Crafting Successful
Close Reading
Experiences
Using Text-Dependent
Questions
https://sites.google.com/site/firststreetsccs...
―At each grade level, 80
to 90% of the Reading
Standards require textdependent analysis.‖Leadership and Learning
Center
Grounding
 Experience with Close Reading and Text

Dependent Questions-Share and Then Place a
Sticky Note with a Number 1...
Circle Map

What are the Implications
Of Close Analysis
In Our Daily Lives?
Learning Outcomes
 Become familiar with instructional shifts for CCSS ELA
 Examine Process of Close Reading including pl...
Common Core ELA
Instructional Shifts
Shifts in ELA/Literacy
Shift 1

Balancing Informational
& Literary Text

Students read a true balance of informational and...
Common Core ELA Instructional Shift
#2:Close Reading grounded in evidence
from text

 ―The reading standards focus on stu...
Organizational Elements for
Common Core Reading Standards
 Key Ideas and Details (RL and RI Standards 1-3)-

What Does th...
 Is careful, purposeful reading and
 Looks at the structure and flow of

the text to understand what the
author had to s...


Planning for Close
Reading
Step 1: Selecting the right main selections (Basal
Anthology) picture books, passage, or cha...
Designing TextDependent
Questions
What Are Text-Dependent
Questions
 Used in the process of close reading
 Evidence in answering these questions must come...
Progression of
Text-dependent Questions
Whole
Across texts

Opinions, Arguments,
Inter-textual
Connections
Inferences

Ent...


Develop Text-Dependent
Questions for Your
Books to return to the text?
Do the questions require the reader

 Do the qu...
Planning for First
Reading
 When planning the analysis of the text, developing

your own questions through multiple readi...
First Close Reading: (Key Ideas &
Details: What Does the Text Say?)
 Questions should help guide students to think about
...
―Fireflies‖-Owl City
Fireflies! (Lexile 630L CCSS Stretch Band:
Grade 2-3 ) by Julie Brinckloe
 Before the first close

reading with the class...
Planning Considerations & Materials




Note: I used RL Standards 5.1-5.9 to Guide my
Design of Text Dependent Questions...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
On a summer evening I looked up from
dinner, through the open window to the
backyard.



What...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
I ran from the table, down to the cellar to
find a jar. I knew where to look, behind the
stair...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe

I called to my friends in the
street, ―Fireflies!‖ But they had come
before me with polished ...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
Suddenly a voice called out above the
others, ―I caught one!‖
And it was my own.
I thrust my h...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
Then someone called from my house, ―It’s
time to come in, now,‖ and others called
from their h...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
In the dark I watched the fireflies from my
bed. They blinked off and on, and the jar
glowed l...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
I shut my eyes tight and put the pillow over
my head. They were my fireflies. I caught
them. T...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe


The boy holds an empty jar
at the end while crying and
smiling? What is he feeling
and why?...
Conclusion of First
Reading
 The questions focused on key elements, big

ideas, and motivations (particularly events that...
Second Reading: How
Does the Text Work?
 Questions should help guide students to think about

how the text works and what...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
On a summer evening I looked up from
dinner, through the open window to the
backyard.
It was g...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
I ran from the table, down to the cellar to
find a jar. I knew where to look, behind the
stair...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe

I called to my friends in the
street, ―Fireflies!‖ But they had come
before me with polished ...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
Suddenly a voice called out above the
others, ―I caught one!‖
And it was my own.



How does ...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
Then someone called from my house, ―It’s
time to come in, now,‖ and others called
from their h...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe
In the dark I watched the fireflies from my
bed. They blinked off and on, and the jar
glowed l...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe


How does the author’s use
of first person point of view
help us understand the
boy’s intern...
Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe

Fireflies!
Blinking on, blinking off, dipping low,
soaring high above my head, making
circle...
Conclusion of Second
Reading
 My questions focused on why and how the author told

his story (specifically looking at lit...
Third Reading: What Does the Text Mean?
Value? Connections to other Texts?
 ―Third‖ reading
 Questions should help guide...
Striving for Meaning
 What did you take the story to mean from the boy’s

point of view? OR stated another way, What
less...


Evaluation and
Synthesis

Do you know other stories or informational texts like this? How
were those texts similar and ...
Conclusion
 Readers need opportunities to make sense of big

ideas from a range of high quality texts
 Reading lessons b...
Why Does Close
Reading Matter?

