Muscle System BIO102

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Muscle System BIO102

  1. 1. C h a p t e r 11 The Muscular System PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. An Introduction to the Muscular System <ul><li>The Muscular System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists only of skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscle Organization and Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle organization affects power, range, and speed of muscle movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells ( fibers ) are organized in bundles ( fascicles ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Classification of Skeletal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the way fascicles are organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By relationships of fascicles to tendons </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four patterns of fascicle organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convergent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pennate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Parallel Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers parallel to the long axis of muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, biceps brachii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on total number of myofibrils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly relates to cross section of muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in. 2 (6.45 cm 2 ) of cross section develops 50 lb (23 kg) of tension </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.1a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–1a Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Convergent Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A broad area converges on attachment site (tendon, aponeurosis, or raphe ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle fibers pull in different directions, depending on stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, pectoralis muscles </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.1b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–1b Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Pennate Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form an angle with the tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not move as far as parallel muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain more myofibrils than parallel muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop more tension than parallel muscles </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Pennate Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unipennate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers on one side of tendon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, extensor digitorum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipennate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers on both sides of tendon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, rectus femoris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipennate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendon branches within muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, deltoid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.1c, d, e] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–1c, d, e Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Circular Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called sphincters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and close to guard entrances of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, orbicularis oris muscle of the mouth </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Fascicle Arrangement <ul><li>Figure 11–1f Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Levers <ul><li>Skeletal Motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles attach to skeleton, produce motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of muscle attachment affects power, range, and speed of muscle movement </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Levers <ul><li>Levers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically, each bone is a lever (a rigid, moving structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And each joint a fulcrum (a fixed point) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles provide applied force (AF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required to overcome resistance (R) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Levers <ul><li>Function of a lever is to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction of an AF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance and speed of movement produced by an AF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective strength of an AF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Three Classes of Levers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on the relationship between applied force, fulcrum, and resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First class , second class , and third class </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Levers <ul><li>First-Class Lever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seesaw or teeter-totter is an example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center fulcrum between applied force and resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force and resistance are balanced </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Levers <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.2a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–2a The Three Classes of Levers. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Levers <ul><li>Second-Class Levers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheelbarrow is an example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center resistance between applied force and fulcrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small force moves a large weight </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Levers <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.2b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–2b The Three Classes of Levers. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Levers <ul><li>Third-Class Levers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common levers in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center applied force between resistance and fulcrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater force moves smaller resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizes speed and distance traveled </li></ul></ul>First, Second, and Third-Class Levers
  22. 22. Levers <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.2c] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–2c The Three Classes of Levers. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues <ul><li>Origins and Insertions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles have one fixed point of attachment ( origin ) and one moving point of attachment ( insertion ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most muscles originate or insert on the skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin is usually proximal to insertion </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues <ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movements produced by muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, flexion, extension, adduction, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described in terms of bone, joint, or region </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues <ul><li>Muscle Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles work in groups to maximize efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller muscles reach maximum tension first, followed by larger, primary muscles </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues <ul><li>Muscle Terminology Based on Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agonist (or prime mover) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a particular movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antagonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes movement of a particular agonist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A smaller muscle that assists a larger agonist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps start motion or stabilize origin of agonist (fixator) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues <ul><li>Muscle Opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agonists and antagonists work in pairs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When one contracts, the other stretches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as flexors–extensors, abductors–adductors, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Names of Skeletal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct names of muscles include the term muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platysma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Descriptive Names for Skeletal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin and insertion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascicle organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Location in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies body regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, temporalis muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin and Insertion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First part of name indicates origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second part of name indicates insertion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, genioglossus muscle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Fascicle Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes fascicle orientation within muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., rectus (straight), transversus , oblique </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Relative Position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Externus (superficialis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible at body surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internus (profundus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles outside an organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles inside an organ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Structural Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bi = 2, tri = 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trapezius, deltoid, rhomboid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many terms refer to muscle size </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Descriptive Terms for Muscle Size </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longus = long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longissimus = longest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teres = long and round </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brevis = short </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnus = large </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major = larger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximus = largest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minor = small </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimus = smallest </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, flexor, extensor, retractor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupations or habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, risor = laughter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.1-please use 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  37. 37. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.1-please use 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  38. 38. Muscular System Overview <ul><li>Divisions of the Muscular System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position head and spinal column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move rib cage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% of skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendicular muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support pectoral and pelvic girdles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support limbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40% of skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Muscular System Overview <ul><li>Figure 11–3a An Overview of the Major Skeletal Muscles. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Muscular System Overview <ul><li>Figure 11–3a An Overview of the Major Skeletal Muscles. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Muscular System Overview <ul><li>Figure 11–3b An Overview of the Major Skeletal Muscles. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Muscular System Overview <ul><li>Figure 11–3b An Overview of the Major Skeletal Muscles. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Axial Musculature <ul><li>The Axial Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divisions based on location and function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of head and neck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of vertebral column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique and rectus muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of pelvic floor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Six Muscle Groups of the Head and Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of facial expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate on skull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic eye muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate on surface of orbit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control position of eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of mastication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move the mandible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Names end in glossus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Six Muscle Groups of the Head and Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of the pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin swallowing process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior muscles of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control position of larynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depress the mandible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support tongue and pharynx </li></ul></ul></ul>3D Peel-Away of Muscles of the Head and Neck
  46. 46. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbicularis oris : constricts the mouth opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buccinator: moves food around the cheeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of the epicranium (scalp) </li></ul></ul>Buccinator
  47. 47. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of the epicranium (scalp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporoparietalis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occipitofrontalis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal and occipital bellies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separated by epicranial aponeurosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platysma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers anterior surface of neck </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–4a Muscles of Facial Expression. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–4b Muscles of Facial Expression. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.2- please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  51. 51. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.2- please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  52. 52. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.2- please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  53. 53. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Six Extrinsic Eye Muscles (Extra ocular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior rectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial rectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior rectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral rectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior oblique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior oblique </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–5a,b Extrinsic Eye Muscles. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–5c, d Extrinsic Eye Muscles. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Axial Musculature
  57. 57. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of Mastication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masseter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The strongest jaw muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps lift the mandible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pterygoid muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positions mandible for chewing </li></ul></ul></ul>Masseter Temporalis
  58. 58. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–6a Muscles of Mastication. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.6b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–6b Muscles of Mastication. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.4] </li></ul>
  61. 61. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatoglossus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates at palate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Styloglossus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates at styloid process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genioglossus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates at chin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoglossus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates at hyoid bone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–7 Muscles of the Tongue. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Axial Musculature
  64. 64. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal constrictor muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move food into esophagus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laryngeal elevator muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevate the larynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lift the soft palate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–8 Muscles of the Pharynx. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Axial Musculature
  67. 67. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Anterior Muscles of the Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digastric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From chin to hyoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And hyoid to mastoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mylohyoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor of the mouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geniohyoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between hyoid and chin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Anterior Muscles of the Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylohyoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between hyloid and styloid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From clavicle and sternum to mastoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omohyoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches scapula, clavicle, first rib, and hyoid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–9a Muscles of the Anterior Neck. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–9b Muscles of the Anterior Neck. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Axial Musculature
  72. 72. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Vertebral Column </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal extensors or erector spinae muscles (superficial and deep) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal flexors (transversospinalis) </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Vertebral Column </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial Spinal Extensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinalis group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longissimus group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iliocostalis group </li></ul></ul></ul>Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
