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  2. 2. NEXT This unit starts with an introduction to the three statesof matter: solid, liquid and gas. To explain these three states andtheir characteristics, we need to understand that matter isdiscontinuous. In other words, it is made up of small particles. Youll have an introduction to kinetic theory. Scientistsuse this theory to explain what matter is like and why it occurs insuch different forms. Then, well apply kinetic theory to examining thevarious changes of state and the changes in the generalproperties of matter that result. 2
  3. 3. IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL FIND OUT THE ANSWER TO THESE: What is matter? What are the three states of matter? Can a substance exist in all three states? Can you think of an example? What is a change of state? What is melting? What is condensation? 3
  4. 4. KEY WORDS MATTER: physical substance that everything in the universe consists of. STATE: specific physical form (solid, liquid or gas) that matter has and that can change. SUBSTANCE: specific type of solid, liquid or gas. MELTING: when a solid becomes a liquid by heating . CONDENSATION: when a gas becomes a liquid by cooling. 4
  5. 5. 1. THE THREE STATES OF MATTERKEY WORDS Matter has three main forms called states. The three states are: solid, MASS: amount of matter that an liquid and gas.  Solids have a definite mass, shapeobject contains. and volume. SHAPE: external form of something.  Liquids have a definite mass and volume, but nota definite shape. CONTAINER: object (such as a box They take the shape of the container they are in.or bottle) used to store things.  Gases have a definite mass, but not DEFINITE: fixed and specific. a definite shape or volume. Gases take the shape of the container they are in, and occupy its totalBACK NEXT volume. 5
  7. 7. KINETIC THEORY Scientists believe that matter iscomposed of very small particles. These KEY WORDSparticles are so small that they cannot be seen  Particle: very small piece of matter.even with the most powerful microscopes.  Supposition: something you Scientists also believe that these think is true but that you cantparticles are constantly moving. prove. These suppositions are the basis for the  Arranged: put in a specificKinetic theory of partides. According to this order.theory, the way in which the particles in  Far apart: separated by a largematter are arranged determines the three distance.possible states and also the properties of each  aggregation: when many separate things are close to eachstate. other or come together. 7
  8. 8. ACTIVITIES1. Listen and say what state the substance is usually found in. Example: salt: solid. Answer 2. Put the words in order to make questions. Listen and check. Ask and answer the questions with a partner. a) the properties / What / state of matter / are / of each /? b) of matter / the general properties / What / are /? c) in all three states / is often found / natural substance / What /? d) how / the kinetic theory, / is matter arranged / According to /? e) take the shape / can / of the container they are in / liquids / Why /? f) and / where / the fourth state of matter / What / is it usually found / is /? Answer 8
  9. 9. BACK ANSWERSa) Salt: a) What are the properties of each state of matter? All the states of matter Solid have three properties; mass, shape and volume.b) Milk. Liquid b) What are the general properties of matter? The most common propertiesc) Chocolate of matter are mass and volume, from which density is obtained. Solid c) What natural substance is often found in all three states? Water. Ice isd) Oxygen water in a solid state, water is the same substance in a liquid state and Gase) Paper water vapour is the gas state. Clouds are formed of drops of liquid water or Solid by snowflakes in suspension but not by water vapour, as this is invisible. f) Orange juice d) According to kinetic theory how is matter arranged? According to kinetic Liquid theory, matter is formed of constantly moving particles.g) Air Gas e} Why can liquids take the shape of the container they are in? Liquids canh) Hydrogen adapt to the form of the container they are in because their particles are not Gas as close together as in solids and they can move and change position relativei) Seawater to each other.. Next liquid 9
  10. 10. f) What is the fourth state of matter and where is it usuallyfound? The fourth state of matter is plasma. Most matter in theuniverse exists as plasma, as the high temperatures needed toform it occur there: but plasma is rarely found on Earth as it isnot hot enough. 10
  11. 11. SOLIDS In solids the particles arevery close together. They mayvibrate a little but they do notmove: they have a fixed position.In some solids the particles arearranged more regularly, inspecial geometric shapes. 11
  12. 12. LIQUIDS In liquids theparticles are close together(but not as close as insolids), and they can moveand change positionrelative to each other. Thismeans liquids can flow andtake any shape. 12
  13. 13. GASES In gases theparticles are far apart fromeach other and they movefreely and very quickly. They occupy allthe space available and donot have a definite shape orvolume. 13
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