 It is not just academic it is a way of being. In our

everyday lives doing many differen...
Resources for Planning Close
Analytic Reading
 Quantitative Measures: Lexile or other measures.

(Online) Can enter any t...
Steps in Planning Close Reading


Step 1: Identify the Core Understandings and Key Ideas of the Text



Step 2: Target V...


Text Dependent
Question Design
Modified Student Achievement Partners Version
Template
Which words should be taught?
 Essential to text
 Likely to appear in future text

Are there related words that can be
c...
Questions and tasks addressing
syntax:
 What role does the sentence play in

 Paraphrase

 Pull apart sentences into mu...
Creating Coherent Sets of TextDependent Questions
Step 4

Whole
Across
texts
Entire texts
Segments

Standards
Opinions, Ar...
See handout
―Criteria for
Evaluating a
Set of TextDependent
Questions‖ –
p.2

Step 4
Common Core State Standards
Step 6

• Addresses Common Core Reading Standards: RL 5.1,
RL 5.2, RL 5.3, RL 5.4, RL 5.5, RL ...
E1. Does the task to check for
understanding call on the
knowledge and understanding
acquired through the questions?
E2. D...
Questions????
Grade Level
Planning: Close
Reading
September 17, 2013
https://sites.google.com/site/firststreetsccsspathways/home
Quantitative Measurement for Text Complexity:
CCSS Lexile Stretch Bands
Qualitative Factors of Text Complexity
Planning for Close Reading: Creating
Text Dependent Questions Task


Step 1: As a grade level choose a main selection for...
Resources


Websites



Engagy NY: www.engageny.org



http://www.engageny.org/resource/common-core-in-ela-literacy-sh...
Possible Next Steps
 In grade level teams or PLCs begin the work of choosing

challenging texts and designing text depend...
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Crafting Successful Close Reading Lessons Using Text Dependent Questions

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A introduction to developing close reading instructional sequences using text-dependent questions in a highly structured way that parallels the organization of the CCSS Reading Anchor Standards.

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  • Fabulous! Great for planning, and clear explanation of close reading and Text Dependent Q's. Love the 'Fireflies' TDQ's. Will share with my colleagues.
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  • 3 min totalHave people read through these – take any commentsFurther definitions of close reading
  • 5 min totalNow we’re going to dig in to Step 2 – Target Vocabulary. Read the slide silently.As you go through the planning process, you will probably continue to discover words that need to be taught, and text structures that need to be examined. This is the place to record those. Not all the words in the grid need to be taught in the close read. Some will have been (or can be) covered in the prior reads.Look at the lesson sample, page 4 for Step 2. How is it organized? (give them time to view)What is on the Vertical Axis? (Whether there are enough clues - or not - for students to figure out the meaning. What are those clues? This connects to vocabulary strategies – Language Standard 4. Remember, these start in Grade K!)What is on the Horizontal Axis? (Words specific to text vs. general high-utility words and common multiple meaning words.)Take a minute to go back to the cover page of the template, where the steps are outlined. Read through Steps 2 and make note of the variety of ways Vocabulary can be planned for.
  • 5 min totalNow we’re going to dig in to Step 3 – Target Syntax & Text Structure. Read the slide silently.See example on lesson plan Step 3Syntax is one way in which text can be complex for students, so it’s important to think about that, because some of your questions will need to bring out the meaning of these challenging structures.Remember the needs of our English Learners and students with disabilities – really all academic English learners – as some phrases and expressions might seem simple (e.g. colloquial expressions) but they are hard to understand if they are new for you.Please refer back to p.1 of the lesson template and re-read Step 3. Look at the italicized text.