  74. 74. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Vertebral Column </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep Spinal Extensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semispinalis group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multifidus muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interspinalis muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intertransversarii muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotatores muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>SemispinalisCapitus
  75. 75. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.10a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–10a Muscles of the Vertebral Column. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.10c] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–10c Muscles of the Vertebral Column. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.8 (top portion)] </li></ul>
  78. 78. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.8 (middle portion)] </li></ul>
  79. 79. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Vertebral Column </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal flexors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longus capitis and longus colli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate and flex the neck </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quadratus lumborum muscles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flex spine and depress ribs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.10b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–10b Muscles of the Vertebral Column. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.10a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–10a Muscles of the Vertebral Column. </li></ul>
  82. 82. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.8 (bottom portion)] </li></ul>
  83. 83. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Oblique and Rectus Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie within the body wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compress underlying structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate vertebral column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flex vertebral column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose erector spinae </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Oblique Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scalene muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flex the neck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercostal muscles ( external and internal ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory movements of ribs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transversus thoracis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross inner surface of ribs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Internal Intercostals External Intercostals
  85. 85. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Oblique Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominopelvic region (same pattern as thoracic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External oblique muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal oblique muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transversus abdominis </li></ul></ul>Transversus Abdominis Internal Obliques External Obliques
  86. 86. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Rectus Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus abdominis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between xiphoid process and pubic symphysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided longitudinally by linea alba </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided transversely by tendinous inscriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragmatic muscle or diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides thoracic and abdominal cavities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performs respiration </li></ul></ul></ul>Rectus Abdominis
  87. 87. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.11a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–11a Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.11b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–11b Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.11c] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–11c Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm. </li></ul>
  90. 90. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.9-please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  91. 91. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.9-please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  92. 92. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Pelvic Floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions of pelvic floor muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support organs of pelvic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flex sacrum and coccyx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control movement of materials through urethra and anus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Pelvic Floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perineum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular sheet forming the pelvic floor, divided into </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior urogenital triangle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior anal triangle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Perineum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep muscular layer between pubic bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the pelvic floor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And muscles of the urethra </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial muscles of the urogenital triangle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support external genitalia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Axial Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Pelvic Floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perineum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep muscular layer extending to pubis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports anal triangle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.12a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–12a Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.12b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–12b Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.10-please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  99. 99. Axial Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.10-please split onto 2 slides if necessary] </li></ul>
  100. 100. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Position and stabilize pectoral and pelvic girdles </li></ul><ul><li>Move upper and lower limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions of Appendicular Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of the shoulders and upper limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of the pelvis and lower limbs </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.13a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–13a An Overview of the Appendicular Muscles of the Trunk. </li></ul>
  102. 102. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.13b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–13b An Overview of the Appendicular Muscles of the Trunk. </li></ul>
  103. 103. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position the pectoral girdle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move the arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move the forearm and hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move the hand and fingers </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers back and neck to base of skull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts on clavicles and scapular spines </li></ul></ul></ul>Trapezius
  105. 105. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhomboid and levator scapulae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep to trapezius </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach to cervical and thoracic vertebrae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert on scapular border </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhomboid Minor Rhomboid Major Levator Scapulae
  106. 106. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.15a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–14a Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle. </li></ul>
  107. 107. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serratus anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On the chest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates along ribs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts on anterior scapular margin </li></ul></ul></ul>Serratus Anterior
  108. 108. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclavius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates on ribs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts on clavicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoralis minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to scapula </li></ul></ul></ul>Pectoralis Minor
  109. 109. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.15b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–14b Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle. </li></ul>
  110. 110. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.11] </li></ul>
  111. 111. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Arm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deltoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The major abductor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supraspinatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assists deltoid </li></ul></ul></ul>Supraspinatus
  112. 112. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Arm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscapularis and Teres major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce medial rotation at shoulder </li></ul></ul></ul>Teres Major Subscapularis
