Social network analysis of Jose Rizal


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Social Network Analysis (SNA) of the life and works of Jose Rizal

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  • The Philippines was reached by FernaoMagallanes in 1521 and became a Spanish colony. In the 19th Century, Spanish friars’ tyrannical domination made the Filipinos to seek reforms.Jose Rizal was one of the prime movers for political reforms in the Philippines.
  • Rizal’s ancestors migrated from Mainland China to Manila in the 17th Century.He was born in a well-to-do family but soon suffered under the hands of foreigners.He ignited his countrymen to fight against foreign domination, was martyred in 1896, but continued to influence the Filipino psyche ever since.
  • Rizal led a colorful life, with numerous accomplishments.
  • The life spiral constructed for Rizal included very detailed accounts.
  • Various computation and data visualization tools are now available, including algorithms for data mining, clustering, and lay out.
  • Social network analysis is about who you know, and who those people know, and how everyone knows each other.Data visualization tools may help us in better understanding the past,; it may lead one to see data differently.
  • Concepts in sociology plus theories in discreet mathematics led to social network analysis.Network diagrams, starting from Jacob Moreno’s sociograms, led to the study of network cohesion, connections, equivalence, etc.
  • Nodes often refer to people as actors in the network.Edges often refer to the relation between nodes.
  • Euro 2012 Finals: the game between Spain and Italy where the former won , 4-0: Sergio Ramos many times engaged Antonio Cassano. Visualization of Tweets during the Boston Marathon: trending and going viral.
  • Which countries e-mail each other? Latin American people rarely email those in Islamic countries.How a viral message spreads: dynamics of Facebook shares
  • Network graphs about Jose Rizal, his life and his works, created with NodeXL have been posted in NODEXL Graph Gallery available at
  • A variety of different algorithms may be applied to the data about Rizal, and alternative graph layouts can be generated to depict the relationships, sometimes with surprising — or counter-intuitive — results. For example, when the Clauset-Newman-Moore cluster algorithm is applied, it identifies and displays six clusters. These are not necessarily the networks of the original eight groups that Rizal interacted significantly, but instead come from the structure of the interrelationships and ties within the entire network. In three of the clusters, the central figure is still one with the original reformists, i.e. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, and Graciano Lopez-Jaena, but the central figures in the other three clusters are new: Juan Luna, Antonio Luna, and ArtemioRicarte (the latter was the one who distributed the ballots during the Tenejeros Convention where Andres Bonifacio lost who in SNA terms is the central node of a tightly knit group of the Magdiwang Faction involved in the PhilippineRevolution). In the graph shown, these six clusters can be seen, with each shown in a different color; the thick red lines show the ties between Rizal and the eight reformers, who can now be seen within the structure of the larger social network:Moises Salvador, LadislaoDiwa, Emilio Jacinto, Deodato Arellano, Antonio Luna, Teodoro M. Plata, Teodoro M. Kalaw, and Marcelo H. del Pilar.
  • Black represents sculptures; Yellow-orange for poetry and versifications; Red for drawings and paintingsViolet for play including musicals; sky blue for essays including open letters; dark blue for stories and novels, whether complete or incomplete;Yellow green for technical/scientific treatise such as his treatise on witchcraft, on molluscs, etc.Emerald green for miscellaneous correspondence including short letters and notes
  • Some caveats: Rizal’s extant letters number around 300; one of my data set has 404 nodes;the EpistolarioRizalino published by the National Historical Institute of the Philippines has about 1,800 entries.
  • Over 500 biographies of individuals known from the time of Rizal.
  • One of my graphs have 404 nodes with 1,052 edges.
  • Red for family, orange for friend or ally, yellow for peer. Green stands for mild aversion, and blue represents an enemy status.
  • Rizal had a relatively high degree centrality, about four times that of other popular reformists or leaders.
  • Jose Rizal possessed a certain charisma more than other leaders.
  • The controversy that states that Rizal retracted all of his beliefs and the ideals that he have fought for the nations independence.Did Rizal retract? Did he show weakness at the face of death? The retraction letter found in 1935 appears to be in Rizal’s handwriting. Even then, today, Jose Rizal’s retraction letter may be seen as of little value because it was signed under duress. One of his sisters who was the last to die, Trinidad, changed her opinion regarding the retraction letter thrice during her lifetime.
  • Look at those involved in the Retraction Controversy – a former President of the University of the Philippines, President of the Senate, Head of the National Library, etc.