  • 8 minHave a small group discussion of what you think this graphic is about. (4 min) Do a group share out. (4 min)If comments did not point out both sides of the diagram (pyramid) plus (whole to part) – make sure that is emphasized. It’s about building understanding from more literal to more analytical. This is the idea of progressing on the Bloom’s continuum “Blooming it Up”. Whole to part to whole – Means the power of each element individually, and the synergy of the whole. Examining the whole and the parts is important.Similarly, the double-sided arrow reminds us of the recursive nature of this process. It is not lock-step.
  • 10 min totalUsing back of HO#5 We have just experienced the lesson. We want to give you a moment to take a look at the questions and see how they are text-dependent, and how they really build to that deeper understanding of the selection question. You also have the text of the story on Page 2 of your lesson sample.Refer to the back of Handout #5 to see the criteria for Evaluating a Set of Text-Dependent questions.Please focus in on criteria A1, C1, D1 (green on slide) C1 does require some background knowledge, but the emphasis should be on the text first, and schema second.Talk with your elbow partner about your findings. (talk 5 min)(Share out findings – 3 min)Reinforce: Think also about planning for discussion time in the lesson. Some questions can be answered with just hands and short choral responses. For other questions, where answers may vary, students are discussing their thoughts with each other, i.e. in think-pair-share. It is important to maximize students’ opportunities to talk and listen to each other. Instead of teacher giving the answer, the teacher may be hearing the students coming up with the answer, and then revoicing and reinforcing it.This is another reason why close reading lessons can focus on parts of a selection, taking the time to go deep.
  • Time 5 min.We are back to step 5 on the Template for “On the Go” –While we planned with 2focus standards, RI1, RI3, and selection question in mind, we actually addressed MANY standards by creating such acomprehensive lesson. Although not the primary focus of the lesson, these additional standards are woven through the lesson in such a way allowing students multiple practice opportunities.Let’s look at all the standards that we addressed. Turn to the Reading, Writing, Speaking & Listening, and Language standards in your CCSS spiral notebook to see exactly which standards have been covered. (page 7 of the sample lesson)
  • 2 minWe just talked about discussion and how important that is to get to the targeted learnings and concepts. How do we KNOW that students have learned and developed as critical thinkers, using the content knowledge just taught?Skip to Step 6 on the lesson sample. Remember our planning process is non-linear. The Task to Check for Understanding should give students an opportunity to show what they’ve learned and demonstrate their thinking. The Task to Check for Understanding has to have writing involved. It may not be a published writing piece, but students will use writing to demonstrate their learning.See criteria E for Evaluating Text-Dependent Questions p.2 – back of Handout #5 Have participants look over the writing task on lesson sample p.7Also look at the additional tasks on p.8. REMINDER!! IN KINDER WRITING ENTAILS DRAWING, PHONETIC or APPROXIMATED SPELLING, DEVELOPING THINKING AND LANGUAGE THROUGH WRITING.
  • Crafting Successful Close Reading Lessons Using Text Dependent Questions