  113. 113. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–15a Muscles That Move the Arm. </li></ul>
  114. 114. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Arm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infraspinatus and teres minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce lateral rotation at shoulder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coracobrachialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to scapula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces flexion and adduction at shoulder </li></ul></ul></ul>Infraspinatus
  115. 115. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–15b(Part 1 of 2) Muscles That Move the Arm. </li></ul>
  116. 116. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Arm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoralis major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between anterior chest and greater tubercle of humerus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces flexion at shoulder joint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latissimus dorsi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between thoracic vertebrae and humerus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces extension at shoulder joint </li></ul></ul></ul>Pectoralis Major Latissimus Dorsi
  117. 117. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>The Rotator Cuff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles involved in shoulder rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor , and their tendons </li></ul></ul></ul>Teres Minor
  118. 118. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–15a (Part 1 of 2) Muscles That Move the Arm. </li></ul>
  119. 119. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–15b Muscles That Move the Arm. </li></ul>
  120. 120. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.12] </li></ul>
  121. 121. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originate on humerus and insert on forearm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The major flexor (biceps brachii) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The major extensor (triceps brachii) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  122. 122. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly on posterior and lateral surfaces of arm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly on anterior and medial surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  123. 123. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Flexors of the Elbow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexes elbow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes shoulder joint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates on scapula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts on radial tuberosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brachialis and brachioradialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flex elbow </li></ul></ul></ul>Biceps Brachii
  124. 124. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–16a Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand. </li></ul>
  125. 125. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Extensors of the Elbow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triceps brachii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extends elbow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates on scapula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts on olecranon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anconeus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes brachialis </li></ul></ul></ul>Triceps Brachii
  126. 126. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–16b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand. </li></ul>
  127. 127. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.13 top portion] </li></ul>
  128. 128. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Flexors of the Wrist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palmaris longus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexes wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexor carpi ulnaris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexes wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad ducts wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexor carpi radialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexes wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ab ducts wrist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  129. 129. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Extensors of the Wrist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensor carpi radialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extends wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ab ducts wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensor carpi ulnaris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extends wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad ducts wrist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  130. 130. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–16a Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand. </li></ul>
  131. 131. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–16b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand. </li></ul>
  132. 132. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.13 bottom portion] </li></ul>
  133. 133. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronation and supination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pronator teres and supinator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate on humerus and ulna </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate radius </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pronator quadratus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates on ulna </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assists pronator teres </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  134. 134. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.17a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–16a Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand. </li></ul>
  135. 135. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–16b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand. </li></ul>
  136. 136. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.13 middle portion] </li></ul>
  137. 137. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called extrinsic muscles of the hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie entirely within forearm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only tendons cross wrist (in synovial tendon sheaths) </li></ul></ul>
  138. 138. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles that Move the Hand and Fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendon sheaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensor retinaculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide band of connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior surface of wrist </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes tendons of extensor muscles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexor retinaculum: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior surface of wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes tendons of flexor muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  139. 139. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.18a] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–17a Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers. </li></ul>
  140. 140. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–17b Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers. </li></ul>
  141. 141. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.18c] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–17c Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers. </li></ul>
  142. 142. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.18d] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–17d Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers. </li></ul>
  143. 143. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.14] </li></ul>
  144. 144. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>The Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that move the metacarpals and phalanges and originate and insert only on those bones </li></ul></ul>
  145. 145. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–18a Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand. </li></ul>
  146. 146. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–18b Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand. </li></ul>
  147. 147. Appendicular Musculature
  148. 148. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic girdle is tightly bound to axial skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permits little movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has few muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  149. 149. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Position the Lower Limbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that move the thigh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that move the leg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that move the foot and toes </li></ul></ul>
  150. 150. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Thigh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gluteal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral rotators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iliopsoas </li></ul></ul>3D Peel-Away of Muscles of the Thigh
  151. 151. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–19a Muscles That Move the Thigh. </li></ul>
  152. 152. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Thigh: Gluteal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover lateral surfaces of ilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest, most posterior gluteal muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces extension and lateral rotation at hip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensor fasciae latae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works with gluteus maximus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes iliotibial tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate anterior to gluteus maximus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert on trochanter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  153. 153. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.20b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–19b Muscles That Move the Thigh. </li></ul>
