feature. Callability Limits the gain bondholder can extract from stockholders upon recapitalization of the firm, when otherwise bargaining between these parties represents a bilateral monopoly. 26
  27. 27. Table 8-2 (continued) Types of Loan Covenants Requirements for Specific Bonding Activities Reporting Cheaper for management to provide audited data required for monitoring covenants than for bondholders. Required Accounting Techniques Required use of standard accounting techniques can reduce management's ability to loosen effects of bond covenants. Official Certificates of Compliance Cheaper to have officers of the firm certify that the covenants have been met than to determine externally, and engages their personal liability. Purchase of Insurance Insurance firms may have comparative advantage in monitoring management activities, such as accident prevention, and may reduce risks to bondholders. _______________________________ Source: Smith and Warner (1979) 27
  28. 28. Table 8-3 Funding Arrangements for Loans Portfolio Lending Direct lending by financial institution financed by its own liabilities, such as deposits or insurance reserves. This lending may be restricted by regulation to a percent of assets, to certain types of risks, to a limited amount in certain classifications of loans or to single borrowers (see Chapters 14 and 16 on regulation.) Participations Lending originated by one or more portfolio lenders who share the funding and proceeds of the loan. Participations can be managed by a lead institution or a managing institution. Participations can be on a recourse basis, where the participation must be reversed by the lead or managing institution, or a nonrecourse basis, where no reversal is guaranteed. Cash flows from the loan interest and principal may be divided up in any way. Large participations are organized as syndicates, with many institutions participating on some pre-agreed basis. Since loan participations are bilateral contracts, they are not readily marketable. Loan Sale Loan sales are similar to participations except that they are usually to non-financial institutions or different types of institutions. For example an insurance company may buy part of a bank loan. They may be recourse or nonrecourse. Purchased loans are not readily sellable in the open market, since they are bilateral contracts. Credit Guarantee Financial institutions may guarantee availability of funds, usually in the form of a letter of credit, using their better known name and credit reputation to back borrowing in the open market, typically in the form of short-term instruments like commercial paper. While the credit guarantee between the borrower and financial institution is not transferable, the open market paper may be readily marketable. Securitized Loan Sales Typically, several credit instruments, for example mortgages, are pooled and used as security for a credit market instrument, such as a bond or mortgage pass-through, where all or part of the cash flows from the underlying credit instruments are paid according to predetermined schedules to the buyers of the credit instruments. The credit market instrument is typically marketable in the open market. 28
  29. 29. Table 8-4 Cash Flows in Interest Rate Swap Interest on Loan Payment to Counter-party and Net Cost Developer Developer Deposit Developer Deposit Payment Net Cost Firm Net Variable Fixed Firm Rate Rate $60,000 $70,000 $10,100 $70,100 $60,000 6.00% 7.00% 62,500 70,000 7,600 70,100 62,500 6.25 7.00 75,000 70,000 (4,900) 70,100 75,000 7.50 7.00 77,500 70,000 (7,400) 70,100 77,500 7.75 7.00 80,000 70,000 (9,900) 70,100 80,000 8.00 7.00 70,000 70,000 100 70,100 70,000 7.00 7.00
  30. 30. Figure 8-1 Commitment Fees and Compensating Balances Expected Costs of Compensating Balance (π) Bad customers Commitment Fee Good customers Db D* Da Compensating Balances Required
  31. 31. Figure 8-2 Financial Institutions and Delegated Monitoring Investor Deposit Direct Investment Financial Institution Intermediated Loan Entrepreneur