    1. 1. Crafting Successful Close Reading Experiences Using Text-Dependent Questions https://sites.google.com/site/firststreetsccs spathways/home Joseph Espinosa, NBCT Title III Instructional Coach, First Street EL September 10, 2013
    2. 2. ―At each grade level, 80 to 90% of the Reading Standards require textdependent analysis.‖Leadership and Learning Center
    3. 3. Grounding  Experience with Close Reading and Text Dependent Questions-Share and Then Place a Sticky Note with a Number 1-5  What do you think are the implications of close analysis in our daily lives?
    4. 4. Circle Map What are the Implications Of Close Analysis In Our Daily Lives?
    5. 5. Learning Outcomes  Become familiar with instructional shifts for CCSS ELA  Examine Process of Close Reading including planning considerations  Examine the characteristics of text-dependent questions and a possible progression tied to the Common Core Reading Standards  Participate in two close readings of a challenging text with each reading aligned to a different purpose.  Become familiar with the steps in planning close reading and a close reading template.
    6. 6. Common Core ELA Instructional Shifts
    7. 7. Shifts in ELA/Literacy Shift 1 Balancing Informational & Literary Text Students read a true balance of informational and literary texts. Shift 2 Knowledge in the Disciplines Students build knowledge about the world (domains/ content areas) through TEXT rather than the teacher or activities Shift 3 Staircase of Complexity Students read the central, grade appropriate text around which instruction is centered. Teachers are patient, create more time and space and support in the curriculum for close reading. Shift 4 Text-based Answers Students engage in rich and rigorous evidence based conversations about text. Shift 5 Writing from Sources Writing emphasizes use of evidence from sources to inform or make an argument. Shift 6 Academic Vocabulary Students constantly build the transferable vocabulary they need to access grade level complex texts. This can be done effectively by spiraling like content in increasingly complex texts. Source: engageny.org
    8. 8. Common Core ELA Instructional Shift #2:Close Reading grounded in evidence from text  ―The reading standards focus on students’ ability to read carefully and grasp information, arguments, ideas and details based on text evidence. Students should be able to answer a range of text-dependent questions, questions in which the answers require inferences based on careful attention to the text. ― Source: Student Achievement Partners
    9. 9. Organizational Elements for Common Core Reading Standards  Key Ideas and Details (RL and RI Standards 1-3)- What Does the Text Say?  Craft and Structure (RL and RI Standards 4-6)-How Does the Text Say It?  Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (RL and RI Standards 7-9) (What Does the Text Mean? What is its Value? How Does the Text Connect to Other Texts?)  Range and Level of Text Complexity (RL and RI Standard 10) How Challenging and Varied is the Text?
    10. 10.  Is careful, purposeful reading and  Looks at the structure and flow of the text to understand what the author had to say  Uses text-dependent questions to move students deeper into the text  Makes students think and understand what they read Close Reading rereading of a text
    11. 11.  Planning for Close Reading Step 1: Selecting the right main selections (Basal Anthology) picture books, passage, or chapters is important. Challenging texts which can include picture books, chapters, magazine articles, and poems. What key insights or ideas do you want them to get from this text?  Step 2: Read the text before hand and reread it again to determine what might cause the text to be challenging for students ie. sentence structure, language demands, knowledge demands, levels of meaning. Use Qualitative Factors of Text Complexity from Common Core ELA in Timothy Shanahan Source:a PLC at Work Grades K-2 or 3-5. Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    12. 12. Designing TextDependent Questions
    13. 13. What Are Text-Dependent Questions  Used in the process of close reading  Evidence in answering these questions must come from the text  Includes literal/inferential questions but also includes analysis, synthesis, and evaluation  They focus on word, sentence, and paragraph interpretation and analysis but also big ideas, themes, and events  Provided for particularly challenging portions of the text so students can enhance their reading proficiency at first with teacher guidance but eventually on their own. Adapted from Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey Presentation
    14. 14. Progression of Text-dependent Questions Whole Across texts Opinions, Arguments, Inter-textual Connections Inferences Entire text Segments Author’s Purpose Paragraph Vocab & Text Structure Sentence Key Details Standards 8&9 3&7 6 4&5 2 Word General Understandings Part Graphic: Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey 1
    15. 15.  Develop Text-Dependent Questions for Your Books to return to the text? Do the questions require the reader  Do the questions require the reader to use evidence to support his or her ideas or claims?  Do the questions move from text-explicit to text-implicit knowledge? Should be a coherent sequence of questions that lead to deeper understanding and connections  Are there questions that require the reader to analyze, evaluate, and create? Adapted from Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey Presentation