  154. 154. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.16 top portion] </li></ul>
  155. 155. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Thigh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral rotators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group of six muscles, including </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piriformis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obturator </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  156. 156. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.20c] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–19c Muscles That Move the Thigh. </li></ul>
  157. 157. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.16 2nd section] </li></ul>
  158. 158. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Thigh: Adductors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor magnus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces adduction, extension, and flexion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor brevis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hip flexion and adduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor longus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hip flexion and adduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectineus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hip flexion and adduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gracilis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hip flexion and adduction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  159. 159. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.21b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–20b Muscles That Move the Leg. </li></ul>
  160. 160. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.20d] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–19d Muscles That Move the Thigh. </li></ul>
  161. 161. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.16 3 rd section] </li></ul>
  162. 162. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Thigh: Iliopsoas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hip flexors insert on the same tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psoas major </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iliacus </li></ul></ul></ul>Iliopsoas
  163. 163. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.20d] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–19d Muscles That Move the Thigh. </li></ul>
  164. 164. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.16 bottom] </li></ul>
  165. 165. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Leg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexors of the knee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate on the pelvic girdle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensors of the knee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate on the femoral surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert on the patella </li></ul></ul></ul>
  166. 166. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Flexors of the Knee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamstrings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps femoris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semitendinosus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sartorius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originates superior to the acetabulum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popliteus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotates the tibia to unlock the knee </li></ul></ul></ul>
  167. 167. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–20a Muscles That Move the Leg. </li></ul>
  168. 168. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.17 top portion] </li></ul>
  169. 169. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Leg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensors of the knee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four muscles of the quadriceps femoris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three vastus muscles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus femoris muscle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  170. 170. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.21b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–20b Muscles That Move the Leg. </li></ul>
  171. 171. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.17 bottom] </li></ul>
  172. 172. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–20c Muscles That Move the Leg. </li></ul>
  173. 173. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic muscles that move the foot and toes include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that produce extension at the ankle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that produce flexion at the ankle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that produce extension at the toes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that produce flexion at the toes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  174. 174. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Four Muscles That Produce Extension (plantar flexion) at the Ankle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibularis (group) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibialis posterior </li></ul></ul>3D Peel-Away of Muscles of the Leg and Foot
  175. 175. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–21a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes. </li></ul>
  176. 176. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.22b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–21b Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes. </li></ul>
  177. 177. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Achilles Tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared by the gastrocnemius and soleus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  178. 178. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Produce Flexion (Dorsiflexsion) at the Ankle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibialis anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes the gastrocnemius </li></ul></ul></ul>
  179. 179. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Produce Extension at the Toes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensor digitorum longum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensor hallucis longus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensor retinacula: fibrous sheaths hold tendons of toes as they cross the ankle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  180. 180. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.22b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–21b Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes. </li></ul>
  181. 181. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.22d] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–21d Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes. </li></ul>
  182. 182. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Muscles That Produce Flexion at the Toes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexor digitorum longum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexor hallucis longus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose the extensors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  183. 183. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–21c Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes. </li></ul>
  184. 184. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.18] </li></ul>
  185. 185. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.18] </li></ul>
  186. 186. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>The Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that move the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges and originate and insert only on those bones </li></ul></ul>
  187. 187. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>Figure 11–22a Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot. </li></ul>
  188. 188. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.23b] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–22b Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot. </li></ul>
  189. 189. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT FIG. 11.23c] </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 11–22c Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot. </li></ul>
  190. 190. Appendicular Musculature <ul><li>[INSERT Table. 11.19] </li></ul>
  191. 191. Effects of Aging on the Muscular System <ul><li>Skeletal muscle fibers become smaller in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles become less elastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop increasing amounts of fibrous tissue (fibrosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreased tolerance for exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased ability to recover from muscular injuries </li></ul>
  192. 192. Effects of Aging on the Muscular System <ul><li>Figure 11–23 Musculoskeletal Compartments. </li></ul>
  193. 193. Integration with Other Systems <ul><li>Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers oxygen and fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes carbon dioxide and wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to oxygen demand of muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integumentary system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disperses heat from muscle activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct responses of all systems </li></ul></ul>
  194. 194. Integration with Other Systems <ul><li>Figure 11–24 Functional Relationships Between the Muscular System and Other Systems. </li></ul>

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