  • Republic Act No. 1425, known as the Rizal Law, mandates all educational institutions in the Philippines to offer courses about José Rizal. The full name of the law is An Act to Include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools, Colleges and Universities Courses On the Life, Works and Writings of Jose Rizal, Particularly His Novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, Authorizing the Printing and Distribution Thereof, and for Other Purposes. The measure was strongly opposed by the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines due to the anti-clerical themes in Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo.
  • Look how much of the network is affected by the Retraction Controversy and the Republic Act 1425 or the Rizal Law.
  • 394 nodes representing 394 works: some 40 poems; some twenty finished and unfinished novels; some fifteen conchology studies, some ten groups ofsculptures, some seven essays, some ethnographic studies, some six finished and unfinished short stories,six songs, six groups of sketches, four butterfly studies, four groups of paintings, four language studies, and other works such as a cigarette lighter.
  • Digitalization enables a synthetic network view which is not possible when reading texts linearly.Shape coding: circle if more than 20% of data are unconfirmed; square if data are confirmed. Size commensurate with the no. of pages of the published and unpublished works.Colour designates influence: red—Roman Catholic church; yellow—relatives of Jose Rizal; green—Freemasons; sky blue—National Historical Institute
  • Graciano Lopez-Jaena from Jaro,Ilo-ilo was a friend of Jose Rizal. He had a very limited reach to other groups.
  • The social network of M.H. del Pilar (shown in red), who did not share Rizal’s tolerant and liberal views on integration with Spain.
  • The social network of Pedro Paterno (shown in red), who shared Rizal’s tolerant and liberal initial views on integration with Spain.
  • Letter No. 062 from Mariano Ponce to Rizal, written in Barcelona, Spain, on July 4, 1888—relating to two letters from Juan Luna and Marcelo H. del Pilar, shown in red.Letter No. 105 from Marcelo H. del Pilar to Rizal, written in Barcelona, Spain, on February 17, 1889-- relating to three other distantly written letters, shown in red.
  • Rizal’s letters to and from Blumentritt may be clustered into three groups:those discussing their activities and interests (blue);those discussing friendships and their common friends (green); andthose letters with philosophical discussions (red).
  • In spiral lay out; inFruchterman-Reingold lay out; and in Harel-Koren fast multi-layer lay out.
  • In circular lay out; in grid lay out; inFruchterman-Reingold lay out; and in Harel-Koren fast multi-layer lay out.
  • Thank you.
  • Social network analysis of Jose Rizal

    1. 1. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF JOSE RIZAL’S LIFE & WORKS Jose A. Fadul, Ph.D. De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde Republic of the Philippines
    2. 2. The Philippines during Rizal’s time was a colony of Spain
    3. 3. Born: June 19, 1861 Executed: December 30, 1896 October 6, 2012: President Aquino inaugurated a new Rizal Park in Sydney, Australia Dec. 8, 1880: Rizal’s Junto al Pasig is staged. 1956: Philippine Congress passed Republic Act 1425 requiring all levels of schools to teach Rizal’s life, works, and ideals. 17th Century Ancestors from China Rizal’s influence during his life and beyond Rizal’s monument in Madrid, Spain was inaugurated in 1996. 1970: Rizal’s image appears on the obverse side of one-peso coins for general circulation 2003: A Rizal monument in Fujian, China was built to recognize his Chinese ancestry. 1887: Noli Me Tangere is published in Berlin 1978: Rizal’s monument in Wilhelmsfeld, Germany is unveiled 2008: Peru erects a Rizal monument in Lima. English author Austin Coates wrote on Rizal’s life and martyrdom. 1910: Rizal’s last poem read before the American House of Representatives Japanese government used Rizal in war propaganda.T.M. Kalaw edited Epistolario Rizalino volumes I – V (1877 – 1896) Swiss sculptor R. Kissling casts Rizal Monument for Rizal Park in Manila Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo decreed that on Dec. 30, 1897 and every year thereafter Rizal shall be commemorated by the nation. Rizal wrote a socio-political essay Dimanche de Rameaux Jose Arcilla’s Rizal and the Emergence of the Filipino Nation is published by Ateneo de Manila University. Rizal Craze: many streets all over the country were named after Jose Rizal Rizal monuments spawned in many public schools. Websites on Rizal proliferate the Internet
    4. 4.
    5. 5. What is Social Network Analysis (SNA) ? How is it useful for History & the Humanities? 1. New framework for analysis; backcasting 2. Data visualization allows new perspectives – less linear, more comprehensive
    6. 6. Sociology + Mathematics (Graph Theory) = Social Network Analysis • Strong ties : how the clusters get information. • Weak ties : how the clusters come up with innovation(s). • Bridges, gateways, connectors, social insiders, outsiders, neighbors – degree centrality, betweeness centrality, etc. Hue (from red=0 to blue=max) indicates each node’s betweenness centrality.