    16. 16. Planning for First Reading  When planning the analysis of the text, developing your own questions through multiple readings is helpful.  After that you can also determine how many re- readings to use and how to order your questions. Source: Timothy Shanahan Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    17. 17. First Close Reading: (Key Ideas & Details: What Does the Text Say?)  Questions should help guide students to think about the most important elements of the text (key ideas and details)  Stories are about significant, meaningful conflicts (between man and nature, with others, and with oneself)  Human nature and human motivation are central to the action and the meaning  Questions should help clarify confusions (for the first reading, confusions about what the text says) Source: Timothy Shanahan Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    18. 18. ―Fireflies‖-Owl City
    19. 19. Fireflies! (Lexile 630L CCSS Stretch Band: Grade 2-3 ) by Julie Brinckloe  Before the first close reading with the class depending on majority of the students’ ability to read at a pace of normal talk I either:  Have the class read the story silently first  OR  Read the selection chorally with the class first straight through.
    20. 20. Planning Considerations & Materials   Note: I used RL Standards 5.1-5.9 to Guide my Design of Text Dependent Questions along with what could be gleaned explicitly and implicitly from the text Qualitative Factors for Text Complexity  Has complex or abstract level of meaning  Figurative language includes imagery and similes  Purpose is implied  First Person Narrative  Standard English  Syntax: Simple and compound sentences. Uses prepositional phrases often.  Text Structure: Events of the story move from one small moment to the next.  Vocabulary has mostly familiar vocabulary with a text support for most unfamiliar words  Some distance between reader’s experience and those in the text  Requires some building of background knowledge  Materials:  Great, Challenging Text  Common Core ELA Standards  Guide to Creating Text Dependent Questions  Text-Dependent Design Template
    21. 21. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe On a summer evening I looked up from dinner, through the open window to the backyard.  What do you notice about the setting in the beginning? It was growing dark. My treehouse was a black shape in the tree and I wouldn’t go up there now.  Why does the boy decide he wouldn’t want to go up to his treehouse now?  What does the boy want? How do you know? But something flickered there, a moment— I looked, and it was gone. It flickered again, over near the fence. Fireflies! ―Don’t let your dinner get cold,‖ said Momma. I forked the meat and corn and potatoes into my mouth. ―Please, may I go out? The fireflies ---― Momma smiled, and Daddy nodded. ―Go ahead,‖ they said.
    22. 22. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe I ran from the table, down to the cellar to find a jar. I knew where to look, behind the stairs.  What is the boy doing? Why?  How does the boy feel? How do you know? The jars were dusty, and I polished one clean on my shirt. Then I ran back up, two steps at a time. ―Holes,‖ I remembered, ―so they can breathe.‖ And as quietly as I could, so she wouldn’t catch me dulling them, I poked holes in the top of the jar with Momma’s scissors. The screen door banged behind me as I ran from the house. If someone said, ―Don’t slam it,‖ I wasn’t listening.
    23. 23. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe I called to my friends in the street, ―Fireflies!‖ But they had come before me with polished jars, and others were coming behinds. The sky was darker now. My ears rang with crickets, and my eyes stung from staring too long. I blinked hard as I watched them—Fireflies! Blinking on, blinking off, dipping low, soaring high above my head, making white patterns in the dark. We ran like crazy, barefoot in the grass. ―Catch them, catch them!‖ we cried, grasping at the lights.  In the paragraph that starts with, ―The sky was darker now,‖ what do you notice about the boy?
    24. 24. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe Suddenly a voice called out above the others, ―I caught one!‖ And it was my own. I thrust my hand into the jar and spread it open. The jar glowed like moonlight and I held it in my hands. I felt a tremble of joy and shouted, ―I can catch hundreds!‖ Then we dashed about, waving our hands in the air like nets, catching two, ten – hundreds of fireflies, thrusting them into jars, waving our hands for more.  How does the boy feel after catching his first firefly and what does it spur him to do afterwards?  What do you notice about the boy and his friends on this page?
    25. 25. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe Then someone called from my house, ―It’s time to come in, now,‖ and others called from their houses and it was over.  What do the boy and his friends do with their jars of fireflies?  What does the boy say to his Momma and Daddy? What does this show about how he feels? My friends took jars of fireflies to different homes. I climbed the stairs to my room and set the jar on the table by my bed. Momma kissed me and turned out the light. ―I caught hundreds,‖ I said. Daddy called from the hallway ―See you later, alligator.‖ ―After a while, crocodile,‖ I called back. ―I caught hundreds of fireflies –―
    26. 26. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe In the dark I watched the fireflies from my bed. They blinked off and on, and the jar glowed like moonlight. But it was not the same. The fireflies beat their wings against the glass and fell to the bottom, and lay there. The light in the jar turned yellow, like a flashlight left on too long. I tried to swallow, but something in my throat would not go down. And the light grew dimmer, green, like moonlight under water.  How do the fireflies look in the dark right after his parents leave?  What does the boy mean by ―But it was not the same‖?  How do you think the boy is feeling now? What in the text makes you think that?  Why do you think the fireflies’ light was getting dimmer?
    27. 27. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe I shut my eyes tight and put the pillow over my head. They were my fireflies. I caught them. They made moonlight in my jar. But the jar was nearly dark.  What is happening here with the boy? Why?  What does the boy do as a result?  What happens to the fireflies in the jar? How is this different from when they were captured in the jar? I flung off the covers. I went to the window, opened the jar, and aimed it at the stars. ―Fly!‖ Then the jar began to glow, green, then gold, then white as the moon. And the fireflies poured out into the night.
    28. 28. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe  The boy holds an empty jar at the end while crying and smiling? What is he feeling and why? Compare and contrast this to his feelings when he first brought the captured fireflies inside and told his parents he had caught hundreds?  What does the boy learn at the end? Fireflies! Blinking on, blinking off, dipping low, soaring high above my head, making circle around the moon, like stars dancing. I held the jar, dark and empty, in my hands. The moonlight and the fireflies swam in my tears, but I could feel myself smiling.
    29. 29. Conclusion of First Reading  The questions focused on key elements, big ideas, and motivations (particularly events that could be confusing)  The discussion led by these questions should lead to a good understanding of what the text said.  A good follow up would be a written retell/written summary. Could be done orally at first but should become written as a way of demonstrating understanding of key ideas and details. Source: Timothy Shanahan Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    30. 30. Second Reading: How Does the Text Work?  Questions should help guide students to think about how the text works and what the author was up to (craft and structure)  Stories are written by people to teach lessons or reveal insights about the human condition in aesthetically pleasing or powerful ways  Awareness of author choices are critical to coming to terms with craft and structure Source: Timothy Shanahan Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    31. 31. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe On a summer evening I looked up from dinner, through the open window to the backyard. It was growing dark. My treehouse was a black shape in the tree and I wouldn’t go up there now. But something flickered there, a moment— I looked, and it was gone. It flickered again, over near the fence. Fireflies! ―Don’t let your dinner get cold,‖ said Momma. I forked the meat and corn and potatoes into my mouth. ―Please, may I go out? The fireflies ---― Momma smiled, and Daddy nodded. ―Go ahead,‖ they said.  Whose point of view is this story being told from?
    32. 32. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe I ran from the table, down to the cellar to find a jar. I knew where to look, behind the stairs. The jars were dusty, and I polished one clean on my shirt. Then I ran back up, two steps at a time. ―Holes,‖ I remembered, ―so they can breathe.‖ And as quietly as I could, so she wouldn’t catch me dulling them, I poked holes in the top of the jar with Momma’s scissors. The screen door banged behind me as I ran from the house. If someone said, ―Don’t slam it,‖ I wasn’t listening.  What does polished mean?
    33. 33. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe I called to my friends in the street, ―Fireflies!‖ But they had come before me with polished jars, and others were coming behind. The sky was darker now. My ears rang with crickets, and my eyes stung from staring too long. I blinked hard as I watched them—Fireflies! Blinking on, blinking off, dipping low, soaring high above my head, making white patterns in the dark.  How does the author describe the fireflies here? What might be the author’s purpose in describing them like this?  What does grasping mean? We ran like crazy, barefoot in the grass. ―Catch them, catch them!‖ we cried, grasping at the lights.
    34. 34. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe Suddenly a voice called out above the others, ―I caught one!‖ And it was my own.  How does the author describe the boy catching his first firefly? I thrust my hand into the jar and spread it open. The jar glowed like moonlight and I held it in my hands. I felt a tremble of joy and shouted, ―I can catch hundreds!‖  What is the jar with the firefly being compared to? What figurative language device does the author use for this comparison? Then we dashed about, waving our hands in the air like nets, catching two, ten – hundreds of fireflies, thrusting them into jars, waving our hands for more.
    35. 35. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe Then someone called from my house, ―It’s time to come in, now,‖ and others called from their houses and it was over. My friends took jars of fireflies to different homes. I climbed the stairs to my room and set the jar on the table by my bed. Momma kissed me and turned out the light. ―I caught hundreds,‖ I said. Daddy called from the hallway ―See you later, alligator.‖ ―After a while, crocodile,‖ I called back. ―I caught hundreds of fireflies –―