    7. 7. SNA data visualizations: Nodes & Edges • Friends (Moreno, 1932) • Al Qaeda (Krebs, 2001)
    8. 8. The Many Other Uses of SNA • Euro 2012 Finals: Spain vs. Italy How do the players connect? • Visualization of tweets during Boston Marathon 2013
    9. 9. • Which countries e-mail each other ? More at: Full article at : • How a Viral Message Spreads: Dynamic network of Facebook shares. 9/how-a-viral-message-spreads/
    10. 10. Network graphs of Rizal’s social network created with NodeXL by the author
    11. 11. Rizal’s social network analyzed by cluster – using Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm
    12. 12. Interrelating Rizal’s works with each other
    13. 13. Some considerations • Rizal’s extant letters to and from Filipino Reformists numbered around 180; his friends and acquaintances around 300. • One of my data set has 404 nodes. • NHI’s Epistolario Rizalino has about 1,800 entries.
    14. 14. Methodology and Sources of Data Over 500 concise biographies of individuals are known from literary and epigraphic sources from Rizal’s time. Many were leading people in Rizal’s circles, including regional leaders of his hometown whom he encountered on his boyhood. The most significant figures receive detailed coverage, and all entries contain references to the extant sources.
    15. 15. Properties of a sample graph Graph Type Undirected Vertices 404 Unique Edges 1052 Edges With Duplicates 0 Total Edges 1052 Self-Loops 0 Connected Components 1 Single-Vertex Connected Components 0 Maximum Vertices in a Connected Component 404 Maximum Edges in a Connected Component 1052 Maximum Geodesic Distance (Diameter) 7 Average Geodesic Distance 3.098691 Graph Density 0.01292288 Modularity 0.508105 NodeXL Version January 2, 2013
    16. 16. Edge colors indicate type of relationship: family, friend/ally, peer, mild aversion, enemy (multimodal)
    17. 17. Degree Centrality • Jose Rizal 171 • M.H. del Pilar 44 • E. Aguinaldo 41 • Jose Burgos 38 • G. Aglipay 29 • Teodora Alonso 29 • Josefa Rizal 27 • Trinidad Rizal 23 • Paciano Rizal 23 • Andres Bonifacio 19
    18. 18. Degree Centrality of 23 or higher
    19. 19. The Retraction Controversy, 1896 – 2013
    20. 20. The Retraction Controversy – clustering on the network of everyone involved
    21. 21. Republic Act No. 1425: The Rizal Law red—those supporting the passage of the Rizal Bill; blue—those against
    22. 22. Impact on the network of the two events
    23. 23. Rizal’s works by genre
    24. 24. Rizal biographies displayed as collapsed groups Digital tool enables synthetic view, not possible when reading texts linearly -- quite subjective -- objective, balanced Shapecoding:circleifmorethan20%ofdataareunconfirmed;squareifdataareconfirmed. Sizecommensuratewiththeno.ofpagesofthepublishedandunpublishedworksofthebiographer. Colourdesignatesinfluence:red—RomanCatholicChurch;yellow—Rizal’srelatives;green—Freemasons; skyblue—NationalHistoricalInstitute;darkblue—otherinfluences.
    25. 25. Rizal’s reach to other groups (his relationships between groups)
    26. 26. Graciano Lopez-Jaena (a friend of Rizal) has a very limited reach to other groups.
    27. 27. M.H. del Pilar and his circle (leader of the Reformist Movement in 1889 in Madrid)
    28. 28. By contrast, P. Paterno (who shared Rizal’s once tolerant and liberal views on integration with Spain)
    29. 29. Letters: Rizal to & from his family
    30. 30. Letters: Rizal to & from other Reformers
    31. 31. Letters: Rizal to & from Blumentritt
    32. 32. Letters: Rizal to & from other European Scientists
    33. 33. Visualization of the interaction of characters in Jose Rizal’s two novels: NoliMe Tangere & El Filibusterismo Data visualization using NODEXL software; downloadable from
    34. 34. E N D Recommendation -- Social network analysis may be applied also to life and works of heroes and historical people of other countries and cultures such as William Tell of Switzerland, William Shakespeare of England, Saint John Baptiste de La Salle of France, Vladimir Lenin of Russia, etc. --The uniqueness of each network graph that will be obtained for each person may be appreciated, and insights may be obtained regarding related works and events in the life of the person.