    36. 36. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe In the dark I watched the fireflies from my bed. They blinked off and on, and the jar glowed like moonlight.  How does the author describe the jar with the fireflies? How does this compare to the previous description of the first firefly he caught in the jar?  What is being compared here? How is this comparison different than before?  What does grew dimmer mean?  What is being compared here? Again how is it different than the first descriptions of the fireflies outside and inside of the jar? But it was not the same. The fireflies beat their wings against the glass and fell to the bottom, and lay there. The light in the jar turned yellow, like a flashlight left on too long. I tried to swallow, but something in my throat would not go down. And the light grew dimmer, green, like moonlight under water.
    37. 37. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe  How does the author’s use of first person point of view help us understand the boy’s internal struggle with what he wants and what he comes to realize he has to do?  I shut my eyes tight and put the pillow over my head. They were my fireflies. I caught them. They made moonlight in my jar. But the jar was nearly dark. How does the author describe the fireflies here? Why is this significant? I flung off the covers. I went to the window, opened the jar, and aimed it at the stars. ―Fly!‖ Then the jar began to glow, green, then gold, then white as the moon. And the fireflies poured out into the night.
    38. 38. Fireflies by Julie Brinkloe  Fireflies! Blinking on, blinking off, dipping low, soaring high above my head, making circles around the moon, like stars dancing. I held the jar, dark and empty, in my hands. The moonlight and the fireflies swam in my tears, but I could feel myself smiling. What do you notice about the author’s description of the fireflies here? Why is this significant?  What do you notice about how the author chose to end this story and what does it show us about the boy?
    39. 39. Conclusion of Second Reading  My questions focused on why and how the author told his story (specifically looking at literary devices, word, sentence choices, and author’s point of view and purpose)  The discussion led by these question should lead to a good understanding of how the text works and to a deeper understanding of its implications  A good follow-up would be critical analysis of the story or aspects of the story (What is the author’s point of view on fireflies? OR How does the author’s use of similes help us understand what is happening in the story?) Source: Timothy Shanahan Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    40. 40. Third Reading: What Does the Text Mean? Value? Connections to other Texts?  ―Third‖ reading  Questions should help guide students to think about what this text means to them and how it connects to to other texts/stories/events/films  Stories relate to other stories—how characters in different stories or different versions of a story compare  Evaluations of quality (placing a text on a continuum based on quality standards) and connecting to other experiences is an essential part of the reading experience Source: Timothy Shanahan Close Reading Presentation modified by J. Espinosa
    41. 41. Striving for Meaning  What did you take the story to mean from the boy’s point of view? OR stated another way, What lesson did the boy learn?  What event symbolized the central meaning of the story?  What does the story mean to you? What does it say about how you live you life?
    42. 42.  Evaluation and Synthesis Do you know other stories or informational texts like this? How were those texts similar and different?  Compare to Next Time You See a Firefly By Emily Morgan, a nonfiction book published by NSTA Kids on the same topic of fireflies.  How are the books different? How are they the same? Give details from the texts.  How is the author’s purpose different for each book?  What do you think the authors of these two very different books might have in common? What evidence from the texts makes you think that?  How did reading two very different books on the same topic affect the way you think about fireflies?  Did you like this story? Why?  Ex: What did you think about how the author used similes in this story? OR What did you think about how the author used sensory details in this story?
    43. 43. Conclusion  Readers need opportunities to make sense of big ideas from a range of high quality texts  Reading lessons based upon the idea of close readings requires that teachers do more to focus student attention on reading, interpreting, and evaluating text.  Readers have a new idea at the end. Our close reading will help us to change our thinking not just confirm our thinking. Source: Timothy Shanahan 3/11/13
    44. 44. Why Does Close Reading Matter?  It is not just academic it is a way of being. In our everyday lives doing many different things such as watching T.V., thinking about something that just happened, thinking about our relationships. Do I read closely the words I use with a tough student or a colleague or my daughters or my wife, or before I write this memo or send this email? How would my life be better if I read my language more closely and make changes? I would probably experience more satisfaction and spend more time on the things I truly value. Like with my family, my friends, and with God.
    45. 45. Resources for Planning Close Analytic Reading  Quantitative Measures: Lexile or other measures. (Online) Can enter any title in Scholastic database or using www.lexile.com by copying and pasting at least 500 word excerpt from selection.  Qualitative Factors of Text Complexity (Online)  Great, Challenging Text (CA Treasures Main Selection, Picture Book, Short Story, Informational Article, etc.)  A Guide to Creating Text Dependent and Specific Questions for Close Analytic Reading (Handout)  Text Dependent Question Template (Handout)  Criteria for Evaluating a Set of Questions (Online)
    46. 46. Steps in Planning Close Reading  Step 1: Identify the Core Understandings and Key Ideas of the Text  Step 2: Target Vocabulary  Step 3: Syntax and Text Structures-Tackle Tough Sections of the Text  Step 4: Create Coherent Sequences of Text Dependent Questions-for up to three close reading each with a different purpose (1st-Key Ideas and Details, 2nd-Craft and Structure, 3rd-Integration of Knowledge and Ideas)  Step 5: Provide Structured Talk Opportunities –For students to orally discuss answers to text dependent questions using academic conversation skills.  Step 6: Identify the Standards That Will Be Addressed in the Whole Lesson Sequence  Step 7: Create at Task to Check for Understanding.
    47. 47.  Text Dependent Question Design Modified Student Achievement Partners Version Template
    48. 48. Which words should be taught?  Essential to text  Likely to appear in future text Are there related words that can be connected to, or which students may already know? Are there cognates in Spanish that would be helpful to connect to? Vocabulary When should you provide the meaning? When should students determine the meaning from context? Step 2
    49. 49. Questions and tasks addressing syntax:  What role does the sentence play in  Paraphrase  Pull apart sentences into multiple Syntax the paragraph or the whole passage? What would be different if that sentence were gone? sentences  Take short sentences and combine into one complex or compound sentence. Step 3
    50. 50. Creating Coherent Sets of TextDependent Questions Step 4 Whole Across texts Entire texts Segments Standards Opinions, Arguments, Inter-textual Connections Inferences Author’s Purpose 8&9 3&7 6 Paragraph Vocab & Text Structure Sentence 4&5 Word Key Details 2 Part General Understandings 1 Adapted from Fischer/Frey
    51. 51. See handout ―Criteria for Evaluating a Set of TextDependent Questions‖ – p.2 Step 4
    52. 52. Common Core State Standards Step 6 • Addresses Common Core Reading Standards: RL 5.1, RL 5.2, RL 5.3, RL 5.4, RL 5.5, RL 5.6, RL 5.9, RI 5.1 • Addresses Common Core Speaking and Listening Standards: SL 5.1, SL 5.2, SL 5.4 • Addresses Common Core Writing Standards: W 5.1, W 5.4, W 5.9
    53. 53. E1. Does the task to check for understanding call on the knowledge and understanding acquired through the questions? E2. Does the writing in the task demand that students write to the text and use evidence? E3. Are the instructions to teacher and student clear about what must be performed to achieve proficiency? E4. Is this task worthy of the student and classroom time it will consume? Task to Check for Understanding Writing Step 7 Selection Question: What lesson did the boy learn in this story? What is one possible theme for this story?
    54. 54. Questions????
    55. 55. Grade Level Planning: Close Reading September 17, 2013 https://sites.google.com/site/firststreetsccsspathways/home
    56. 56. Quantitative Measurement for Text Complexity: CCSS Lexile Stretch Bands
    57. 57. Qualitative Factors of Text Complexity
    58. 58. Planning for Close Reading: Creating Text Dependent Questions Task  Step 1: As a grade level choose a main selection for Unit 2 or a literature transcription in which you will conduct close reading with your class.  Step 2: Use Guide to Creating Text Dependent Questions for Close Analytic Reading to plan which provides specific steps linked with the template. Also use Common Core Reading Standards RL or RI 1-9 for you grade.  Step 3: Record your sequence of text-dependent questions in the Text-Dependent Question Template and evidence based answers.  Step 4: Design culminating writing tasks for each close read to check for understanding.  Step 5: Check the Quality of Your Text-Dependent Questions with The Checklist for Evaluating Question Quality
    59. 59. Resources  Websites   Engagy NY: www.engageny.org  http://www.engageny.org/resource/common-core-in-ela-literacy-shift-4-text-based-answers/  Shanahan on Literacy: www.shanahanonliteracy.com  Fisher and Frey: Literacy for Life: http://fisherandfrey.com/  Classroom Video of Close Reading (2nd grade): http://commoncore.americaachieves.org/module/6  Classroom Video of Close Reading (5th Grade): http://commoncore.americaachieves.org/module/7   Student Achievement Partners: www.achievethecore.org The Hunt Institute: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ho_ntaYbL7o&list=UUF0pa3nE3aZAfBMT8pqM5PA&index=13 Books:  Teaching Students to Read Like Detectives: Comprehending, Analyzing, and Discussing Text by Fisher, Frey, and Ladd  Notice and Note: Strategies for Close Reading by Beers and Probst  Close Reading of Informational Texts: Assessment Driven Instruction in Grade 3-8 by Blanchowicz and Cummins    Pathways to the Common Core by Calkins and Lehman Falling in Love with Close Reading by Lehman and Roberts (Coming in the Fall of 2013) Common Core Standards:  Appendix B-Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks (www.corestandards.org)
    60. 60. Possible Next Steps  In grade level teams or PLCs begin the work of choosing challenging texts and designing text dependent questions for close reading with culminating writing tasks using the Text Dependent Question Design Template, the Collaborative Team Protocol for Determining Text Complexity, and the Qualitative Factors for Text Complexity  Investigate close reading through journals, books, other PD opportunities, and websites  Gather texts including stair-case text for readers below grade level on specific topics or themes which can provide students an opportunity to go much more in depth and build knowledge across texts.

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